%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 41 0 R 52 0 R 70 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818072131+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818072131+01'00') /Title (The Northern Lands: Germanic Europe, c.1270-c.1500) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4288 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Northern Lands: Germanic Europe, c.1270-c.1500)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a bold historian who, in the 21st century, still advertises, even as subtitle, a history of ?Germanic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe? in the late Middle Ages. Evidently alarm bells were sounding in the author?s own ears, as he uses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his first page \(p. viii\) to insist that ?this book does not revive discredited racist notions based upon a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly pristine Germanic antiquity?. And nor does it. Nevertheless, David Nicholas is a man with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission, and \(?Germanic?\) identity and culture are central to it. These also, as I will suggest, constitute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic elements within what is without doubt a big, challenging and important book. Nicholas seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promote ?the thesis of [a shared] regional identity in the [late medieval] north? \(p. x\). This ?regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity?, it seems \(though he is not always as explicit about this as he should be\), helps in turn to account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the relative economic success which Nicholas discerns in the north \(relative, that is, to ?the South?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely Mediterranean ? or occasionally, ?Roman? ? Europe, particularly Italy, though reaching up even into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern France\) in the late medieval and early modern periods. Identity was an element in that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sophisticated regional integration? \(p. 351\) which the north displayed, underpinned by ?broad structural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities?, which he seeks to trace across the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Across )] TJ ET BT 70.340 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(which)] TJ ET BT 99.008 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( region, though? A difficulty with the book is the distinctly variable extent of the titular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Northern Lands)] TJ ET BT 110.360 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? an ambivalence which seems at times to reflect the presence of two different, never wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciled, projects jockeying for space within the same covers. One of these seeks to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(853)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 December, 2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Nicholas)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405100502)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(424pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chichester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Len Scales)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7832 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidation of a single ?economic region?, united by ?trading ties? around the late-medieval Baltic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Sea \(p. x\), to identify its distinctive strengths, and foreshadow its later importance within an emergent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic economy. Here, then, is a limited, material world, ?not a community of states, but ? a community of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods and services? \(p. 350\). ?The northern lands thus constituted an informal commercial union in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages.? Large and significant though it was, this consolidating zone of seaways, cargos, warehouses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trading towns appears as something substantially less, as well as something more, than the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Germanic Europe?. Let us call it, for ease of reference, ?Northern Lands 1? \(henceforth NL 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a second agenda in play, however, dedicated to rescuing late medieval northerners more generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from contemporary calumnies dismissing them as mere ?gluttonous, malodorous inebriates who spoke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incomprehensible languages? \(p. ix\). Italianate denigration of this kind, Nicholas contends, has found its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern perpetuation in a tendency among students of the period to exaggerate the importance of southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, particularly Italy, both absolutely and as a motor of positive change in the north. Nicholas seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter this by diminishing the significance of north-south contacts and challenging the reality, or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relevance, of the south?s supposed head-start. His assault upon precocious southern modernity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, aspires to go well beyond economics: the very ?notion of Renaissance? is tantalisingly put up for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grabs at the start \(p. ix\). The twin paradigms of a go-ahead Italy and a moribund, backward-looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?feudal?\) north, widely familiar \(if also, with the passing years, much revised\) from the classic visions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burckhardt and Huizinga, appear about to be stood on their heads.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.956 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.956 540.723 m 365.948 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.948 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And ?states?, it quickly becomes clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are very much a part of the story after all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of those ?broad structural similarities?? For Nicholas, they lie above all in the sphere of \(?Germanic?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, and to a lesser extent language. Law facilitated the development of comparable family structures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of social behaviour across the region, while linguistic affinities aided communication, and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration. Nicholas?s late medieval North wears a face which is more optimistic, and more forward-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking, than the grim gothic demeanour of traditional caricature. Women, he contends, were more visible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more independent, and generally more empowered, than in the south. Elites, at least within the towns, tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be less entrenched, less landed, and more open, and urban social conflicts less bloody. Even the plague, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems, wrought less lasting destruction across the ?northern lands? than beyond the Alps. Politics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy, government, law and language, family structures and inheritance practices, gender relations, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comparative study of elites, no less than urbanisation and trade, are all therefore drawn within Nicholas?