%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141101111954+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141101111954+00'00') /Title (Selling the Tudor Monarchy: Authority and Image in Sixteenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4053 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Selling the Tudor Monarchy: Authority and Image in Sixteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Selling the Tudor Monarchy )] TJ ET BT 172.676 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is large, colourful, contentious and far-reaching. It is the first of three volumes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretching from the 15th to the 18th centuries, examining the representations of monarchs from Henry VII to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Queen Anne. This is a bold undertaking, but this first volume suggests that it is one very much suited to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Sharpe?s strengths. The prose is fluent and accessible, the ideas striking, the argument assertive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide-ranging, based on a vast array of different sources. This volume deals with the Tudors, and moves with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assurance from delicate and detailed analysis of different texts and images to broad and arresting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of the nature of authority, the growth of the ?public sphere?, and the transformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharpe argues that early modern historians need to wake up to a body of evidence which has been neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for far too long. The many different ways in which monarchs were represented - by themselves, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtiers, their subjects and their critics - have something of vital importance to tell us about the exercise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in the 16th century. ?The business of government was the act of securing compliance?, and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying representations of authority we can see how this was attempted, mediated, received and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implemented. He sees this as ?negotiation rather than autocratic enactment?, and suggests that the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century saw a wide range of responses to the ?uncertainty in early modern England about whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(852)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Sharpe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300140989)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(588pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucy Wooding)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7715 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government was an act of faith or statecraft?. This was not a matter of the simple imposition of authority, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a straightforward attempt to manipulate popular opinion. Representations of the monarch were crafted by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(array of different individuals at all levels of society, and the same image could be communicated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood in many different ways. Portraits might flatter both the subject and the patron; royal progresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have several scripts; portraying a monarch as an Old Testament character was open to pious or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prophane readings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the simplest level, then, this book is immensely valuable because of the range of sources it uses, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections it makes between them. Plays, poems, prayers and proclamations are set alongside translations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemics, portraits, coins, seals, processions, masques, progresses, court rituals, funerals, coronations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture and a lot more besides. Sharpe also insists that ?we must consider, as well as statements and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects, silences, spaces and alternatives?. Just to bring all of this together is an achievement in itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharpe?s concern, however, is how to ?read? these many and varied images, visual, verbal and ritual. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees them as ?dialogues with subjects?, not the simple transmission of statements about authority but a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of exchanges about the nature and validity of that authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This ?dialogue? was growing rapidly in scope and intensity during this period. Sharpe notes the proliferation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of images, particularly during Elizabeth?s reign, partly encouraged by technological advances in printing or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraiture, partly a response to a growing market economy. He argues for the emergence of a Tudor ?public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere?, suggesting that a unique concern with art, spectacle and display gave the early modern era a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern with ?the theatricalization of regality? which would be lost after 1688, and not resurface until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian age. Yet this was not a ?public sphere? formed in )] TJ ET BT 321.956 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(opposition)] TJ ET BT 372.632 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to the state; rather it was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outgrowth )] TJ ET BT 86.348 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from)] TJ ET BT 109.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the state. Opposition to a monarch was more likely to appropriate official imagery than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroy or repudiate it. Critics of Henry VIII could take his self-presentation as the Old Testament King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David and instead of David?s piety, regality and musicianship read instead a message about his sins, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially his adultery, and the disaster which followed from it. For Sharpe, it was the Henrician )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation that gave birth to the ?public sphere? in England, and in his view ?we can be in no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII and his successors discerned a public sphere which was far removed from the passive subjects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed by Habermas?. Not so much print and coffee-houses here, as a hugely important oral culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public debate and participation alongside an emerging ?consumer culture?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Sharpe?s understanding, this had profound consequences. He argues that ?the shift from a representational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state to a public sphere effected a change to a state in which the mystification of majesty became less the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme of rulers and governments and more the election and desire of subjects and citizens?. At one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level, therefore, this study of representations is the study of popular political empowerment. From the start, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharpe links his arguments to the modern preoccupation with ?spin?, and it is surely significant that the seed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this project was sown during the 1980s, when the author lived for a time in both England and America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and observed the ways in which contemporary political processes were changing. This history of ?Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spin? makes it clear that representations of rule, even if they were not created at the popular level, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given force by the ways in which they were received and understood by the populace. It is not just that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?language of signs in early modern England was by no means the monopoly of the elite?. It is that what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mattered was how these signs were )] TJ ET BT 205.976 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(read)] TJ ET BT 227.972 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, rather than how they were )] TJ ET BT 362.264 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(intended)] TJ ET BT 403.592 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to be read. Many of the media )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used ?deployed a language of request and reciprocity?. Sharpe notes, for example, how royal letters, ?in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, performing and publishing an act of power also exposed power as script, performance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication?. The language of government might be understood as a ?fiction of state?, open to interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and challenge at all times.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of this book are some important convictions about historical method. The first long chapter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this volume is a very interesting and thought-provoking discussion of the author?s methodology, which in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sharpe?s view, is too often neglected or avoided by most early modern historians. His approach is grounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on an awareness of the ?readers? turn?, invoking Terry Eagleton, insisting that it is how these images were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read that gives them meaning. ?The turn from authors to readers in critical studies has been central to my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach?, he states firmly, and he is highly critical of historians who, ?anxious about the risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism?, have shied away from examining representations, images, appearances, and chose to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7695 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate instead on ?what they regard as substantial and real?. He therefore rejects the ?traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical distinction between events and representations?. He also presents a lively manifesto for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of studying material culture and bridging the gaps between history, literary criticism, art history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other pertinent disciplines. This is a vivid and provocative chapter, which embraces sources as various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Bayeux Tapestry and Victoria?s Highland Journals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Applying these techniques to each Tudor monarch in turn, the conclusions are perhaps unsurprising, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is fascinating. Henry VII was intensely concerned with ritual and display in his attempts to secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compliance but for all that ?it is not Henry VII who has left his mark on the nation?s memory?. In many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways the real story of this book begins with Henry VIII, who so successfully created an image of kingship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which in addition to its usual attributes also ?claimed the sacred and amorous as discourses of state?. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry?s achievement to cast himself as the embodiment of the nation, and Sharpe follows the unfolding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this through many different forms of expression. His success was that he beguiled his audience. He stayed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power ?not least because he and those others who represented him, if they did not ?impose his fiction on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world?? \(citing Greenblatt\) still ?made it the dominant story of a newly emerging nation?. All Henry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children took valuable lessons from his ability to construct his royal image, but it was Elizabeth whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement was the most considerable, not least because her gender allowed her ?to represent both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerability and strength?. By the end of the 16th century, the ?person of Elizabeth, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, had become a public site and text, represented and re-presented not only )] TJ ET BT 437.588 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to)] TJ ET BT 446.924 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but )] TJ ET BT 468.260 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(by)] TJ ET BT 479.588 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the public ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways that the first Tudor could not have imagined?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The vast scope of this great book means that it will be open to challenges from many directions. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many small points of detail that might be contested ? should we really describe the Boleyns as Lutherans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did Henry VIII really only concentrate on his image-building after the break with Rome? Would a Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience have read sexual meaning into a royal portrait with quite as much facility as we do? Is it really the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case that ?more than her predecessors, Elizabeth had to work with parliaments?? There are also omissions; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music, dance and jewels, for example, deserve inclusion as Sharpe notes apologetically in the preface. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are of relatively small importance. It could be argued that there are greater omissions. There is not enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration of the fact that this was an era of huge religious change, upheaval, doubt and conflict. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of texts, rituals, and objects would be enhanced by a much greater awareness that a whole world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of religious texts, rituals and objects was being pulled apart at precisely the same time as these images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rulers were being pieced together. This neglect may perhaps be a result of the correlation between Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and modern politics being taken a shade too far. This encourages not just the marginalization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious beliefs, but also a lack of regard for other forms of ideology. The loyalty of Tudor subjects to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs was not solely dependent on the efficacy of their political ?spin?; it was also deeply grounded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convictions that the monarch was divinely appointed, and that obedience was a Christian duty, an idea which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued to transcend the emerging confessional divisions. Religion and ideological commitment may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely dropped out of modern political discourse, but they were both fairly central to Tudor politics, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his preoccupation with representation Sharpe does tend to forget this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The central arguments of this book should also prompt some useful debate. There are many points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation open to question in what the author rightly sees ? despite its length ? as essentially an essay, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly individual series of reflections on some very big questions. Most immediately, Sharpe?s views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical methodology are bound to stir up some strong feelings. To be fair, he does warn that whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoning the usual distinction between ?events and representations? we must still ?retain the historian?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(perhaps unique\) concern with exact moments, particular circumstances, and change?. When he insists that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?simply placing a Holbein next to a sermon, or viewing a medal alongside a spectacle, or attempting a thick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of an engraving are themselves informative and worthwhile?, it is hard to argue. The difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arise on two levels. One problem is that ?reading? historical texts in this way tends to suggest that all such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts are equally valid, equally important. Henry VII?s self-fashioning, for example, is read by Sharpe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the medium of contemporary sources, but also through the prism of Francis Bacon?s 17th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions and arguably also David Hume?s 18th-century viewpoint. Of course these sources are all valid, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably they are not all equally valid, and some more rigorous contextualizing is necessary if we are to get )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4262 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the balance right. The other problem is that we are in danger of overruling how 16th-century men and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women might have ?read? these images with how we ourselves are inclined to ?read? them. In such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, perhaps it is no bad thing if early modern historians remain ?anxious about the risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism?. It depends, of course, whether we want to hold on to a belief, or at least an aspiration, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical objectivity. It is not entirely clear whether Sharpe still believes in historical truth, but certainly for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many readers he will have embraced some aspects of postmodernism rather too readily. He is also perhaps a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little unfair to the profession; he is right that we need to take a more interdisciplinary approach, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical use of sources and in particular the consciousness of how royal pronouncements were )] TJ ET BT 484.580 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(received)] TJ ET BT 525.224 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as how they were )] TJ ET BT 144.320 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(intended)] TJ ET BT 185.648 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is more widespread than he allows.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chief danger of Sharpe?s approach is evidenced in what seems to me the biggest flaw in the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely the confusion of the history of )] TJ ET BT 220.328 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(representation)] TJ ET BT 290.324 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the history of )] TJ ET BT 384.656 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reputation)] TJ ET BT 434.660 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. If, as the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges, memories are ?unstable, contested and virtually impossible to control?, he is arguably relying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too much on the assumption that memories of the Tudors from the 17th to the 21st centuries can tell us very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much about how this theatrical dynasty was viewed in its own time. He has been too swift to assume that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later reputations, in particular of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, must reflect their skills in self-fashioning whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in power. The consequence is that alongside this very modern concern with ?reading? images lurk some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprisingly old-fashioned prejudices, which result in a rather dismissive treatment of Henry VII, a lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in Henry VIII before the break with Rome, and a disproportionate concentration on the reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth I. Whether a cross-section of 21st century individuals can recognize a post-card of one monarch or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another is not a reliable indicator of how successfully their image was constructed in the 16th century. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is too close a connection between the author noting that ?Henry VII was the Tudor who failed my postcard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition test? and his insistence that he was ?in the most literal sense, less colourful, that is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spectacularly represented? than his son. If Elizabeth?s reputation was hailed ?in the 1630s, then the 1650s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the 1680s?, surely that tells us something about the 17th century but rather less about the 16th? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of representation is important but the Tudors? later reputations are not particularly good evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding that representation.