%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 47 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930133322+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930133322+01'00') /Title (The Making of British Unionism, 1740-1848: Politics, Government and the Anglo-Irish Constitutional Relationship) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4848 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Making of British Unionism, 1740-1848: Politics, Government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and the Anglo-Irish Constitutional Relationship)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Irish nationalism in its various phases has been the subject of numerous studies, its 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antithesis ? British unionism ? has been comparatively neglected. For historians writing from an Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, the phenomenon of British unionism has tended to be taken as a given ? a force which, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced, became \(effectively\) monolithic ? at least until the Liberal party?s reappraisal under Gladstone. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As such, it could be assumed, it hardly required much in the way of elucidation. Viewed from the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, the position is patchy. While there have been studies of Ireland?s place in the British empire )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 540.260 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 540.260 193.521 m 554.252 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 554.252 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of the empire have so far not produced any sustained examination of the evolution of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionism. )] TJ ET BT 84.692 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish )] TJ ET BT 110.360 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionism \(more particularly, Ulster unionism\) has received a good deal of attention, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley?s path-breaking study of the development of a sense of British identity in the 18th and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th centuries explicitly omitted Ireland from any but occasional mention.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.644 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.644 136.497 m 404.636 136.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.636 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Of course, biographical works, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including John Ehrman on the Younger Pitt, and the late Peter Jupp on Grenville, have helped illuminate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies of some key statesmen. Studies of particular decades ? the 1780s, 1840s ? as well as detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to the passing of the Irish Act of Union )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.996 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.996 93.729 m 283.988 93.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.988 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have shed light on British policies in those periods, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such studies cannot in themselves serve as substitutes for a dedicated study of the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas Kanter?s book, which sets out to examine, from a British perspective, the origins and evolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(869)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 28 February, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Douglas Kanter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846821608)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(357pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Hill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 540.2597 193.8355 554.2517 205.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.6437 136.8115 404.6357 148.6915 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.9957 94.0435 283.9877 105.9235 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7614 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist views from the mid 18th until the mid 19th centuries, thus fills a significant gap. While he builds on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and occasionally offers a courteous corrective to ? such studies as are noted above \(and others\) he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted a wide range of primary sources, including papers of leading statesmen, parliamentary journals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and debates, newspapers and periodicals. Focusing chiefly on high politics, but also taking cognisance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public opinion, Kanter sets out to trace the evolution of British thinking about union with Ireland from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1740s to the 1840s. He sees the genesis of British unionism in the 1740s, when the idea of ?imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federation? was finding support among a section of political thinkers and colonial administrators, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of the Anglo-French wars that were posing commercial and military challenges to Britain and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. Among those who held such views were the ?scientific Whigs?, several of them Scots, who also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to defend the Anglo-Scottish union against Jacobite attacks. At that time, it was assumed, ?imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federation? would have included the American colonies. During the Seven Years War \(1756?63\) such ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took on particular cogency. Even after that war had ended in victory for Britain, some continued to argue for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer imperial union for commercial, security, and fiscal reasons. In respect of Ireland, closer union would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer the additional prospect of enhanced control over a country whose Protestant elite \(in the eyes of some\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had failed to respond adequately to the problems stemming from confessional divisions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the author argues that supporters of the idea of imperial federation always remained in a minority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Lord North contemplated Anglo-Irish and Anglo-American federal union in 1776, he was preoccupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the crisis posed by American events. As for Ireland, concessions on free trade in 1779?80 made closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union harder, rather than easier, to obtain. In the early 1780s some of the Rockingham Whigs, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles James Fox, indicated a preference for federal union, but the strength of Protestant ?Patriot? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiments in this period meant that as far as Ireland was concerned this option was quickly overtaken by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different strategy, albeit one born out of government weakness. The granting of legislative independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Grattan?s parliament?\) ushered in a decade during which the Patriot pride of the Protestant elite remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lively. Such sentiments proved inimical to the trading arrangements that Pitt was subsequently anxious for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish parliament to agree to, and which would have restored British supremacy in commercial matters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus offering some of the advantages of a federal union. Had Pitt?s commercial propositions of 1784 proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable to the Irish parliament, there would have been less need later on to consider the possibility of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative union.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By rendering the Irish parliament more difficult to manage, the legislative independence granted in 1782?3 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmed some British politicians, such as Henry Dundas, in their convictions of the need for a union, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially during the Regency crisis of 1788?9. But Kanter argues that ministers were mainly preoccupied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with how that crisis would play out in domestic terms, and showed little interest in the Irish dimension. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the Foxite Whigs, preoccupied with winning power at Westminster, were prepared to encourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish parliament to reject the government?s Regency bill, a strategy which could have precipitated an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Irish constitutional crisis. Bearing in mind \(although the point is not made here\) that Anglo-Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union had been adopted by British statesmen in large part to prevent the English and Scottish parliaments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverging over the issue of the royal succession, such tactics demonstrated that there was still no emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus among British politicians on the future of Anglo-Irish relations. All this reinforces the main thrust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kanter?s argument for the period before the 1790s: that the idea of union ? whether federal or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporating ? was never more than one among various strategies for ensuring Ireland?s continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependence on Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even after the outbreak of the French Revolution, British statesmen took time to look favourably on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist strategy. The first priority, once a republican alliance between Irish Catholics and Dissenters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed possible, was to consider additional Catholic relief. When the limited reforms granted in 1792 failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to satisfy Catholics, Pitt began to think about more extensive concessions, coupled with union. Such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy became even more attractive once war with France had begun in 1793, because of the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accession of manpower that Catholics could offer once legally permitted to bear arms. The importance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British statesmen of the Catholic question in the context of war has been highlighted by other scholars )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.636 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.636 89.043 m 541.628 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 541.628 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Kanter endorses this view. However, he notes that, rather than pressing for a union, in 1793 Pitt settled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for an extensive Irish Catholic relief act, which \(among other things\) permitted Catholics to bear arms. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.6357 89.3575 541.6277 101.2375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7467 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, many Whigs, both Irish and British, continued to support the independence of the Irish parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus it was not until the Irish rebellion of 1798 that a unionist strategy came firmly on to the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda, by which time leading ministers were under severe strain from dealing with the European war. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pitt?s instructions, a discussion document on union was prepared by members of the Irish executive within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(month of the outbreak of rebellion. The Irish parliament now seemed a liability rather than an asset, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kanter emphasises that from this time onwards, it was an incorporating, rather than a federal union, that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under discussion. Several other Cabinet members endorsed the principle of union, but differences emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over whether it should be accompanied by a further measure of Catholic relief: the king was particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostile. The principle of union itself remained unpopular with many of the Foxite Whigs, no fewer than forty-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four of whom voted against the union at some stage in 1799?1800. However, the fact that the Prince of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales indicated his support for union weakened their stance, as did the wavering of certain Anglo-Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig peers, and the measure passed the British parliament with quite comfortable majorities. Drawing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent studies of loyalism, Kanter is able to show that there was a broadly favourable public response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union, with a general ? though far from universal ? willingness to follow the government?s lead. At this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, this reviewer would have welcomed more comment on British manufacturing interests? response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union ? there is mention of opposition in such quarters to union in 1800, but thereafter it drops out of sight. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did manufacturers eventually conclude that Ireland was not, after all, likely to pose much of a challenge? Or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did wartime loyalism simply outweigh any anxieties?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A fresh perspective is afforded in a section dealing with the role of ideas in the passing of the union. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government side, unionism drew on Utilitarian arguments, pioneered decades earlier by the ?scientific? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Court Whigs, for whom closer union was the strategy most likely to result in the happiness of the people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction of British capital would stimulate the Irish economy, which in turn would have social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benefits, promoting ?the infusion of English manners?, to quote Pitt \(p. 103\), and helping to eliminate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal tensions that had become so marked during the 1790s. Security, too, would be enhanced. The Foxite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whigs, by contrast, used arguments informed by older ?Country? ideas, and rejected the prospect of greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation inherent in the proposal for an incorporating union. However, the opposition was just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed to British control of Ireland as the government, since \(under the wartime circumstances\) the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realistic alternative to union seemed to be French control.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is because the author has given consideration to these matters that this reviewer wishes that he had found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room for greater comparison between the circumstances that prevailed at the time of both the Scottish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish unions ? such as the common wartime conditions, the French threat to England via the back door, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the difficulties faced by ministers in London in managing the neighbouring parliament. Some indication is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, given of how the Scottish precedent was used during debate by both sides in the British parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there are other references to the earlier union, but a more considered discussion of the parallels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences would have been welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At all events, when it came into force in 1801, the union was far from universally popular with the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. The more radical section of the public, moreover, remained sceptical. The immediate problem for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government ? that pledges had been made to accompany union with full ?Catholic emancipation? ? proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intractable, given the king?s disposition. Administrative reform in Ireland, too, was hampered by the ?union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagements? entered into so as to extend support among Protestants for union. For some years, the Foxite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders remained critical of the measure, insisting that it had been carried by corrupt means. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they soon faced inducements to relax their opposition. Government weakness after the resignation of Pitt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted an alliance between Foxites and Grenvillites \(based on mutual support for Catholic emancipation\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but since Grenville had been one of the main architects of union, the need to work together in the event of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking office suggested that Fox should tone down his opposition to it. But as late as February 1806, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eve of the formation of the ?talents? ministry, Fox was still prepared, in parliament, to call the union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?disgraceful? ? though a fortnight later he would explain that he had meant the means which the union had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been carried, rather than the measure itself, and that he did not feel bound to repeal it. Within weeks, the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government had pledged not merely to seek to consolidate the union, but also to honour the union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagements. From then on, the Foxites? rhetoric on the union conformed to that of Grenville and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 5634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittites. When an attempt was made by an Irish M.P. in 1812 to have repeal of the union debated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(House of Commons, it received no support, and no debate took place. This leads Kanter to conclude that by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this time ?British anti-Unionism was, in elite circles, effectively extinct? \(p. 137\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was, however, still the question of how Ireland was to be governed. The Catholic question proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly divisive, with Tories \(despite seeing themselves as the heirs of Pitt\) rejecting emancipation. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even preferred repeal to emancipation ? though that view was very much a minority backbench one. Slowly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some leading Tories adopted a more positive view, and emancipation was finally granted in 1829. Much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial in Britain were the fiscal and commercial reforms of 1817?27, which amalgamated the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchequers, and moved towards an Anglo-Irish free trade zone. Although matters were seen differently in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Connellite Ireland, the British view was that taking on responsibility for the considerable Irish national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt was an act of generosity. The author points out that willingness to shoulder this burden reflected the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength of British commitment to union in the post-war period. British support for repeal had evaporated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(save in some anti-establishment radical circles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accordingly, when Daniel O?Connell began his Repeal campaign, the first phase lasting from 1830 to 1834, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it attracted virtually no support from the British elite. Since it coincided with the outbreak of the tithe war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repealers came to be regarded in Britain as an ignorant rabble, heedless of the real benefits of union. Whigs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved willing to use coercive measures in an attempt to repress Repeal, although certain concessions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics were made, including limited reform of the Church of Ireland. Efforts began to encourage the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of a government party in Ireland, including Catholics. But coercion proved unpopular with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading Whigs, leading to Cabinet splits and the fall of the government in 1834. The government?s fall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kanter argues, reflected the fact that while O?Connell may have regarded Repeal as a tactical weapon, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British political circles ? where the union was now generally seen as vital to the United Kingdom?s security )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prosperity ? any threat had to be taken very seriously. Hence the use of repressive measures, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these were never consistently applied, and never without some attempts at ?conciliation?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent Whig government \(in alliance with the O?Connellites from 1835?41\) broke new ground. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although still willing to use coercion when necessary, there was also an explicit recognition \(articulated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord John Russell\) of the need for ?justice for Ireland? \(p. 215\): in other words, unionism was acquiring a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral dimension. This, Kanter notes, marked a switch away from the more pragmatic policies of previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whig governments, and the beginnings of a principled commitment to reforms in the interests of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of the population. The implication was that, if justice were not done, Repeal would be vindicated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Conservatives \(not being dependent on Irish support\) took somewhat longer to reach that point. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Peel took office in 1841, he and his leading ministers agreed on the need for equal treatment for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Meanwhile, in the early 1840s O?Connell revived the Repeal movement. The political elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained hostile, although in 1843 the Whigs were critical of a government arms bill, and there was some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy for Repeal in areas with high levels of Irish immigration. But the sympathisers were few ? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general, the British public was far more interested in parliamentary reform. As Irish support for Repeal grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more formidable, Peel announced a policy of ?justice and impartiality? \(p. 263\). However, the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence in Ireland was significantly increased.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8699 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Underlying both parties? strategies was the idea that a large body of moderate Catholics could be won over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by judicious concessions. But even the Whigs accepted that coercion might be necessary on occasions. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unwilling to move much beyond their 1830s? agenda, and approved of the government decision in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1843 to have some leading Repealers, including O?Connell, arrested, for seditious language. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government indicated that it was committed to maintaining the union and the established Church of Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but that other matters were up for discussion. The only support for the O?Connellites came from a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radicals. Against this background, O?Connell?s brief flirtation with federalism in 1844 is portrayed as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final attempt to induce one of the main British parties to repeal or amend the union. Instead, Peel responded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with what Kanter calls the most thorough attempt at constructive unionism between the union and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famine, including the raising of the grant to Maynooth, the Charitable Bequests Act, and the establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Queen?s Colleges.