%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 30 0 R 44 0 R 52 0 R 82 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141028161538+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141028161538+00'00') /Title (Exporting Japan: Politics of Emigration to Latin America) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4356 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Exporting Japan: Politics of Emigration to Latin America)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exporting Japan)] TJ ET BT 114.344 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( examines the domestic politics and foreign policy concerns shaping Japanese expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Latin America through immigration and settlement in the late 19th and 20th centuries. Its focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas, debates, actors, and institutions that eventually lead to the establishment of a dynamic cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence and diverse set of communities introduces and develops an alternative perspective in the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Japanese diaspora? and one of its most populous migrations. Wide-ranging archival investigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which includes diplomatic texts, local and national government documents, and a variety of materials from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese as well as Latin and North American collections, enable Endoh to challenge assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning historical patterns of Japanese migration, and the state?s attempts to direct and exploit these. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, the implantation of a Japanese presence in Latin America ? Endoh challengingly identifies it as colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? was often ill-conceived, haphazardly co-ordinated if lavishly funded, and hastily executed, much to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detriment of the 300,000 some migrant-settlers who made the cross-equatorial journey. It is this negligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the part of the Japanese state that Endoh seeks to explain, which is all the more problematic given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great resources and systematic efforts that were put towards the recruitment, financing, training, transport, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and resettlement of the so-called )] TJ ET BT 192.980 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kokusaku imin )] TJ ET BT 264.968 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(immigrants as a strategic national policy; p. 2\) who made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up this strategy of ?colonial development? to spearhead ?Japan?s expansionist overtures? \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Endoh develops and employs a ?state-centred? approach that explores, on the one hand, the policy-setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(857)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 January, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toake Endoh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780252034022)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Illinois Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Mackintosh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7854 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of central government including ministerial bureaucracies and the diplomatic service, as well as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of quasi-private emigration-related enterprises, and on the other hand, the implementation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration policies by prefectural, municipal, and village administrations. Through close attention paid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state actors ? politicians, intellectuals, interest groups ? this approach is calibrated to examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multitude of often conflicting institutional relationships, policy debates, and public discourses that together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed and informed the state?s emigration apparatus. It helps to account for why decisions taken often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belied political-economic logic and migrant-settler welfare. Overall, it allows her to evaluate contradictory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations of Japanese Latin-American emigration that range from a ?monumental achievement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan?s international advance? to the ?dumping? and ?abandonment? of its socially marginal people \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first of three sections surveys main events and developments in the historical origins and patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese migration to Latin America. The two chapters making up this section respectively deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?first wave? of migration corresponding with the turn of the century to the Second World War and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?second wave? of the post-war period. The selection of national case histories that each chapter presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights a profound diversity of experiences that were shaped by highly differing combinations of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political concerns, business and host-state industrial and strategic interests, and the attitudes of and decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken by migrant-settler and indigenous individuals. Common to the two ?waves? of migration was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adversity and hardship that Japanese faced almost universally, often with success but usually with minimal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support from the Japanese state which, for its part, prioritised macro-political objectives of national stability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and international influence over the micro socio-economics of migrant-settler communities \(p. 156\). In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the absence frequently of either Japanese or host state concern, the histories of the migrant-settlements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often tragic ones; and Endoh?s survey records a litany of tribulation and disaster: slave-like conditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the early 20th-century Peruvian and Brazilian plantations; mass anti-Japanese racist hate campaigns in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lima and forced wartime eviction from Sao Paolo; U.S. sponsored and Peruvian-backed kidnappings at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning of the Pacific War; the internecine and deadly violence between Brazilian Japanese who did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that Japan had surrendered to the Allies and those who did; Japanese who were placed at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputed borders of the Dominican Republic ostensibly to open up this area?s agricultural potential but who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in reality became ?human shields? against marauding Haitians; the ill-fated Uruma colony in Bolivia whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants all died from a mysterious fever; and the provision not of the advanced \(if expensive\) machinery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to clear the Amazonian jungles, but machetes. This colonial history of South and Central America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is little known and Endoh?s survey will provide readers unfamiliar with a useful overview.