%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819080623+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819080623+01'00') /Title (Who was Henry VII? The 500th anniversary of the death of the first Tudor King \(1509-2009\)) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4246 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Who was Henry VII? The 500th anniversary of the death of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(first Tudor King \(1509-2009\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This issue contains 11 articles by leading scholars of the reign, together with the guest editor?s introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in addition to his two articles\), and an impressively extensive bibliography of primary and secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources including unpublished theses. Horowitz emphasises the importance of Henry VII in English history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sums up the theme of this special issue: that the king)] TJ ET BT 64.016 242.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would contribute to transforming the monarchy, the government and the realm into a solvent, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 227.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stable country to be reckoned with abroad and admired by its citizenry at home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 189.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This throws down a challenge to the handful of historians who have recently attempted to minimise Henry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact, depicting him as little more than a run-of-the-mill medieval monarch. Steven Gunn, author of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outstanding study of Henry VII in the )] TJ ET BT 217.664 161.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.668 161.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.668 159.777 m 434.660 159.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.660 161.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which newcomers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reign could read with profit, before plunging into these detailed articles\), discusses the king in the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of European history, particularly by comparison with the achievements of his great contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louis XI of France and Ferdinand of Aragon. Only a century after his death, both Francis Bacon and Walter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raleigh took Henry as a model of prudent kingship, and Bacon considered him at least the equal of Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ferdinand. Bacon also thought there were lessons still to be learned; his praise of Henry?s ?felicity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full coffers?\(p. 381\) tacitly rebuked the unhappily empty coffers of James I. Gunn surveys more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians such as J. R. Green in 1874, Wilhelm Busch in 1895, and A. F. Pollard in 1907, who saw Henry as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(865)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Horowitz)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(09503471)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pauline Croft)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.6677 160.0915 434.6597 171.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7293 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creator of a ?New Monarchy?, and with it the emergence of the modern nation-state. Stubbs agreed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this view of ?the critical, transitional age? from medieval to early modern, but disagreed over the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed on Henry himself. Instead he dismissively thought that things would have been much the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?whatever sort of king was on the throne of England? \(p. 384\). Elton by contrast was convinced that England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained substantially medieval until the 1530s, when Thomas Cromwell transformed the style of kingship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the administrative effectiveness of the regime of Henry VIII. Gunn notes that the European Science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foundation has produced seven volumes on the origins of the modern state from the 13th to the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, with 60 references to Louis XIV, but only two to Henry VII, whose achievement remains hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assimilate to European models. The English king remains stubbornly distinctive; comparisons with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental monarchs can teach us much, but at the same time they ?continue to strain our powers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation? \(p. 392\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other contributors provide a range of additional insights and viewpoints. For David Grummitt, the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1485 and 1509 were remarkable because they saw the formation of a new political culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transitioning from medieval to early modern modes of governance, Tudor rather than Plantagenet. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Henry?s machinery of rule owed much to his Yorkist predecessors, the nature and role of the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household were crucially re-defined, not least because it became a centre of political intrigue. Its leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers frequently fell foul of Henry himself, revealing deep-rooted tensions within the inner circle: in short, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the household was ?dysfunctional? \(p. 401\). Grummitt also points to an influential essay by Paul Strohm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which argues that late 15th-century England experienced its own ?pre-Machiavellian moment? \(p. 394\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the rules governing political behaviour changed fundamentally. Intense loyalty to the person of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king took precedence over more abstract notions of Crown and commonwealth, and overrode other ties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service and loyalty. Grummitt cites a notable range of literary responses to this new political morality, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Skelton and Stephen Hawes among others, which together provide evidence of the emergence of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed if still small-scale body of public opinion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Horowitz contributes a detailed discussion showing how bonds concerning the law and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintenance affected all stations in life, with ordinary Englishmen and women constantly entering into legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obligations. The king?s notorious bonds and recognisances followed this existing national pattern, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps seemed less striking to his contemporaries than they have appeared subsequently to historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, ?diligence was the key? \(p. 439\). Henry?s bond policy ?literally ?bound? a large number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English men and women of high and low birth to the centre through the administration of law, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement of peace, and the collection of revenue and debts due on financial arrangements, offices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities? \(pp. 452?3\). He deliberately extended the longstanding practices of the duchy of Lancaster, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which became the royal model, using bonds for revenue, for the maintenance of law and order, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjudication of debts owed to the Crown. The king even used bonds as a preventative measure if he sensed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion was in the offing, as in 1501. Although Empson and Dudley were his most active agents, Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally directed the intensification of bond administration, consolidation and prosecution, using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chancery as the central processing point. Here we have an illuminating, contextualised description of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive aspect of Henrician kingship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean Cunningham continues the emphasis on bonds by showing how quickly Henry adopted them as tools of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enforcement after his accession in 1485, to confront the remaining opposition to his victory at Bosworth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thereafter he extended the policy, ?effectively attempting to make the financial and political price of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion greater than any member of the ruling elite could afford? \(p. 473\). The bonds worked, because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent families were willing to pay a heavy price to maintain their status and influence. Cunningham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alerts us to the problems created by the archival re-arrangements of the 19th century which have disguised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the coherence of the records of council business. Nevertheless, he concludes that the elevation of bonds as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key component of Henry?s style of governance after 1500, which has been noted by earlier historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign, was only possible because, from the outset in 1485, bonds had played a primary role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(containment of conspiracy and rebellion. From the beginning, ?expert management of a system of suspended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penalties? \(p. 480\) was central to the security of the new Tudor dynasty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Cavill expands the discussion, away from bonds, by pointing to the enforcement of penal statutes as a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7381 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant feature of the 1490s. This was an increasingly controversial dimension of Henry?s kingship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the core of his growing reputation for avarice; but Cavill argues that it was not, as often depicted, a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development after 1500. The parliament of October 1495 passed 27 statutes, more than any other parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the reign, and a general pardon of past offences balanced the strict enforcement of future legislation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Cavill agrees with Horowitz and Cunningham in suggesting a more nuanced picture than the usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straightforward one of increasing royal greed. Instead, ?the later years of Henry?s reign witnessed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickening in the tempo of enforcement rather than a new development? \(p. 488\). In general, he balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of penal statutes for profit with their enforcement for the good of the commonweal. To Henry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects this would probably have seemed a rather generous assessment of the situation, but here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments are clearly made.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An essay by Margaret McGlynn suggests that Henry?s administration was one ?in which the habits, outlooks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and assumptions of both monarchy and bureaucracy were blended? \(p. 547\). She scrutinises two documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced by Chamber auditors soon after 1509, concerning the practices of Sir Robert Southwell, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominent financial manager for both Henry VII and Henry VIII. The texts reveal massive continuities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personnel within the offices and institutions that men like Southwell were charged with operating for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new Tudor monarchy. She thereby supports the argument put forward elsewhere by John Watts, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the substantial number of Yorkist officials still employed after 1485. However, McGlynn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balances the ?continuity? argument by emphasising that Henry?s accession brought dynamic political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change, even though it was often juxtaposed with institutional conservatism. On the death of Henry VII, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England was far more intensively governed than in 1485, but once again, the demands of the common law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the traditional processes of financial administration continued to shape the ongoing processes of change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and adaptation. Although Henry VIII made much of his new stance of distancing himself from his father?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more exploitative practices, this was ?more theatrical than practical?: Southwell and many other Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucrats remained in their offices since the new king was shrewd enough not to jettison a very effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial structure. As McGlynn caustically notes, ?Henry VIII needed all the money that his father?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machinery could give him, and more? \(pp. 556?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Lee contributes an innovative study of York, Bristol and Exeter, where the focus elsewhere in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume on central government gives way to a broader assessment of the importance of Henry VII?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement with urban policy and urban political culture. He was sensitive to the ambitions of urban elites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and particularly concerned with the appointment of urban officials. York had supported Richard III, so the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater part of the city?s leading residents thought it prudent to go out of their way to welcome the new king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1486, meeting him a full five miles outside the city walls. Also in 1486, Bristol carefully staged an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive formal entry followed by no fewer than five pageants. The most distinctive feature of Henry?