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweeping, detail-rich comparative purview. The book represents a bravura performance, remarkable in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erudition in an array of languages, drawing upon the fruits of a lifetime?s accumulated learning, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas deploys with the aim of calling established accounts of the period fundamentally into question.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such an ambitious revisionist viewpoint demands a different, geographically and thematically more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended, zone than that traversed by the merchant-adventurer. For Nicholas, this greater north ? let us say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for convenience ?Northern Lands 2? \(NL 2\) ? embraces in their entirety the kingdom of England, the three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavian realms, the Low Countries, the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more tentatively, the Baltic domains of the Teutonic Order. Questions nevertheless arise regarding its extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and limits. If Mecklenburg, Pomerania, Sweden and the )] TJ ET BT 304.976 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordensstaat)] TJ ET BT 363.644 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are all ruled in, why not Poland, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns and countryside likewise bore the impress of German legal and cultural forms \(with Krakw a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of the Hansa\)? If the kingdom of England, why not \(geographically more northerly, culturally less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southward-facing\) Scotland? If the ?colonial? expansion of continental German-speakers in the north and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east was integral to the making of Nicholas?s extended north, what about the westward and northward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance of English modes and manners into Celtic Britain, here passed over in almost total silence? Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, one can only ever do so much, and Nicholas, let it be said, has done a tremendous amount. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome, nevertheless, is a ?Germanic Europe? of distinctly variable geometry. Discussions of ?state? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures and of urban life lead us south to Augsburg, Munich, Basel, the duchy of Wrttemberg and, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Habsburg domains, the marchlands of Hungary itself. He urges \(problematically, given the smallness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its German-speaking population and a burgeoning national consciousness among the Czech majority\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?considering [late medieval] Bohemia as German? \(p. 80\). It is as a fellow-?northerner? that the Bohemian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocrat Leo of Rozmital is introduced, commenting on the social mores of the Low Countries \(p. 242\). )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.9557 541.0375 365.9477 552.9175 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7636 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet ? back again now in NL 1 ? the reader is cautioned, following a detailed survey of Bruges as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trading centre, that ?the Frankfurt fairs are beyond the scope of this study? \(p. 325\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas?s extended north raises a further problem in that, while he remains concerned to identify over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arching affinities, the wider his bounds are cast the more conscious the reader becomes of diversities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergences within them. As soon as we turn away from commercial highways to contemplate territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(units, these far-flung regions appear as a distinctly mixed bunch. Late medieval population densities, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, may have ranged from around 45 people per square kilometre in Brabant to as low as two in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the eastern borderlands of German settlement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.292 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.292 683.283 m 282.284 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 282.284 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Urbanisation, about which Nicholas has much to say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise varied greatly across the regions, from the large, closely-packed cities of Flanders, to England with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its single dominant metropolis, to the immensely diverse regional landscapes of Germany, or to Scandinavia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where towns remained few and small \(pp. 274?5\). There were regions boasting an ancient urban culture, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the Rhine, and others, such as Holland or the southern Baltic, where the towns were new foundations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The diversity of political forms on display is even more startling, encompassing quasi-independent cities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territorial principalities, composite and federal polities, dynastic empires, a crusader-state, and several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchies of varying antiquity, character and durability. Within and between these categories, as Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes plain, are to be observed very diverse levels of governmental aspiration and sophistication.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The conclusion which Nicholas draws from his survey of state forms \(chapters 1?5\) does not appear easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcilable with his account of the sources of cultural advance within his more concentrated, seaborne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world \(NL 1\). There, ?the common civilising characteristics ? came through the commercial linkage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North and Baltic Seas that was initiated by city-based merchants? \(p. 307\). Small ? and urban ? it seems, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beautiful. When it comes to state-building, however, it is the centralised and bureaucratic kingdom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England which secures first prize, boasting as it did ?the most sophisticated institutions in the northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lands? \(p. 352\). This is a book much impressed by the growth of institutions, particularly those serving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends of rulers, and one which is recurrently scathing about those regions where such growth did not occur ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most notably, the German lands of the Empire. Evidently on account of the absence there of any such over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arching framework, we learn that ?although the German towns had more economic power than the English, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they never transformed it into as much political power as the English towns did through Parliament? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(135?6\). These relatively politically-impotent German towns presumably \(though this is not made clear\) did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not include those centres, such as Nuremberg, Ulm, Frankfurt, and Cologne, which developed in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages as effectively independent polities, governing themselves, pursuing their own foreign policies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in some cases dominating extensive rural hinterlands of a kind otherwise more familiar from Italy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surprisingly, the highly advanced government of the Teutonic Order, with its elaborate bureaucracy, vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archive, and precocious communications systems, is not examined. Had it been, Nicholas?s contention, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the north?s long-term winners were those polities possessing the most extensive state structures, might look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a little less secure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But does not a survey of the most economically and culturally sophisticated and productive urban landscapes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? those places where Nicholas?s ?common civilising characteristics? bore their richest fruit ? in any case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urge a somewhat different conclusion? For these seem to have lain overwhelmingly in regions ? Flanders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brabant, the more urbanised parts of Germany ? where power was typically contested, fragmented, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localised. Much-governed England, by contrast, developed no urban culture to compare with the pre-eminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental centres. The late medieval north?s creative powerhouses ? Bruges, Ghent, or Nuremberg, let us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say ? seem naturally to invite comparison with the great conurbations of \(similarly divided and conflict-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ridden\) northern Italy, rather than with lesser urban landscapes elsewhere in the ?Germanic? world. And they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps also leave the reader wondering, with Harry Lime, whether peace and good governance within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bosom of the growing state were more often the friends or the foes of certain forms of late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creativity \(and, indeed, ?civilisation?\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A principal element of \(?Germanic?\) unity within Nicholas?s greater north \(NL 2\) is law, which he argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinned social forms different from those of Mediterranean Europe \(p. 143\). Underlying affinities were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless combined with very significant regional peculiarities, such the role of statute law in England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers will judge for themselves whether deep unities or divergent regional courses of development )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.2917 683.5975 282.2837 695.4775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8676 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately mattered more. Choosing to stress the former raises a further difficulty, however, since, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas acknowledges, ?Germanic? modes of law had also been present since the early Middle Ages in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions of Europe where Romance speech came to hold sway, as in much of France. Here as elsewhere, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole notion of a ?Germanic? north appears troublesome, with its inbuilt bias towards sharpening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries and rendering differences more absolute than they actually were, while obscuring common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements and ties with neighbouring and more distant \(non-?Germanic?\) regions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result, despite Nicholas?s judicious handling of many specific matters, is to conjure up an encompassing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germandom, at once aggressive, beleaguered, and set apart from ? apparently equally monolithic ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitors and victims. Foremost among the latter are the eastern ?Slavic? peoples \(even, by implication, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lands under the Teutonic Order, where Balts and Finno-Ugrians outnumbered Slavs\). The ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmingly peaceful ? migration of mainly German-speaking agriculturalists and townspeople into east-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central Europe during the high Middle Ages is here bundled together \(p. 63\) with ?the eventual reduction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the native Slavic [but by then also German!] peasantry to serfdom? in the 15th and 16th centuries. Only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rare and untypical instances \(the Teutonic Order being the most salient\) did German-speakers enter the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastern marchlands of late-medieval Europe as the ?conquerors? they are labelled here \(pp. 204?5\). Much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more often they came ? as did even the Teutonic Knights themselves ? at the invitation of indigenous elites; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and most came armed with spades and scythes, not swords. On the southern and western frontiers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanwhile there is a tendency to treat as plain reportage those constructions of the ?barbarian?, rooted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antique literary )] TJ ET BT 110.000 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(topoi)] TJ ET BT 134.672 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which Italian and French writers for their part projected onto the Germans. Antipathies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and antitheses are talked up, although a closer look sometimes suggests more complex mentalities. Enea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Silvio?s portrayal of Germany was not )] TJ ET BT 222.656 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(merely)] TJ ET BT 255.308 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?unflattering? \(p. 205\): the former secretary to Frederick III, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who enjoyed the acquaintance of many important Germans and introduced northerners to Tacitus?