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The context of migration that Section 1 sets with its focus on the conditions of settlement is critically driven. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, the theoretical impetus of Massey )] TJ ET BT 228.308 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET BT 252.308 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s important study on international migration is evident.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.636 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.636 329.139 m 535.628 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interrogating the neo-classical model that explains human movement in terms of individuals? rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions to seek wealth and jobs in more economically advanced destinations, Endoh observes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese expansion in Latin America counter-intuitively took the form of ?downward migration? \(p. 19\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is, unlike earlier migrations to Hawaii and North America, employment prospects were poor and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, income differentials between sender ? an economically powerful Japan ? and hosts ? developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unstable peripheral states ? belied any hope of ?get rich quick? \()] TJ ET BT 362.600 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ikkaku senkin)] TJ ET BT 427.580 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 3\). ?Downward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration? was also distinguished by another characteristic that contradicted earlier Japanese settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns, many of which were urban-centred. In Latin America, Japanese became ?accidental pioneers? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(108\) who opened up, settled, and developed this area?s isolated and dangerous hinterlands. In the decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to the Second World War, this movement away from the cities especially in Brazil if less so in Peru, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was one way for the Japanese government, businesses, and migrant-settlers to negotiate opposing political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces of an expansionist Japan, on one side, and the racist exclusionary politics of host states, on the other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the post-war period, Asian exclusion was replaced by a half-hearted welcome on the part of host states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, with Japanese government support, were keen to use Japanese settlers to open up their frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions. Yet, the basic pattern of ?downward migration? and the shunting of Japanese to peripheral areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike the earlier ?liberal? phase of Japanese migration, which was facilitated in the late 1800s and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1900s by private companies, Latin American emigration was ?state-led? and managed, especially from the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.6357 329.4535 535.6277 341.3335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7966 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s onwards. Section two examines why and how the Japanese government came to regard Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American settlement as a ?national strategy?. Chapter three charts how social and political discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning migration evolved in response to an intensifying sense of demographic crisis ? overpopulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and food scarcity ? following the First World War, a perception that was exacerbated by the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proletariat and other interest groups who were increasingly susceptible to radicalisation. While some liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandees like ?kuma Shigenobu argued that the free flow of people would reflect a modern, civilized Japan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments from the late 1910s onwards expanded the case for migration, viewing it as a kind of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare policy that might enable the poor to escape poverty and in the process, alleviate population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures. To this end, as Endoh describes in detail, the Home and Foreign Ministries developed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive machinery under the auspices of a new Colonial Ministry which mobilised resources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversaw migration and settlement policy. Private enterprise was also encouraged to invest on a large-scale in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hopes of securing business influence in Latin America. This concerted effort effected what Endoh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies as the ?Golden Age of Latin American Emigration? when the outflow of migrant-settlers swelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to over 180,000 in the 1920s and 1930s, an increase of three times from the preceding two decades \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(76?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Latin American emigration was proposed as one way to address demographic problems and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tensions in the pre-war era, it took on the exaggerated quality of a ?silver bullet? \(p. 83\) in the two decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Japan?s postwar reconstruction and recovery. Then, millions of soldiers and northeast Asian colonialists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to spark a baby boom against a backdrop of acute economic uncertainty and social instability. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the Allied Occupation \(1945?52\) prohibition on Japanese movement outside of Japan, interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups lobbied the Japanese government to resume emigration and with some success. When sovereignty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was restored in 1952, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs quickly launched a new emigration section that, like its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial Ministry predecessor, was charged with identifying migration targets, establishing the necessary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures, procedures, and financing to facilitate mass emigration to Latin America, and co-ordinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affiliated agencies that, for their part, oversaw day-to-day operations at a local level. Despite a ?fast track, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high impact? policy to recruit and settle as many individuals as possible \(p. 91\), the state?s ?quixotic? targets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to transplant nearly 600,000 people between 1953 and 1963 \(pp. 91?2\) were far from met with only some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80,000 moving to Latin America between 1952 and 1970 \(p. 36\). To account for this lackluster result, Endoh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites the fast-changing social and economic situation which saw Japan re-emerge as a major global power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which, in turn, afforded new opportunities at home for wealth creation, jobs, and social infrastructure: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?whereas large-scale outmigration was prohibited when Japan needed it most badly \(i.e., during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation period\), the structural necessity for migration dissipated by the time of the policy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation? \(p. 97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While demographic pressure was a very real concern in the decades preceding and following the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, Endoh interprets this pressure as emblematic of greater social fears and political concerns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Defining ?overpopulation? not in terms of how many were too many but instead identifying who in the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the state was deemed ?superfluous? \(p. 101\), she argues that Latin American emigration was regarded as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?political decompressor?; it was a safety valve that might reduce the disruptive force exerted by society?