%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728034300+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728034300+01'00') /Title (Liberalism and Its Discontents) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3943 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Liberalism and Its Discontents)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume of essays offers a powerful review of various central issues in the history of 20th Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American liberalism. Its underlying concern is how a political ideal, or set of ideals, once so firmly adhered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to, should now be so discredited in contemporary American political debate. The journey of intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration which Brinkley pursues is never less than fascinating. And none would deny its importance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any historian with a concern that past and present are locked in a dynamic if often deceptive relationship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is possible, by overlooking many of Brinkley?s subtleties, to piece together a fairly straightforward answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the question he initially poses. One initial element in that answer lies in the nature of the New Deal itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways the reforms, policies and ideas of the 1930s broke with the Progressive past by making the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federal government a ?compensatory? state \(in Brinkley?s formulation\) not a weapon for the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated and irresponsible corporate power. The liberal state dedi cated its efforts to fiscal management )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to enhance consumption not to implement economic regulation or wealth redistribution. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important distinction helps explain later disillusionment with programmatic liberalism, for, in one sense, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war America has delivered what the New Deal sought to achieve: high, if not full, employment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(86)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 July, 1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Brinkley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780674530171)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harvard University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/BRILIB.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, Mass.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Collins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6866 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rising, if sometimes interruptedly so, standards of living for most Americans. The New Deal went further. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removing the Democrats? electoral dependence on the Deep South, it opened a way from the 1950s for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national Democrat party to pursue a more liberal course on race issues than the party dependent on white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative voters could envisage in the 1930s. Yet the very success of liberal economic policy made an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit liberal agenda increasingly unnecessary. In the 1980s the Reagan administration, rather like the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher government in Britain, presided over an aggregate increase in relative federal spending while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously denouncing statism and Keynesianism together. As George Will remarked, ?Americans are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative. What they want to conserve is the New Deal.?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second element of an explanation for the decline in liberalism as a doctrine comes from the experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1960s. Kennedy?s administration helped to set up future disenchantment by promising too much. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very sense of political dynamism whip ped up by President Kennedy and his lieutenants - however vague it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost invariably was and however cynical it occasionally became - was bound to lead to subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappointment. Yet, again, successful outcomes reduced the need for doctrinal liberalis m. As Brinkley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, much student radicalism of the 1960s concerned conditions within the universities themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and only later, with the mauling involvement in Vietnam, acquired wider political ambitions. But as Irving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernstein showed, the inte llectuals? preoccupation with Vietnam crowded out new reformist thinking. With )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the redefinition of universities as life-style playgrounds as well as centres for learning, and with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of an all-volunteer army, virtually all serious pressure s for further liberal crusading ebbed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the student body politic. This was predicted in the celebrated chant, ?Make Love Not War?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of a society which could be - albeit crudely - characterised as materialistic, hedonistic and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps, s elfish rather than even just individualistic clearly worries any thoughtful observer of America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except for robustly full-bloodied political libertarians. But Brinkley underscores the disturbing paradox that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the apparent success of much of the liberal pr ogramme since 1930s has led, not to advancing commitments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to community values, political enlightenment or civic responsibility, but instead to a resurgence of militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservatism. In an illuminating discussion of Oral B. Roberts, one of the longest est ablished and leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tele-evangelists, he emphasises that support for populist evangelical religion comes largely from those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want to be included in the mainstream of American society. However commercial the motives of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders of the religious rig ht may be, their supporters come from strong traditions of popular religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strive now for full recognition of their legitimacy and role. On the political front, Brinkley points out that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Right has gained strength especially from anti-feminist women reasserting the values of ?family life? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against what is portrayed, however erroneously, as a liberal tide which has undermined the tradition nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. Relative affluence has raised age-old questions of our moral responsibilities for families and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities. Freedom from want and freedom from fear have exposed us to the moral dilemmas posed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibility of freedom from ourselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this bald summary does less than full justice to Brinkley?s unfailingly subtle and often sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses, it provides nevertheless a basis for some alternative reflections on his approach, an approach which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he stresses has its roots firmly an chored in the liberal Democratic tradition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most difficult area of analysis lies in the definition of the moral basis for systematic government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention in society. In a country dedicated even more than most to individualism it is difficult to square )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the collective requirement t o devote efforts and resources for social reform by government with individuals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of philanthropic or humanitarian commitment. The work of an array of voluntary societies, buttressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by churches, is scarcely ever analysed in relation to government s ocial reform initiatives. This misleadingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalises one of the most powerful countervailing forces to the extension of liberal welfarism, the sense - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however erroneous it may be in macro terms - that individuals are contributing to amelioration and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government intervention entails highly inefficient transfer costs. Brinkley?s discussion of religion is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6844 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminating, but brief and does not touch on the possible ways in which for a majority of church members, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increased activism and membership of churches in the last twenty years has channelled impulses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutuality away from liberal reformers acting through state and federal governments towards fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of churches and their obligations to a wider society. The energetic ?joiner instinc t? of Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has often been commented on. Its implication for government responsibilities has been less frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Withdrawal from government interventionism is accelerated by the way in which much interventionism has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been fuelled by political opportunism. Brinkley is excellent on the purely pragmatic agendas pursued by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FDR and JFK in advancing the liberal cause. But he tends thereafter to describe government activism as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalised public good. Administrative bureaucracies simply do not behave in the ways implied. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?public sector? has no more sense of ?community? than most business corporations. Public officials pursue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rent-seeking objectives and compete over the question of who decides as vigorously as over what is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided. Bureaucratic gamesmanship, involving the excitement of competing for power, prominence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place, consumes as much energy a s any dedication to the establishment of shared values and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of reformist policies. The expansion of federal programmes in the 1960s exposed the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretensions of liberal interventionist rhetoric. None of this is meant to deny the depth a nd sincerity of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberals? commitment to reform, or the need for many of the programmes developed. But the claims still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outstrip the performance. Historians who depict the involvement of corporate leaders in civic affairs as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effort to extend busi ness control frequently fail to analyse public officials? behaviour as similarly elitist and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governed by self-serving agendas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If New Left historians may have exaggerated in describing government officials as pawns of the corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state working to businesses agendas, they are correct in insisting on the careful analysis of those officials? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motives, priorities, and effectivene ss.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another contributory factor in the discrediting of collectivist symbolism has been the very success of one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its major achievements. The expansion of American mass higher education has provided an extraordinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation over the last 50 years a nd mostly as a result of state and federal government effort and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expenditure. The contention that enormous human talent lies untapped around us is scarcely novel - Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gray had much to say on that subject though he does not seem to have used his Prof essorship at Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do much to remedy the situation - but the pursuit of Ezra Cornell?s idea of higher education available for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any person pursuing any study has never been fully realised in human experience as in the United States in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last 50 yea rs. The effect of such an expansion has not necessarily been to the good of liberal causes. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading professions - legal, medical, engineering - whose growth has been fuelled by university expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are scarcely notable for their communitarian, as di stinct from competitive, ideals and practices. Business is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now the leading subject taken by undergraduates, and postgraduate business schools - enjoying a far longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history than those in Britain - are not at the forefront of reformist liberalism. Expan ding higher education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has assisted the process of de-unionisation and emphasised individual careerism rather than the pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social equality. Nor does the intense competitiveness of the university system contribute self-evidently to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community values. The plurality of American government intensifies this institutional competitiveness even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if it did not create it. However derived, the higher education system, which plays so crucial a role in shaping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attitudes of society?s professional and manager ial classes, offers a market-driven ethos sponsored and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported by public spending. Market-driven behaviour characterises even