%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221002708+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221002708+00'00') /Title (Foreign Office Files for China) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3323 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Foreign Office Files for China)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Globalization, some have argued, has created a borderless world by breaking down the physical barriers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the movement of people, products and ideas. Technological advance further facilitates the free circulation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information. Despite their obsession with the past, historians, archivists and publishers in the history field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not been slow to embrace the new digital technology. In the past two decades or so, many digital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources for history, covering both primary and secondary sources, have been published. Gone were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days when historians had no choice but to travel to overseas archives or libraries for research. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latest digital resources is )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.336 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Office Files for China)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.336 257.847 m 302.672 257.847 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.672 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 321.008 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sourced from The National Archives at Kew by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Matthew Digital Ltd. Published in three sections \(1949?56; 1957?66; 1967?80\) over 2009?2010, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection is the most comprehensive set of British Foreign Office/Foreign and Commonwealth Office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents on China available in digital and print forms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(863)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 31 January, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Tyler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Matthew Digital)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/FO-China/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marlborough)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chi-kwan Mark)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3357 257.9875 302.6717 269.8675 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/FO-China) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This review is about section one of the collection. Most of the documents concern correspondence between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Embassy in Beijing and the Foreign Office in London between 1949 and 1956, for example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yearly, monthly and weekly reviews, political reports, economic assessments, eye-witness accounts and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth. Certainly, this short review cannot do justice to this very rich collection. Instead, it will give a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?snapshot? of some of the documents from three main perspectives ? mainland China, Cold-War Asia, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial Hong Kong ? and discuss some of the themes underlining them ? China?s attempts to end the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?century of humiliation? at home and abroad, the impact of US policy and the Cold War, the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Anglo-American ?special relationship? to London, Britain?s pragmatic approach to Communist China, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the precarious coexistence between Hong Kong and China. A few comments will also be made of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research potential and digital presentation of the resource.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The year 1949 was pivotal to the political future of China and of Anglo-Chinese relations. On the mainland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese Communist Party under Mao Zedong was winning the civil war against the Nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government under Jiang Jieshi \(Chiang Kai-shek\). A total of 45 files \(FO 371/75734?75778\) thus detail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost on a daily basis, the Communist takeover of major cities/provinces, from Beijing \(Peking\) through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nanjing \(Nanking\) and Shanghai to Guangzhou \(Canton\). As early as 2 March, after the fall of Beijing but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Communist crossing of the Yangtze, the British Ambassador in Nanjing sent a rather pessimistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(report to the Foreign Office: ?Despite all Chiang Kai-shek?s efforts it is in my view out of the question that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further successful resistance to the Communists can be organised? \(FO 371/75743\). The main concern of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government was the situation in Shanghai, where the bulk of British properties and nationals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated. Notwithstanding the British evacuation planning, the Communist takeover of Shanghai turned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out to be relatively smooth and uneventful. As the British Consul General in Shanghai reported in late May: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?No British subject injured ? No serious looting. Damage to utilities and British property generally only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidental? \(FO 371/75757\). Indeed, in establishing and consolidating their power in 1949 \(and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent few years\), the Chinese Communists adopted a gradual and cautious approach to the treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners \(and of domestic capitalist elements\). The documents on events leading to the founding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(People?s Republic of China in 1949 thus reveal some degree of hope and optimism among British officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as far as future relations with the Communist regime were concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In view of the political change on the mainland during 1949, British decision-makers and officials in London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to ponder the question of recognizing the People?s Republic. To them, recognition was not only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bilateral issue with the Chinese Communists but also an issue that had wider implications for Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American relations and British relations with the Asian Commonwealth. The Labour government?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberations of recognition between 1949 and January 1950 constitute more than twenty files \(FO )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(371/75810?75830; FO 371/83279?83284\), many of which feature discussions and consultation with the US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration. Because of Britain?s political decline in post-war Asia, economic interests in China, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial interests in Hong Kong, London wanted to ?keep a foot in the door? by recognizing the People?