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germania)] TJ ET BT 82.676 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, rated himself with some justice as a Germanophile, at least among fellow-Italians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.948 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.948 469.443 m 496.940 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 496.940 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The claim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 198\), that ?English national consciousness was directed almost entirely against the French? is debatable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The \(here largely absentee\) Irish, Welsh and Scots often drew more concentrated vitriol from English pens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while some Englishmen were inclined, even in the heat of war, to admire French chivalric manners and feats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of arms.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.340 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.340 412.419 m 87.332 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 87.332 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( English commentators never wholly forgot whence the cultural values, as well as the elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, of their own warrior nobility ultimately came.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even at the very heart of Nicholas?s ?northern lands? the picture is scarcely straightforward. Courtrai \(1302\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may, as he contends, have ?save[d] Germanic Flanders from French occupation? \(p. 25\); but just how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Germanic? )] TJ ET BT 94.988 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(was)] TJ ET BT 113.660 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Flanders anyway? Its counts were French-speaking and their dynastic aspirations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southward-facing. Although they were vassals of the Empire as well as the French kings, it was the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection which counted politically. The Flemish elite shared in the Francophone culture of their rulers, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bond reinforced under the Valois count-dukes in the late 14th and 15th centuries. The institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices of government in Flanders reflected French models to a significant degree. Economic ties with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northern French hinterland were strong. Paris was more quickly reached from Bruges than was Lbeck or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magdeburg. Flemish craftsmen had traditionally made their way to the French princely courts in search of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work ? until the French court, so to speak, came to them, in the Burgundian era.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.960 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.960 243.603 m 430.952 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 430.952 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Hundred Years War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here ruled out as ?peripheral? to Nicholas?s concerns \(p. 7\), was central to Flemish as it was to English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.352 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.352 215.091 m 84.344 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.344 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nicholas, of course, knows all of this better than most, and refers to much of it at various points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.356 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.356 200.835 m 104.348 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 104.348 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, his very scrupulousness on detailed points only reinforces the reader?s sense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book?s repeated insistence upon ?Germanic? primacy in the North as cutting across a reality which in most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions was far more complex.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The over-arching northern ?identity? which is the book?s declared goal proves elusive. Indeed, I did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notice a single clear instance of a late medieval northerner expressing a sense of common belonging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing even Nicholas?s more limited ?Germanic? sphere \(NL 1\), let alone his larger, territorial-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political-legal version \(NL 2\). Late medieval English chroniclers tended to know more about northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France than Germany, while Germans often had more to say about northern Italy than Scandinavia or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastern Baltic. While interactions across Nicholas?s northern regions were certainly intensive in some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spheres, this was not always the case. Diplomatic relations between England and the Empire, for example, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.9477 469.7575 496.9397 481.6375 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.3397 412.7335 87.3317 424.6135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.9597 243.9175 430.9517 255.7975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3517 215.4055 84.3437 227.2855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 90.3557 201.1495 104.3477 213.0295 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 8236 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were limited, particularly in the latter part of the period \(though a little more might have been said about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of English contacts with Bohemia under Richard II\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 315.632 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 315.632 780.819 m 329.624 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 329.624 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Politically, the Scandinavian kingdoms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interacted mostly with one another and with the regional powers of northern Germany. At least within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North Sea-Baltic zone \(NL 1\), considerable importance is ascribed to language \(with England, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composite Romance-Germanic tongue few continental ?northerners? could master, identified as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional\). The Low German of the Hansa is highlighted as a common commercial tongue. Partly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence, beyond England ?merchants and other travellers in the northern lands could at least understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and be understood as long as they did not venture far into the interior? \(p. 355\). Could they? Perhaps it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depends on the level of ?understanding? envisaged. At any rate, not all of Nicholas?s evidence points to ease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of communication: in the late 14th century, for example, Bruges employed a scribe to translate letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received from the \(hardly-remote\) city of Cologne \(p. 193\). Despite the book?s professed concern with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?identity?, common \(?Germanic?