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most problematic groups and ideas by literally getting rid of some of them. Chapters five and six build this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument by focusing closely on social and political conditions in southwest Japan \(Okinawa, Ky?sh?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western Honsh?\), which sent 50 per cent of all Japan?s migrant-settlers destined for Latin American. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard accounts have attributed this conspicuous number to poverty and ostensible patterns of migration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive to the southwest )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.020 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.020 172.323 m 182.012 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 182.012 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Endoh develops a compelling local reading of major national events like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-war Rice Riots of 1918 and the post-war anti-U.S.-Japan Security Treaty Movement of 1960, in addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to labour unrest across the period especially in the industrial centres of Fukuoka and Hiroshima. Observing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that low skilled labour, landless peasant, and )] TJ ET BT 251.660 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burakumin )] TJ ET BT 306.656 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?outcasts?\) )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 366.968 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 366.968 129.555 m 380.960 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 380.960 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( activity was especially vociferous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and radical in this region, Endoh argues that emigration was of increasing importance to national and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments preoccupied with social stability and order: ?As part of the spectrum of accommodative politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking to emasculate the social opposition and restore political equilibrium, the emigration policy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed as another instrument of political decompression? \(p. 139\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.304 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.304 72.531 m 381.296 72.531 l S endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.0197 172.6375 182.0117 184.5175 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 366.9677 129.8695 380.9597 141.7495 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 367.3037 72.8455 381.2957 84.7255 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8506 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Endoh critically asserts that emigration policy must be understood as ?exclusionary?. Although it was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coercive, migration was ?quasi-forced?, since migrant-settlers were often provided with partial, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erroneous information about conditions that would greet them and false promises of eventual land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership. This was not purposefully deceptive \(p. 95\), but the poor research conducted by emigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities, incomplete negotiations carried about between states, and the overwhelming pressure simply to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move as many people as possible meant that individuals could not make rational, informed decisions. In any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event, the fact that migrant-settlers ostensibly went of their own volition allowed the state to mobilise its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers ?inclusively? as ?co-ethnic? representatives of Japan?s colonial expansion and prestige abroad \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(170\). In chapter seven, Endoh returns our attention to migrant-settler communities to observe how the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and business profited, for example, by breaking U.S. domination of Brazilian soybeans, diversifying trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partners and import sources, advancing horticultural engineering, and securing a Japanese sphere of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and trade influence in Latin America. To maintain affiliation with the Japanese homeland, migrant-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers were subjected to moral education, which in the pre-war era, inculcated emperor-centred patriotism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and following the war, a sense of mission or ?ethnic responsibility? of the ?most advanced coloured race? to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberate Latin America through development that came as a result of Japan?s post-war pacifist commitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 192, 194\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to many recent historical and ethnic studies of Japan?s Latin American emigration, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Masterson and Funada-Classen )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.992 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.992 528.723 m 200.984 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.984 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or many of the essays in the collections of Adachi )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.612 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.612 528.723 m 460.604 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.604 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Hirabayashi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et.al.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 514.467 m 75.008 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 75.008 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Endoh?s history firmly highlights the emigration-side of the narrative to important effect. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound sense of cultural separation as ?home? diverged from ?host? and the traumatic personal conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that so frequently threads through Japanese immigrant stories underscores )] TJ ET BT 392.288 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exporting Japan )] TJ ET BT 475.616 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be sure \(e.g. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 184\). Yet, as the ?state-centred approach? highlights, the often ?convoluted? and always ?evolving? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?hybrid model of state-led migration? \(pp. 78, 197\) that facilitated Japan?s Latin American project, needs to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be understood as inextricably embedded within Japanese nation-building and modernisation. In order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enervate the forces of social unrest and eradicate radicalism, the state committed itself to ?systematic mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relocation overseas? \(p. 7\) on a massive scale. While the discourse on ?overpopulation? and the case of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southwest reveal the insecurity of succeeding governments and state actors throughout the early-to-middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the 20th century, the easy historical periodisation of a liberal Taish? period \(1912?26\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactionary prewar Sh?wa \(1926?45\), and a democratised post-war period is avoided. Instead, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering aspirations to uplift the nation?s lower classes out of poverty through emigration and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospect of property ownership are approached as one side of a coin whose flipside includes the repressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulse to tame the proletariat, tenants, and outcastes into conformity through propaganda and police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coercion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theories explaining state motivations in terms of )] TJ ET BT 272.336 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shakai fuan)] TJ ET BT 328.004 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? ?social uncertainty or instability? \(p. 77\) ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are insufficient, and as part of one of this book?s most challenging arguments, Endoh identifies a positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impetus, namely, nation-building through the projection of Japanese influence globally. Understandably, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal empire in Korea, Taiwan, Manchuria, and later, southeast Asia dominates understandings of pre-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese imperialism. As Japan?s Latin American project suggests, however, the endeavor to carve out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spheres of influence economically, culturally, and politically ? an informal empire ? never came to an end. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even as the use of the non-interventionist principles of so-called Shidehara diplomacy )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 450.620 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 450.620 203.091 m 464.612 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 464.612 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to assert Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority in China were undermined by the incursions of its military and then war in the 1930s, a similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of diplomacy, economic activity, and recognition of national sovereignty informed the Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence in Latin America. Colonies were established, but they were mutually agreed ? if uneasily at times ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the inter-state level, which markedly differed from the situation in east Asia: Hokkaido, Taiwan, Korea, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Manchuria were incorporated militarily; their colonisation was strategically informed; and existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations were legally relegated onto lower levels of Japan?s racial hierarchy to sometimes atrocious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It remains unclear to what extent this east Asian experience may have been influential at the level of policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate and discourse, and in particular, the public consciousness of empire ? formal )] TJ ET BT 438.932 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 459.932 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informal ? that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state tried to effect and steer; more of this later. But, )] TJ ET BT 287.636 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exporting Japan)] TJ ET BT 367.964 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers a challenging prospect, namely, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.9917 529.0375 200.9837 540.9175 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.6117 529.0375 460.6037 540.9175 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 514.7815 75.0077 526.6615 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 450.6197 203.4055 464.6117 215.2855 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 50 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 8298 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese imperialism and colonialism were limited neither to the eastern Pacific nor to military activity: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pre-World War II Japan considered its emigration policy towards Latin America as an integral part of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonization enterprise ? This transnational undertaking, which an expansionist Japan was already pursuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its sphere of influence in Asia, manifested itself most rigorously in Brazil in the case of South America? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 175\). Moreover, its trans-continental focus was instrumental to the globalisation of Japanese and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international market activity and ambition: ?In tandem with Japan?s imperialist thrust into ? [Asia]? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s, [)] TJ ET BT 72.680 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(zaibatsu)] TJ ET BT 112.688 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?conglomerates?] transferred repatriated capital to Latin America as an extension of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business globalization strategy? \(p. 75\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the wake of the Korean and Cold Wars, Japan was positioned in America?s global order as the capitalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?workshop of Asia? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 132.992 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 132.992 654.771 m 146.984 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 146.984 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and a similar pattern reemerged of ?transnational resource strategy conjoined with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin American emigration? \(p. 177\). Once again, Japan sat at a trans-Pacific nexus including, on one side, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revived ?Pan-Asian market? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.976 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.976 626.259 m 192.968 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 192.968 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Japan?s Latin American colonial enterprises. If the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese formal empire characterises the 20th century in terms of disjuncture between the pre-war and post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war periods, the history of informal empire which Endoh begins to describe is one of continuity. Whether it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took the form of glorifying the )] TJ ET BT 184.004 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kokutai )] TJ ET BT 222.332 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Japan?s emperor-centred moral polity\) or promoting peace through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, the state?s ambition to ?reproduce a perfect Japan in the Americas? \(p. 6\) was racially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated: ?In a nutshell, Japan took on its Latin American project as a way to exalt its national prestige and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial superiority in the international area, specifically vis--vis the United States and Europe ? Japan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded statehood was directed at the greater West, via its weakest part, Latin America? \(p. 195\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The challenge of developing a new perspective from which to approach Latin American emigration across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century, and the Japanese diaspora more generally is a tall order. It is largely achieved though some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues remain unexplored except at a general level. The narrow definition of state and state-actors is useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when exploring how discourses like ?overpopulation? and Japanese state expansion were articulated, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they translated into policy. That propaganda, for instance, was woefully at odds with the reality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditions in the so-called )] TJ ET BT 163.340 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shintenchi)] TJ ET BT 212.672 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(new paradise\) of Latin America is a problem that Endoh?s ?state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centred approach? is suited to exploring. By emphasizing a top-down state-to-populace direction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence, however, an important voice remains largely unheard, namely, the potential migrant-settlers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan themselves. How was Latin America imagined, which is to ask, how did groups and individuals across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation receive and interact with propaganda, ads, newspapers, journals, and later, electronic media that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(featured emigration, and ultimately, the state that was exhorting people to go? How did Latin America fit in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?s overall ideology concerning a quickly expanding empire, and how did it help formulate an ethic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian responsibility for the developing non-West after the war? These questions require close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural reading and analysis and they do fall out of the parameters of this research. But given the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under closest scrutiny here, the Taish? era to the 1960s when a near universally literate society also became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an increasingly democratic, mass-mediated and consumer oriented one, what might the expansion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of the ?state? imply when media and popular participation are figured in as key state-actors?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the close reading of the proletariat, peasantry, and )] TJ ET BT 327.296 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burakumin)] TJ ET BT 379.292 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( compellingly illustrates how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?politically decompressing? policies of exclusion were localised and applied in the case of the southwest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, it remains unclear to what extent the southwest is viable as a conceptual unit that can not only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to Latin American emigration but to Japanese migration and settlement more broadly. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Okinawa?s distinctive history and the radical activism of certain districts and groups in northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ky?sh? and Inland Sea Honsh? are conspicuous, I suspect that the southwest may be further differentiated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divergent as the social settings of its component areas are, and different as its regional histories are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly between the pre- and post-war periods. And, while a compelling case for understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins of Latin American emigration is certainly argued by focusing on this region in the longer term, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture is not clear until those other areas that sent the other 50 per cent of migrants are considered, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially northeastern prefectures like Niigata, Fukushima, and Hokkaido. To her credit, Endoh does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify some of these issues. Although these questions may be exceptions to the general patterns that Endoh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies, they do suggest how the study that this book has opened up may now be expanded upon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turning to diasporic history and post-colonial theory, I find the identification of Japan?s Latin American )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 132.9917 655.0855 146.9837 666.9655 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.9757 626.5735 192.9677 638.4535 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R ] /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 9747 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities and presence as colonial to lack critical definition. Not that the systematic development and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution of Japan?s Latin American emigration policies can neutrally be labelled, for instance, as )] TJ ET BT 509.912 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ij? )] TJ ET BT 525.584 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?migration and settlement?, a post-war term whose euphemistic quality was directed at expunging any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotation of pre-war imperialism. Endoh deftly navigates varying and competing semantic conceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese expansion. Rather, because the Latin American history of colonisation is multi-layered, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrant-settler experience underscores )] TJ ET BT 222.956 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exporting Japan)] TJ ET BT 303.284 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a theorisation of indigenous-settler relations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core-periphery relationships may help to articulate more precisely the complexity of Japan?s colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance into Latin America. This is especially relevant when we consider that Japan?s postwar period saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its post-colonial situation double-up as a neo-colonial American one. I?m thinking, for example, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of ?settler colonies? advanced by Johnston and Lawson )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 343.616 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 343.616 666.771 m 363.608 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.608 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and productively applied by Fujikane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Okamura )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.996 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.996 652.515 m 121.988 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.988 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the context