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, at the 1846 general election O?Connell committed his ?Old Ireland? party to support of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whigs. This renewed Whig alliance turned out to be short-lived, however ? the Whigs were unwilling to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(build significantly on Peel?s reforms, and the inadequacy of the new government?s famine-relief measures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined what good will existed among Irish nationalists. New coercive measures saw the O?Connellites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(since O?Connell?s death under leadership of John O?Connell\) move into opposition. When John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Connell?s repeal debate took place in July 1848 it produced little but apathy even among Irish M.P.s. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Young Ireland rebellion broke out and was defeated some days later. Kanter ends by noting that despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale and extent of Repeal agitation in Ireland, the British political class had remained remarkably united in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its commitment to the union. Given the Famine conditions in Ireland, and the ineffectiveness of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response, it was hard to escape the conclusion that the union was fundamentally designed to serve British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, regardless of the situation in Ireland. Union would be supported under any circumstances, and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repression if conciliation seemed unavailing. As for the British public, although there was some limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for Repeal in Catholic quarters, and among some Radicals and Chartists, it didn?t survive the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clampdown on Irish agitation that had been so decisive by the summer of 1848.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By concluding his study at this point, it is difficult for the author not to end gloomily ? British unionism had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never been so strong, yet never had it seemed so inadequate to Irish needs, nor union promises so hollow. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Had he continued into the 1850s and 1860s, it would have been possible to finish on a more positive note; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for it was arguably then that Ireland began to reap some real administrative, social and economic rewards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the union.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.344 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.344 345.651 m 122.336 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.336 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But this would have required a much longer book. What we have is a well-written, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probing and thoughtful study, which sheds real light on the subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.891 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, e.g., F.G. James, )] TJ ET BT 170.336 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in the Empire, 1688?1770)] TJ ET BT 333.992 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1973\); Thomas Bartlett, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(??This famous island set in a Virginian sea?: Ireland in the British empire?, in )] TJ ET BT 441.632 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford History of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Empire)] TJ ET BT 135.020 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W.R. Louis \(5 vols., Oxford, 1998?9\), ii, 253?75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.996 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.996 237.363 m 449.984 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging the Nation 1707?1837)] TJ ET BT 325.028 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven and London, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 486.656 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 486.656 223.107 m 540.644 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Kelly, )] TJ ET BT 129.008 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prelude to Union: Anglo-Irish Politics in the 1780s)] TJ ET BT 376.004 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cork, 1992\); Kevin B. Nowlan, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Repeal: A Study in the Relations Between Great Britain and Ireland, 1841?50)] TJ ET BT 511.664 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Toronto, 1965\); G.C. Bolton, )] TJ ET BT 227.684 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Passing of the Irish Act of Union)] TJ ET BT 406.688 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1966\), and more )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently Patrick M. Geoghegan, )] TJ ET BT 219.980 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Act of Union: A Study in High Politics, 1798?1801)] TJ ET BT 510.980 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 151.827 m 149.000 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. K. Donovan, ?The military origins of the Catholic relief programme of 1778?, )] TJ ET BT 456.296 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 545.300 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28 \(1985\), 79?102; Thomas Bartlett, ??A weapon of war as yet untried?: Irish Catholics and the armed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces of the crown, 1760?1830?, in )] TJ ET BT 239.972 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Men, Women and War)] TJ ET BT 347.948 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. T.G. Fraser & Keith Jeffery \(Dublin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\), 66?85.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.340 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.340 94.803 m 184.328 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. V. Comerford, ?Ireland 1850?70: post-Famine and mid-Victorian?, in )] TJ ET BT 416.300 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A New History of Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Volume 5: Ireland under the Union I: 1801?70)] TJ ET BT 289.652 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. E. Vaughan \(Oxford, 1989\), 372?95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.936 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.936 66.291 m 560.924 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 41.429 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj [32 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.3437 345.9655 122.3357 357.8455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.9957 237.6775 449.9837 249.5575 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 486.6557 223.4215 540.6437 235.3015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 152.1415 148.9997 164.0215 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.3397 95.1175 184.3277 106.9975 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 506.9357 66.6055 560.9237 78.4855 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 959 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/520/714.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 313.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/869)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4558)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/520/714.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 313.0037 793.0135 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/520/714.full) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/869) >> endobj xref 0 53 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000000731 00000 n 0000005631 00000 n 0000005740 00000 n 0000005850 00000 n 0000005959 00000 n 0000009520 00000 n 0000009648 00000 n 0000009732 00000 n 0000009761 00000 n 0000009889 00000 n 0000009925 00000 n 0000009954 00000 n 0000010082 00000 n 0000010118 00000 n 0000010147 00000 n 0000010274 00000 n 0000010310 00000 n 0000010394 00000 n 0000018061 00000 n 0000018091 00000 n 0000018218 00000 n 0000018254 00000 n 0000018319 00000 n 0000025839 00000 n 0000025904 00000 n 0000031591 00000 n 0000031710 00000 n 0000040462 00000 n 0000040492 00000 n 0000040620 00000 n 0000040656 00000 n 0000040784 00000 n 0000040839 00000 n 0000040967 00000 n 0000041022 00000 n 0000041149 00000 n 0000041204 00000 n 0000041331 00000 n 0000041386 00000 n 0000041512 00000 n 0000041567 00000 n 0000041658 00000 n 0000042669 00000 n 0000042796 00000 n 0000042904 00000 n 0000043032 00000 n trailer << /Size 53 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 43127 %%EOF