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic. On the other hand, Washington, for domestic and Cold War reasons, could not immediately shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its recognition from the Nationalist government, which by the year?s end retreated to the island of Taiwan, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the new Communist regime. The result was that, after a series of meetings, Britain went ahead on de jure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition of Communist China on 6 January 1950, and America agreed to disagree with its key ally. At a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time when the British government decided to recognize Beijing, Mao Zedong made the decision on ?leaning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to one side? by aligning China with the Soviet Union. The conclusion of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance on 14 February \(FO 371/75832?75835; FO 371/83313?83315\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to have significant impact on the politics and economy of China as well as China?s interactions with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between 1950 and 1956 \(and beyond\), the Chinese Communists sought to build a new socialist state by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliminating all privileges and institutions established by Western imperialist powers during the previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?century of humiliation?. The bulk of the documents in section one of the collection thus feature how British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats on the ground observed first hand the political, economic and social transformations of China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially those affecting British interests. In the first half of 1950, the Communist authorities announced a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of new regulations concerning registration, travel, and entry and exit permits for foreign residents. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7466 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aims were to place foreigners \(mostly Britons\) under tighter state scrutiny and control. Not only for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who wanted to stay, Beijing also made life difficult for foreigners who desired to leave by denying, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least delaying, the granting of exit permits \(FO 371/83507 and FO 371/83509\). The Chinese attitude to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and treatment of diplomats were no better. Despite London?s recognition of the People?s Republic, Beijing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to reciprocate and agreed merely to the opening of talks for establishing diplomatic relations. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British representatives sent to Beijing for that purpose were recognized as ?negotiating agents? rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal British Mission. The Chinese regime also refused to recognize the status of British consular officers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stationed across the country. Between 1950 and mid-1951, it compulsorily took over His Majesty?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consulate at Fuchou \(Foochow\), and, by refusing visas for staff replacements, forced the British government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to close a number of its Consular posts such as Nanjing and Hankou \(Hankow\). Beijing?s treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British nationals and properties in China was summed up in a telegram by the Commonwealth Relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office to British High Commissioners abroad: ?All this suggests a deliberate and consistent policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squeezing out by degree those United Kingdom ? and, indeed, Western ? interests which are not of practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use and assistance to the Chinese People?s Government? \(FO 371/92251\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China?s policy of ?squeezing out? Western interests, to be sure, included British economic concerns, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in Shanghai. At first, the British government and major British firms in China hoped that, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the civil war, the new Communist regime would again look to the Western world for trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital. As time progressed, however, it became clear that China?s policy was to restrict and utilize, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expel and nationalize outright, foreign companies. Accordingly, British firms were subjected to heavy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxation and strict labour regulations; they were not allowed to close down and lay off their \(Chinese\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers until after settling their liabilities with the local authorities. By mid-1952, the British government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided that the majority of the British firms could no longer operate satisfactorily in China, and it was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time for their withdrawal. The British consuls were instructed to protest to the Chinese government about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties of the British companies and later to exert pressure on the authorities to facilitate more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditious and reasonable settlement of their closure ? but all to no avail. In the event, it was the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firms themselves that negotiated their own withdrawal after sacrificing their assets and capital. The related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(files on the years 1950?52 give meticulous details on the gradual collapse of the British ?informal economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire? on the mainland \(FO 371/83344?83353; FO 371/92259?92267; FO 371/99282?99297\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Foreign Office files also show China emerging from the shadow of European imperialism to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great power to be reckoned with in Cold-War Asia. In late October 1950, China intervened in the Korean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, a ?hot war? in which the Chinese volunteers would fight the United States and the United Nations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalition to a standstill. The Korean War strained the Anglo-American ?special relationship?, while putting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an end to the fruitless Anglo-Chinese negotiations over the establishment of diplomatic relations. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting America?s war efforts, Britain was also eager to restrain the more belligerent tendencies in US )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, such as the use of Chinese Nationalist troops \(FO 371/99259\), a naval blockade of the Chinese coast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(FO 371/99261\), and a total trade embargo on China \(on debates in 1951, see FO 371/92233?92240; FO )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(371/92272?92287\). The war, moreover, reversed the US ?hands-off? approach to Taiwan: just two days after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the North Korean attack, the Truman administration announced the despatch of the Seventh Fleet to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?neutralize? the Taiwan Strait in order to prevent a possible communist invasion of the island. The Sino-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American confrontation over Korea and the US protection of Taiwan had deep impact on Anglo-Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. As the Foreign Office documents reveal, throughout the 1950s, British officials were constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caught in the policy dilemma of supporting the Americans over Taiwan \(notably the Nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation in the United Nations\) and pacifying the Chinese Communists for the sake of regional peace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hong Kong, among other factors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, Britain?s attitude and policy towards Taiwan after 1950 had been ambivalent and even self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeating. On the one hand, despite its recognition of the People?s Republic, the British regarded Taiwan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal status as ?undetermined?, maintained a consulate at Tamsui, and refused to vote for China?s admission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the United Nations. All these were criticized by Beijing as London?s pursuit of a ?two Chinas? policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the main reasons for the lack of progress on the establishment of Anglo-Chinese diplomatic relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(FO 371/83285?83295\). On the other hand, British diplomats and officials found Jiang Jieshi?s repeated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to ?return to the mainland?, perhaps by involving the United States, disturbing and destabilizing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back in June 1949, the Nationalists had declared a ?closure? of the Communist-controlled ports. After their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retreat to Taiwan, the Nationalists continued the civil war on the maritime front by searching and detaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicious foreign ships, the majority of which were British-owned or Hong Kong-registered. The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded the Nationalist harassment of China?s coast as ?illegitimate and unfriendly?, bringing economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconvenience to the British shipping and political tension to the region. \(On events during 1949-1952, see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(FO 371/75900?75917; FO 371/83424?83438; FO 371/99326?99329.\) Of course, the Chinese Communists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were as responsible for the maritime civil war as the Nationalists. In September 1954, Mao?s China began to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombard the Nationalist-held offshore islands, thus triggering off the First Taiwan Strait Crisis which lasted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for some eight months. The crisis was another major challenge to the Anglo-American ?special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship?, with Prime Minister Winston Churchill \(and later Anthony Eden\) disagreeing sharply with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(President Dwight Eisenhower over the defence of the off-shore islands, if not of Taiwan. A total of 49 files )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate Britain?s role in the 1954?5 crisis, from its support for the New Zealand-sponsored ceasefire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resolution in the United Nations to its discussion and debate with the US administration over the protection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the offshore islands. \(FO 371/110231?110243; FO 371/115023?115055; FO 371/115075?115077\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China?s attempts to repudiate the legacies of Western imperialism were not extended to the British Colony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Hong Kong, however. Although the collection is sourced mainly from the Foreign Office files, it also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains many documents relating to the Colonial Office and Hong Kong, especially those which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for British foreign policy and Anglo-Chinese relations. The documents are revealing of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War and Anglo-Chinese relations were played out in Hong Kong. Some of the topics include: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of Hong Kong in light of the Communist victory in 1949 \(FO 371/75871?75879\); British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberations of export controls against China via Hong Kong during the Korean War \(FO )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(371/92272?92287\); Beijing?s criticisms of the size and activities of the American Consulate General in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hong Kong \(FO 371/83557 and FO 371/92385\); and the Nationalist attempts to use Hong Kong as a base for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sabotage against China, for example the Kashmir Princess Incident of 1955 \(FO 371/115133?115146\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken together, these topics portray a picture of how British officials had to strike a delicate balance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between China and Taiwan/America in view of Hong Kong?s vulnerability. Notwithstanding that Beijing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not seek to destroy British influence in Hong Kong, as it did on the mainland and in the wider world, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British were acutely aware that Hong Kong existed in China?s shadow and thus should not be used as a base )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of subversion against the mainland in the Cold War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Office Files for China)] TJ ET BT 203.012 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, then, provides vivid and thorough documentation of the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of Chinese polity and society post-1949, of China?s role in Cold-War Asia, and of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precarious position in Hong Kong. It is a valuable source to our understanding of the making of Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China policy, especially from the vantage point of the British Mission in Beijing and the Foreign Office. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(The collection also features telegrams of other departments such as the Board of Trade, the Colonial Office, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Ministry of Defence as well as extracts of British Parliamentary debates.\) Besides, the files represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important primary sources for the study of modern China. The British diplomats in Beijing and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese cities were among the few Westerners who were allowed to stay after the communist takeover. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their direct access to Chinese officials \(however difficult and frustrating at times\) and first-hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations of the domestic scene mean that the Foreign Office documents can provide revealing insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the Chinese Communist mindset and policy, which otherwise could only be gauged from the open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources of Beijing?s propaganda machinery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In view of the British government?s thirty-year rule, the bulk of the Foreign Office documents on the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940s and the 1950s have been released to the public since the early 1980s. The digital publication of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long declassified materials thus provides nothing new to researchers. In the past two decades or so, a number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholars have made extensive use of the Foreign Office records \(available at the Public Record Office/The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Archives\) and published research monographs on Anglo-Chinese relations from 1945 to the 1950s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covering such topics as Britain?s recognition of Communist China, the evolution of Anglo-Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and commercial relations, British policy towards China in the wider Cold War context, Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations with Taiwan, and Hong Kong?s role in Anglo-Chinese and Anglo-American relations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.944 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.944 60.531 m 506.936 60.531 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.9437 60.8455 506.9357 72.7255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 5427 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, the number of archival-based, book-length publications on Anglo-Chinese diplomatic history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains surprisingly small as compared with that of other topics such as Sino-American relations. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more surprising is that historians and scholars of modern China, perhaps preoccupied with a ?China-centred? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach and ?history from below?, have largely ignored the British Foreign Office records in their research. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With the recent flourishing of the field of International History, which goes beyond state-to-state relations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include the interactions of peoples and cultures, the line between diplomatic/foreign history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic/national history has become increasingly blurred. The British diplomatic documents should be of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest to scholars who want to study modern China within a wider international context. They warrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater use by not only diplomatic but also political, economic, social and cultural historians of China.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, on the technological side of the Foreign Office files, the digital layout and design of the resource is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably clear and simple. Historians who are put off by the ever-changing computer technology will find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it easy to navigate. ?Searchability? is another valuable feature of this resource: the files can be searched by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keywords and the search terms are highlighted. And the files are downloadable, either in full or in part. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other aspects, however, the digital delivery of primary sources may not be as ?users-friendly? as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional publication of documents. In the case of printed documentary collections, editors are normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to provide lengthy footnotes to place the primary materials in context, identify the individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in the documents, and recommend related secondary sources to the readers. But this is not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case for the digital resource under review \(although the detailed chronology of events on the website may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help the readers somewhat\). Nevertheless, the greatest value of the )] TJ ET BT 357.260 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Office Files for China)] TJ ET BT 504.596 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessibility. Students and scholars of Anglo-Chinese relations and modern China can now consult the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British archives from afar and with ease.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Tuck-hong Tang, Britain?s Encounter with Revolutionary China, 1949?54 \(London, 1992\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zhong-ping Feng, The British Government?s China Policy, 1945?1950 \(Keele, 1994\); Wenguang )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shao, China, Britain and Businessmen: Political and Commercial Relations, 1949?1957 \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\); Aron Shai, The Fate of British and French Firms in China 1949?54 \(London, 1996\); David )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clayton, Imperialism Revisited: Political and Economic Relations between Britain and China, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950?1954 \(London, 1997\); Peter Lowe, Containing the Cold War in East Asia: British Policies )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards Japan, China and Korea, 1948?53 \(Manchester, 1997\); Steve Tsang, The Cold War?s Odd )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Couple: The Unintended Partnership between the Republic of China and the UK, 1950?1958 \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006\); Chi-kwan Mark, Hong Kong and the Cold War: Anglo-American Relations, 1949?1957 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 304.131 m 193.652 304.131 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 288.799 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 271.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 271.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/863)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 269.625 m 322.316 269.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 244.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4527)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.848 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.amdigital.co.uk/collections/FO-China)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 304.4455 193.6517 316.3255 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 269.9395 322.3157 281.8195 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/863) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000540 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004004 00000 n 0000004113 00000 n 0000004223 00000 n 0000004332 00000 n 0000007893 00000 n 0000008021 00000 n 0000008105 00000 n 0000008233 00000 n 0000008332 00000 n 0000008397 00000 n 0000015812 00000 n 0000015877 00000 n 0000023396 00000 n 0000023480 00000 n 0000031133 00000 n 0000031163 00000 n 0000031289 00000 n 0000031325 00000 n 0000031416 00000 n 0000036896 00000 n 0000037024 00000 n 0000037079 00000 n 0000037207 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37302 %%EOF