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rule was that he consistently endorsed and promoted a form of oligarchic government, presumably in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests of greater stability. He appears also to have been conscious of York?s strategically important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position near the Scottish border . By the end of the reign, York?s officials were entirely self-selected since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king had removed the commonalty?s right to nominate two candidates for the mayoralty. Similarly, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the royal charter of 1499, Bristol was granted a considerable level of political and judicial devolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidating power in the hands of a small elite, mostly of merchants. This was probably a reciprocal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the Crown?s use of the city?s substantial merchant marine during the crises occasioned by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perkin Warbeck?s challenge to Henry?s throne. Exeter?s charter of July 1509, granted by Henry VIII, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly seems to reflect an earlier royal preference for oligarchy shown by Henry VII.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All these examples support the views of Robert Tittler, whose work on early modern urban history has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so influential. He saw urban governance in the 16th century as steadily narrowing, to express only the views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a minority which came to exercise hegemony over the rest. Such a policy on the part of the Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy began with Henry VII, but it seems to have attracted significant opposition only in London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although that may in part be due to the exceptional richness of the capital?s archives compared to those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial towns. Penny Tucker shows how the tendency of Henry VII and his ministers to exercise arbitrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority, undermined the more balanced urban polity ? ?a form of aristocracy ... moderated by what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries called democracy? \(p. 515\), which medieval Londoners had earlier enjoyed. On the king?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7568 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death this generated a forceful reaction, at the highest city levels, which can be seen in the strongly critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of Thomas More and others. However, her title, ?Henry VII?s style of kingship and the emergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of constitutional monarchy? begs a number of questions. She concludes that the hostile ?London? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentaries on Henry?s kingship clearly draw on a more general literature on the subject of tyranny, ?and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so gave fuel to the wider debate about bridling kings?. It may well have been so, but such a key development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would need much fuller description than it is given here, where only a handful of authors such as Fortescue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and St German are mentioned. Does that ?wider debate? include parliamentary debate, and if so, at what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period? The discussion of events in the capital city is scholarly and convincing, but the broader argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a linkage with ?the emergence of constitutional monarchy? \(p. 525\) would need greater substantiation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not least by making clear what definition of ?constitutional monarchy? is being used, and when exactly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author thinks that it emerged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Currin?s meticulous explorations of Henry VII?s diplomacy have already re-written the older accounts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by revealing the complexities of the king?s foreign policy, always intent on securing his newly-established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynasty against challengers. Here he breaks fresh ground in his discussion of England?s reaction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion of Italy by Charles VIII in 1494, which unleashed a half-century of hostilities between France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Habsburgs. Currin convincingly argues that Henry was far more European-minded than most Tudor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have allowed, not least because of his upbringing spent away from his native land. Moreover, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15th century saw growing cultural, economic and political contacts between England and the Italian states, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much so that by 1500, Italian merchants, physicians, scholars, artisans and musicians comprised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second-largest alien community in England. The king personally invested large sums of money in the wool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade to Pisa. By joining the Holy League of Venice in 1496, Henry demonstrated his perceptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of Italian affairs, which were certainly of concern to many English merchants. However, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central aim in that year was to conduct a punitive war against James IV of Scotland, who had supported the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretender Perkin Warbeck. In response, Henry worked successfully to re-create the Holy League, founded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1495, as a purely political alliance, dropping all military obligations but signalling England?s refusal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support further French incursions into Naples. Here, the significance of dynastic marriages as a crucial tool )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of diplomacy emerges very clearly. Ferdinand and Isabella wanted to marry their daughter Juana to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archduke Philip, and their youngest daughter Catalina \(Catherine\) to Henry?s heir, Prince Arthur. They had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no intention of concluding a marriage alliance with Scotland, despite the embassy sent to them for that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose by James IV. Meanwhile Charles VIII proposed a counter-alliance whereby the Dauphin would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry Princess Margaret Tudor and Prince Arthur would wed the daughter of the Duc de Bourbon. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative possibilities remind us of the range of foreign policy possibilities open to Henry, and the wisdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his choices. Currin sees the king as successfully inaugurating the ?politics of balance? \(p. 546\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy pursued by the Tudors and their successors well into the 18th century, to keep any one European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power from dominating the entire continent, while keeping England out of wars that were of little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance for her own security.