of Hawaii whose Asian settlers were also colonizers, complicit with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American colonialism, and whose entrance for the indigenous Hawaiian population may be identified as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Relative to other migrations in the Japanese diaspora, the numbers of people emigrating to Latin America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before and after the war were smaller, which is not to say less significant as Endoh convincingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates. This well-researched history broadens the study of Japan?s Latin American emigration, and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifying the Japanese presence in Central and South America as a colonial project, Endoh makes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contribution to our understanding of Japan?s nation-building and state expansion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas A. Massey, Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino, and J. Edward )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 102.008 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millenium)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 446.691 m 193.652 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Endoh points to structural indicators which suggest that the northeast was in fact poorer, yet played a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smaller part in Latin American emigration. She convincingly argues that earlier movements of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southwesterners to Hawaii and North America ? co-ordinated by private companies ? fundamentally )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differed from the state-led mass migration to Latin America.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.296 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.296 389.667 m 408.284 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A marginal social group descended from pre-modern Japanese outcaste communities. Despite being )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted legal equality in 1871, political, institutional, and social discrimination persisted.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.336 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.336 361.155 m 545.324 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an interesting aside, Endoh observes that the authorities of the United States Occupation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Okinawa turned similarly to emigration to reduce islander resistance to American policies. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting ?Okinawan diaspora? resulted in a large presence in Brazil, Argentina, and Bolivia, but one )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was sometimes completely separated from Japanese groups.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.620 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.620 304.131 m 438.608 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel M. Masterson and Sayaka Funada-Classes, )] TJ ET BT 307.976 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Japanese in Latin America)] TJ ET BT 457.964 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Urbana and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.008 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.008 275.619 m 194.996 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Japanese Diasporas: Unsung Pasts, Conflicting Presents, and Uncertain )] TJ ET BT 418.004 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Futures, ed. Adachi Nobuko )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 247.107 m 196.328 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Worlds, New Lives: Globalization and People of Japanese Descent in the Americas and from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Latin America in Japan)] TJ ET BT 177.680 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Lane Ryo Hirabayashi, Akemi Kikumura-Yano, and James A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hirabayashi \(Stanford, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.320 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.320 204.339 m 261.308 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Named after Shidehara Kij?ro, foreign minister from 1924?7 and 1929?31, foreign policy during his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenure was identified with the principles of nonintervention and the exertion of Japanese influence )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through economic and diplomatic means within the context of an advancing globalised market system.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 147.315 m 118.004 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul J. Bailey, )] TJ ET BT 136.352 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Postwar Japan: 1945 to the Present)] TJ ET BT 309.344 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\), p. 54.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.992 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.992 133.059 m 471.980 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koshiro Yukiko, )] TJ ET BT 147.680 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trans-Pacific Racisms and the U.S. Occupation of Japan)] TJ ET BT 422.660 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1999\), p. 140.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 104.547 m 124.004 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Johnston and Alan Lawson, ?Settler colonies?, in )] TJ ET BT 332.648 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to Postcolonial Studies)] TJ ET BT 512.660 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Schwarz and Sangeeta \(Oxford, 2000\), pp. 360?76.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 342.944 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 342.944 76.035 m 402.932 76.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 63.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Candace Fujikane, ?Introduction: Asian settler colonialism in the U.S. colony of Hawai?i?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Asian Settler Colonialism: From Local Governance to the Habits of Everyday Life in Hawaii)] TJ ET BT 511.004 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 343.6157 667.0855 363.6077 678.9655 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 57 0 obj [52 0 R /Fit] endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.9957 652.8295 121.9877 664.7095 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 447.0055 193.6517 458.8855 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.2957 389.9815 408.2837 401.8615 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.3357 361.4695 545.3237 373.3495 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.6197 304.4455 438.6077 316.3255 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.0077 275.9335 194.9957 287.8135 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 247.4215 196.3277 259.3015 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.3197 204.6535 261.3077 216.5335 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 147.6295 118.0037 159.5095 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.9917 133.3735 471.9797 145.2535 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 46 0 R >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 104.8615 124.0037 116.7415 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 49 0 R >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 342.9437 76.3495 402.9317 88.2295 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 54 0 R >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R ] /Contents 83 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Length 1754 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Candace Fujikane and Jonathan Y. 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