those who aspire to ?public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good? ends. This attribute of public sector behaviour is only part of a much wider phenomenon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One vital distinction drawn by Brinkley is between Progressives? desire to control corporate power and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Deal?s eventual elaboration of the notion of fiscal management. It is useful to be reminded that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central purpose of federal economic int ervention by the later 1930s was to manage the economy through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiscal policy in order to foster consumerism. The New Deal did not aim to redistribute wealth or to promote )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6566 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vastly expanded public sector. It sought to use taxation and government spendi ng to create short-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jobs in order to reflate consumer demand and thereby reinvigorate manufacturing output. The legatees of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Deal continued in a similar vein. This doctrine made it difficult to distinguish morally or politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between consu mption in the shape of spending on a movie and a hamburger or on the Met and Quaglino?s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The path was open to the 1980s notion of ?greed is good?. After all, the New Deal?s message was in effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?to consume is to be public spirited?. For the public pol icy aspirations of many contemporary American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social critics, the redistributionist objectives of democratic socialism would have provided a far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective ideological platform than that yielded by the New Deal, as some of FDR?s advisers argued at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The answer to the dilemma which Brinkley poses at the beginning of his collection of essays is therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly resolved through his wide-ranging variety of case studies. The political opportunism of FDR and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic programme which he experiment ed with laid down only a blurred ideological blueprint for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future. It was possible from within the Democratic tradition and from among the various policy options )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available during the 1930s to have created a firmer ideological framework upon which to base future action. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Keynesian economic theory was about managing the economy not transforming it. And the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dedication to consumerism as a key element in promoting recovery scarcely indicated any ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to changing the nature of A merican social and economic relationships. Brinkley demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the political activism of the 1960s had more to do with particularist liberal causes than with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitment to a thorough-going reformist agenda. Once major breakthroughs had been mad e in reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher education to meet students? demands, to pass wide-ranging civil rights legislation, and to pull )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American out of Vietnam, then a great deal of the energy and commitment in the reformist impulses of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s quite logically disappeare d. Without being entirely facetious, one could suggest that Ronald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reagan?s steady evolution from youthful New Dealer to 1980s conservative exemplified the experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a generation. As the have-nots became haves, there was little else in their upbri nging as New Dealers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspire belief in anything other than a market-driven American system. And the actual policies pursued by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the federal government during the 1980s combined pro-capitalist rhetoric with massive doses of federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government borrowing to sustain heavy public expenditure during recession. Perhaps with increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hindsight we may regard the vibrant reformism of the 1960s as being far more exceptional than as a stage in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a process of liberalisation in American political life and attitudes towards government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anyone who contemplates modern America is bound to be puzzled at how so technologically sophisticated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed - in Galbraith?s formulation - technocratic a society has been swayed by the crude incantations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and punitive policies of the New Right. Th e resolution of that paradox has to take account of a profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populist reaction against the pretentious claims and knee-jerk interventionism of the liberal reformers as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the grim truism that the spread of opportunity has led to the spread of oppor tunism. Whatever their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspirations, successful middle class people will behave in the time-honoured fashion of the grasping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeoisie, tempered, but not tamed, by moral, social or ideological restraints. In the 1890s a Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treasury minister in Bri tain declared, ?we are all Socialists now?. A century later a more apposite catch-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phrase could well be, ?we are all market-traders now?. The New Deal and the Great Society programmes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one sense set up vast publicly-funded market places for the promoti on and peddling of public policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiatives and ideas developed and offered by fiercely competing individuals and interest group)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 118.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 100.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 100.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/86)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 99.561 m 316.316 99.561 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 74.584 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 60.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1015)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 99.8755 316.3157 111.7555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/86) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000540 00000 n 0000000622 00000 n 0000004617 00000 n 0000004726 00000 n 0000004836 00000 n 0000004945 00000 n 0000008506 00000 n 0000008634 00000 n 0000008718 00000 n 0000008783 00000 n 0000015702 00000 n 0000015767 00000 n 0000022664 00000 n 0000022748 00000 n 0000029367 00000 n 0000029494 00000 n 0000029588 00000 n 0000029653 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29848 %%EOF