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last essay, again by Horowitz, entitled ?Henry Tudor?s treasure? sets out to examine the evidence for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the views almost unanimously put forward by contemporaries, and accepted by many later historians, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king amassed an immense fortune. To well-placed observers, it seemed that Henry deliberately limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his spending and ensured, as the Spanish ambassador remarked in 1499, that ?if gold coin once enters his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong boxes, it never comes out again? \(p. 560\). However, the financial documentation is both inadequate ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly with the loss of the Chamber books for 1495?1502 ? and very complex. Here, in line with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphases in other articles in this collection, the focus is on Henry?s bond policy of prosecuting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting upon written obligations and recognisances for all aspects of finance, law and order. After a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed discussion of various sources of income, Horowitz concludes that all the evidence indicates that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VII did indeed amass a ?prodigious? \(p. 577\) fortune which he left to his son, who largely wasted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money, waging war on France immediately after his accession, while enjoying a lavish lifestyle. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reckless expenditure of Henry VIII in his early years certainly supports the rather oblique arguments for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(father?s bequest to him of very large sums of money. This retrospective evidence poses a provocative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. If we accept Horowitz?s argument that Henry VII had indeed succeeded in becoming a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustaining and unencumbered ruler, as advocated by Sir John Fortescue, he could have set England on the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 5137 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(road to absolutist government. Perhaps that is what the old king wanted to do. By contrast, his heir was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focussed on maintaining royal solvency and financial independence, but rather on cutting a grand figure on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European stage. Even when Henry VIII had a second chance of achieving self-sufficiency, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissolution of the monasteries, he did not take it, instead alienating most of the lands he acquired. Horowitz )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues for the long-term significance of all this; Henry VIII had ?squandered a rare opportunity for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English monarchy to become independent of parliamentary financial support? \(p. 562\). That was to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immense consequences in the 17th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contributors to this special edition of )] TJ ET BT 235.004 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research)] TJ ET BT 331.328 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the guest editor, must be congratulated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing such a wide-ranging, stimulating and scholarly volume in commemoration of the death of Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VII. Yet they are very tentative in drawing what seem to be the broader conclusions of their cumulative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researches. Surely here was a king who never felt that he could rely on the loyalty of his subjects. His closed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introverted personality saw the security of his line as dependent on massive financial and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforcement, employing often dubious methods, and not on cultivating the support of the English people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead he appears to have preferred an atmosphere of tension and even fear. There is no discussion here of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasingly precarious succession, with the death of his third son Edmund in 1500, that of his heir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince Arthur in 1502, and of his wife Elizabeth of York in 1503. If the king had died soon after, his heir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince Henry would have been a child of twelve. Would a minority have stress-tested the new dynasty to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction? In posing the tantalising question ?Who was Henry VII?? as their title, the editor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors might have attempted more evaluation of the man himself. Nevertheless they deserve warm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thanks for what they have achieved: updating and expanding our understanding of the policies of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor monarch, showcasing recent unpublished research, and making it far more widely available to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general historical readership. Professor Miles Taylor, Director of the IHR and Editor of the journal, must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise be thanked for imaginatively commissioning these essays to form a single-theme issue. Let us hope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for similar volumes in the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 421.683 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 264.020 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 276.788 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/12954)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 276.788 389.667 m 501.440 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.440 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 518.432 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([accessed 12 October 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.636 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.636 375.411 m 254.624 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 350.549 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 331.567 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 313.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 313.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/865)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 312.393 m 322.316 312.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 287.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4540)] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/12954)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.216 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 276.7877 389.9815 501.4397 401.8615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/12954) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.6357 375.7255 254.6237 387.6055 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 312.7075 322.3157 324.5875 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/865) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000601 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000004988 00000 n 0000005097 00000 n 0000005207 00000 n 0000005316 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000009005 00000 n 0000009089 00000 n 0000009118 00000 n 0000009246 00000 n 0000009282 00000 n 0000009347 00000 n 0000016693 00000 n 0000016758 00000 n 0000024192 00000 n 0000024257 00000 n 0000031878 00000 n 0000031976 00000 n 0000037166 00000 n 0000037294 00000 n 0000037389 00000 n 0000037517 00000 n 0000037572 00000 n 0000037700 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37795 %%EOF