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7331 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allowing undue weight to later historical reputation has distorted some of the central judgements of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. This is most clearly seen with the rather unsatisfying discussion of Mary I. Mary has been criticized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by English historians ever since she died, and her reputation has always been atrocious, because she was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last Catholic monarch of a Catholic England which subsequently became a Protestant nation. Sharpe is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to acknowledge that she and her regime had considerable skills when it came to the representation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her authority, but he still concludes that she was ?the first, and only, Tudor who entirely lost the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition for representation, and in the process tainted her faith as well as her memory?. He does note the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions of contemporaries who thought that Mary ?had the love, commendation and admiration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world?, or who praised their ?innocent and unspotten queen? who had embraced the true faith and ?married )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself unto her realm?. He even recognizes that much of this is language we would normally associate with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth. But the weight of Mary?s later reputation sinks the balance against her. This is upside down. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore later ideas, founded on Protestant convictions, and focus exclusively on how Mary was perceived by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her own subjects would achieve a much more interesting, accurate and revolutionary result. As it is, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countenancing one later prejudice others then follow. It is assumed that the burnings, ?as we know? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengthened opposition, although Eamon Duffy has recently suggested quite the contrary. English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism is described inaccurately as ?ultramontane? and ?Spanish?. Sharpe suggests that the queen?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wedding service at Winchester ?may have been for many their first ? certainly the first for some years ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(display of full Catholic ceremonial?, which is an odd perspective on a country which had only abandoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Latin Mass six years before. True, Mary stands condemned less for her religion than for her Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband, but the negative conclusions are all of a piece with the usual judgements, and they allow her later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation ? and later anti-Spanish feeling ? to obscure her undoubted talents for self-fashioning, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Elizabeth was to emulate. ?Mary did not only fail in selling herself as the champion of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonweal and nation; she allowed others to present her religion as un-English?. This conclusion is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct result of paying too much attention to how Mary was seen after she was dead, and not enough to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation whilst she was alive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One last interpretation remains controversial, namely the notion that this concern with representation made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy more accountable. Sharpe thinks that the Tudors ?led authority itself to be negotiated as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented?. This was initially Henry VIII?s doing: ?through projecting his person and power, Henry VIII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began a process of demystifying kingship and enfranchising subjects?. There is definitely something in this, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the argument goes too far when it calls the ?story of this volume ... the story of the gradual enthralment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the monarchy to its subjects?. For one thing, popular opinion had mattered rather more before the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century than Sharpe acknowledges. For another, it is one thing to involve your subjects, another to actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?enfranchise? them. Tudor monarchy was undoubtedly debated, but it was not elected. This also needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen in the context of religious change. If it was Henry VIII and Elizabeth I who poured their energy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ingenuity into the work of self-fashioning, this was because it was these two monarchs who demanded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biggest change of loyalty from their subjects. Henry demanded that his people surrender their age-old loyalty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the papacy and the monasteries; Elizabeth wrested them away from their traditional religious beliefs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals. If in the process their subjects became more critical, more perceptive, it was perhaps less a result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their representations of authority and more a consequence of ideological division.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Selling the Tudor Monarchy)] TJ ET BT 169.676 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a huge achievement. It is not without its problems, but it is also an important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought-provoking and richly rewarding book which should be required reading for every early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar. Its eagerness to engage with the central questions of historical method, its passionate insistence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an interdisciplinary approach, its vast scope and its grand ideas are a great addition to the scholarship of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor period. It will be even more interesting to see Sharpe take the same approach to the 17th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is arguably in even greater need of this treatment than the Tudor era. We look forward to the next two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has not responded to this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 37.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 36.531 m 270.668 36.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 37.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 36.8455 270.6677 48.7255 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=407195§ioncode=26) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 1166 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.2.kishlansky.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 525.032 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 528.032 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/852)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4453)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=407195&sectioncode=26)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.2.kishlansky.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 525.0317 793.0135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.2.kishlansky.html) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/852) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000593 00000 n 0000000675 00000 n 0000004780 00000 n 0000004889 00000 n 0000004999 00000 n 0000005108 00000 n 0000008669 00000 n 0000008797 00000 n 0000008881 00000 n 0000008946 00000 n 0000016714 00000 n 0000016779 00000 n 0000024527 00000 n 0000024592 00000 n 0000028907 00000 n 0000028991 00000 n 0000036375 00000 n 0000036500 00000 n 0000036631 00000 n 0000036722 00000 n 0000037941 00000 n 0000038068 00000 n 0000038219 00000 n 0000038347 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38442 %%EOF