\) language is mainly shown functioning not as a builder of self-conscious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities but ? with variable effectiveness ? as a pragmatic means of, mainly commercial, interaction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet \(expanding our gaze outward again to NL 2 proportions\), language is highlighted as the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity-shaping element within the vast central bloc of lands where various forms of German held sway \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(196\). This was because ?in Germany ideas of nationality were less political and more cultural than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere, given that it was more a federation of territories than a national monarchy? \(p. 203\). Yet there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradox here, which was not lost on contemporaries. Writing towards the middle of the 14th century, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bohemian-German abbot Peter von Zittau reflected how strange it was that the Saxon and the Bavarian were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both properly called German, when neither understood the other?s speech.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.932 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.932 512.211 m 404.924 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.924 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is a paradox which can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be resolved by reference to politics. Why was a range of often mutually-incomprehensible dialects lumped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together in the late Middle Ages as ?German?, while the Scandinavian tongues ? neighbours, as Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises, within a common ?Germanic? linguistic family ? were not included? The answer, it seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me, lies primarily in the late-medieval habit of equating the ?German? lands with the northern territories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holy Roman Empire. The claim that ?in Germany ? the [imperial] monarchy was largely irrelevant? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(202\) cannot, therefore, be extended to the matter of identity-formation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.612 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.612 426.675 m 394.604 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book which functions most happily as a series of ambitious, interconnecting \(though not always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consonant\) thematic studies. As such, it has unique strengths, and readers in search of detailed information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a vast array of topics ? many of them hitherto little touched upon by works in English ? will come away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amply rewarded. It is excellent and all too rare to encounter a medievalist writing serious comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history; and the comparisons drawn here are often highly illuminating. The huge bibliography alone is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treasure trove. But who )] TJ ET BT 149.660 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are)] TJ ET BT 165.656 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( those intended readers ? and what is the true ?identity? of this book? Format and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(efficient but basic\) source-referencing indicate an advanced-level textbook, whereas the level of detail and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual challenge, along with the bold, iconoclastic, underlying arguments, suggest a work of larger and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more general importance ? with a concomitantly heavier burden of proof. This creates tensions, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers are told striking and surprising things which they are required to take on trust ? such as the statistic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Hamburg brewers were by the 15th century producing around 37.5 )] TJ ET BT 378.608 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(million)] TJ ET BT 412.616 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( litres of beer annually \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(332\). How do we know? How solid is this figure \(and others\)? There is a tendency at times to insert free-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing blocs of material with too little contextualisation. Some might have valued an elucidation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference between ?imperial? and ?free? cities, which appear here unannounced \(p. 92\). I can imagine my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own undergraduates picking this book up with high hopes ? and some putting it down well satisfied, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others somewhat frustrated and confused.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a work of such scope and richness, factual errors and questionable judgements on specific points are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavoidable. Most of those which arise here are of a fairly minor nature. For reasons of space, I list just a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of the ones which I noticed. The ?last male of the P?emyslid dynasty? was Wenceslas III \(d. 1306\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not Wenceslas II \(p. 77\). The emperor Sigismund died at Znojmo in Moravia, not in Hungary \(p. 90\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conrad IV \(d. 1254\) did not ?achieve an imperial coronation? \(p. 77\). The radical German pamphleteer from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the 15th century is commonly known as the ?Revolutionary of the Upper [not ?Lower?] Rhine? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 197\). Aachen does not lie ?on the Rhine? \(p. 198\), but around 60 kilometres to the west. It is not true to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that ?the German kings still lacked a chancery under Rudolf I? \(p. 128\): Rudolf did indeed have a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 315.6317 781.1335 329.6237 793.0135 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.9317 512.5255 404.9237 524.4055 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [41 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.6117 426.9895 394.6037 438.8695 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 9077 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled, if modest, writing office, some of whose personnel can be identified.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.624 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.624 795.075 m 421.616 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.616 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is premature to date to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1338 the end of papal involvement in German elections \(p. 126\): Clement VI played a central part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elevation of Charles IV in 1346. To claim that ?parts of eastern Germany were not in the [Holy Roman] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire? \(p. 68\), is misleading: by the mid 14th century, only the )] TJ ET BT 348.332 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ordenstaat)] TJ ET BT 402.332 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s Prussian territory ? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few contemporaries would have numbered as ?German? anyway ? lay outside. Whether the Luxemburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kings and emperors, with their Francophone roots and Bohemian, Silesian and Hungarian patrimonies, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?south German? \(p. 198\) is at least debatable. It is also surprising to be told that German humanism ?was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual movement that had no basis in contemporary political reality? \(p. 204\). 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Much more problematic is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to delineate a discrete ?Germanic? cultural zone, set apart from ? and, implicitly, in some ways in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance of ? ?the South?. \(And that ?South? itself has a strangely spectral, shifting, now-you-see-it, now-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you-don?t, quality throughout the book.\) Nicholas never convincingly identifies a northern urban culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct from that of the nobility, which the towns in their literary and festive life tended to emulate. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic culture, as Nicholas himself acknowledges, was across much of the north Francophone. Given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, as he argues, northern towns weathered the Plague better than their southern counterparts, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing dependence upon noble and courtly models becomes all the more surprising. No attempt is made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to locate a self-consciously urban civilisation comparable to that which, drawing on revived classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(templates, has been discerned in Italy: the book?s opening flourish against anti-northern ?Renaissance? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradigms is taken no further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book which, even as it invokes culture and mentalities, is happiest in a world of hard and plentiful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data, concrete deeds and intentions. There is nothing here on religious life in the northern towns and, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vernacular literature is touched upon, the visual arts are scarcely considered. And a book much concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with commercial dealings, not to say ?identities?, has surprisingly little to say about the north?s Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. There is nothing, in particular, about their recurrent destruction and exile ? another arresting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common motif across late medieval ?Germanic Europe?, some might feel. There are no bleeding-host )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shrines or moving statues here, no worm-eaten cadavers, )] TJ ET BT 309.284 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(danses macabres)] TJ ET BT 391.604 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ghastly crucifixions, or gothic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grotesques. The conspicuous banishment of the Bad Old North is certainly in some ways a welcome relief. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it also indicates, in a book which clearly aspires to refute Burckhardt?s Italophile heirs and transplant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chillier climes some of the advantages of their sunny south, a significant problem evaded. The Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarters might blaze, and the flagellants chant their anthems; but Nicholas?s cool northern merchant, like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?expensive delicate ship? of Auden?s )] TJ ET BT 216.968 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Muse des Beaux Arts)] TJ ET BT 323.276 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has somewhere to get to and sails calmly on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.611 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacob Burckhardt, )] TJ ET BT 154.328 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy)] TJ ET BT 361.664 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. S. G. C. Middlemore \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990\); Johan Huizinga, )] TJ ET BT 179.336 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Autumn of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 330.992 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. R. J. Payton and U. Mammitzsch )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Chicago, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.004 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.004 178.083 m 198.992 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For these figures, see Peter Moraw, )] TJ ET BT 237.308 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Von offener Verfassung zu gestalteter Verdichtung: Das Reich im )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(spten Mittelalter 1250?1490)] TJ ET BT 206.684 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin, 1985\), pp. 49?50.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.004 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.004 149.571 m 387.992 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For his own account of his pro-German reputation, see Pius II, )] TJ ET BT 366.968 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentaries I)] TJ ET BT 443.960 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Margaret Meserve )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Marcello Simonetta \(Cambridge, MA, 2003\), pp. 164?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.316 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.316 121.059 m 409.304 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an example, see )] TJ ET BT 162.992 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The St Albans Chronicle: The Chronica maiora of Thomas Walsingham I: 1376-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1394)] TJ ET BT 88.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. John Taylor, Wendy R. Childs and Leslie Watkiss \(Oxford, 2003\), pp. 284?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.304 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.304 92.547 m 538.292 92.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Jean C. Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 163.340 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Painting in Bruges at the Close of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 407.672 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University Park, PA, 1998\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 64.035 m 118.004 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In justifying its exclusion, Nicholas goes on, ?First, it was not fought continuously?. 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