%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818091658+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818091658+01'00') /Title (Histories of City and State in the Persian Gulf. Manama since 1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4417 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Histories of City and State in the Persian Gulf. Manama since 1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one looks today at a satellite image of Manama )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.640 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.640 286.185 m 288.632 286.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.632 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the capital city of Bahrain, the picture of the extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban conurbation which covers both the north of the main island and the little island which faces it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Muharraq, the former capital of the emirate in the 19th century\) is rather different from the ?Islands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paradise? featured in the Sumerian Gilgamesh epic tradition or, more recently, from the 18th and 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries descriptions of lush vegetation, rich agricultural landscapes and abundance of springs, quoted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first chapters of Nelida Fuccaro?s recent and fascinating book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the global information age which frames most of our perceptions of the world, the small archipelago of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahrain, located in the Persian Gulf just north of its more famous neighbours of the United Arab Emirates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including Dubai\), is more likely to be associated with some of the massive wealth derived from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation of oil \(discovered in Bahrain in 1932\), which, especially since its independence from the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire \(1971\) and the first oil shock in the 1970s, has provided a steady income in spite of the fluctuations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the oil markets. Since the 1980s, oil revenues have fuelled a rapid urban growth and, from the 2000s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onward, a massive real-estate boom. This boom has given rise to urban landscapes of hypermodernity: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reshaping and extension of the original coastline through reclaimed land projects, or hubristic developments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as exemplified by Durrat al Bahrain, an immense residential project built in the south of the main island on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flower-like artificial islands. To a large extent, this model of development can be accrued to the massive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(872)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 28 February, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nelida Fuccaro)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521514354)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(276pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leila Vignal)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6397 286.4995 288.6317 298.3795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7608 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of migrant workers, which form 40 percent of a total population of three-quarters of a million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.684 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.684 780.819 m 103.676 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Bahrain is also associated with more complex and specific features. Since the 1980s, the emirate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has gained credit in the Middle East as a financial and banking place ? even through the current stormy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weather of global financial and economic crisis ? and as one of the birthplaces of Islamic banking, a formula )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which encounters increasing success throughout the Muslim world. If not a democracy ? the domination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Al Khalifah family remains unchallenged ? its relative political liberalism, which includes an elected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament, singles out Bahrain, especially when compared to the authoritarian rule which characterises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of its neighbours.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This set of economic and socio-political features has fuelled the idea of an ?exceptionalism? of Persian Gulf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies: economic exceptionalism \(oil rent\) combined with political exceptionalism \(authoritarian rule\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One could add geopolitical exceptionalism, due both to the city-state character of the small Gulf States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their location on the dividing lines between different political, cultural and sectarian competing spheres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Arab/Iranian, Sunni/Shi?i\). As Nelida Fuccaro explains, oil has played a major role in the construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this bias of ?exceptionalism?: it is as if Gulf societies had only risen from darkness and entered modernity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since its discovery in the 1930s. In this perspective, one of the most important contributions of her book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be precisely the convincing deconstruction she operates, through a detailed account of Manama?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social urban matrix over more than two centuries, of the ?exceptionalism paradigm? which often blurs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of the region ? in the media as well as in academia. She reminds us that the discovery of oil is neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a starting point for Bahrain?s history nor the unique key element to understand Bahrain?s contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society ? and by extension the Gulf region. Rather, in focusing on the making of the history of the place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the end of the 18th century, the author points out the rich legacy of the pre-oil period in contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and patiently weaves the threads of continuities from the past to the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the main threads of this history could be tied up in a series of themes at the heart of the making of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the urban social and material fabric. A first thread could be the rural/urban duality: from the 19th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the progressive take-over of the tribal system brought in Bahrain by the Al Khalifah shifts the previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social organisation from agricultural hamlets to urban settlements. This shift is accompanied by a sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recomposition: the tribal new comers are Sunni, to be contrasted with the Shi?i allegiance of rural Bahrain. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also linked to a social revamping, as the former rural religious Shi?i elites and Shi?i populations had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapt to the new urban order which unfolded progressively in the course of the 19th century. The sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clashes that took place at the beginning of the 1990s or, more recently, in February 2009 over the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationality rules, should therefore be replaced in this historical context ? although the long-term geopolitical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivalry between Arab and Iranian influence in this frontier area cannot be brushed away.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second thread is a history of local entrepreneurship. The different booms that sustained the urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of Bahrain are deeply rooted in the agency of a diverse society. In the 19th century, the pearl-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boom created a multi-layered organisation of divers, pearl merchants, and bankers. Then, the trade boom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created a class of merchants whose power was based on their domination of local and regional trade; this led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the development of a closely-knit network of trade emporia in the Gulf, among which Manama played an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly dominant role. From the end of the 19th century, the rapid rise of Manama, in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic growth and urban changes, progressively eclipsed al Muharraq, the administrative centre and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(siege of the Al Khalifah family. The municipality status granted to the city in 1919 confirmed its centrality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the economy and politics of the emirate. Although the British rule acted as a stabilizing element favouring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political domination of the ruling tribe, this shift in favour of Manama over al Muharraq reflects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity of the relationship between the ?merchants? and the ?rulers?, and exposes the numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stakeholders of the political life of the place. The rising fate of Manama paves the way to a better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the politics of the ?after-oil?, characterised by contestation of the ?old order? of sectarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions and patronage politics and by the rise of Arab nationalism. Arabism in this context can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood, suggests Fuccaro, as much as a reaction to the more formal inclusion into the British Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had taken place after the First World War )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.624 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.624 62.787 m 271.616 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.616 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a challenge to the Al Khalifah rule.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.6837 781.1335 103.6757 793.0135 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.6237 63.1015 271.6157 74.9815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7198 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political contestation stems out indeed from the very diverse social patterns that characterise Bahrain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society from the 19th century onwards. Social urban diversity could therefore constitute the third historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term narrative of the book. Manama history is shaped by the different groups that coexist, compete and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape the urban social order: the rulers, the merchants, the traders, the bankers and so on. It is also the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the less affluent and influent groups, the ?invisibles? that are also part of the urban fabric: the divers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slaves, the poor workers, living in the )] TJ ET BT 235.328 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(barasti)] TJ ET BT 269.336 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(shanty towns\), and the large communities of migrants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Gulf region \(Arabs and Iranians\) or further away \(Indian communities for instance\). The ?city of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners?, to take up Fuccaro?s phrase, is not an invention of the post-oil era. However, both the pluralistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local society and the migrants should not be analysed in terms of a paradigm of integration. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitanism of the place and the variety of its social groups do not tell a story of a mixed society, nor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a quiet one. The urban fabric has been shaped by strong spatial, social, legal, economical and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions between migrants and Bahraini, as well as within the different Bahraini social groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the patient weaving of these long-term threads which allows the reader to achieve a very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of modern Manama, to which the last chapters are dedicated. Indeed, in the post-oil era, a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political urban order is taking place, organising centralisation and formalising the Khalifah political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination in the form of the first ?modern? state of the Gulf region. However, this transformative process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be understood without reference to the historical negotiation and competition between the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stakeholders of the urban order. Since the Second World War, this negotiation and competition have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed much of the deep spatial, social and legal inequalities among urban residents and sometimes found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its expression through political unrest, ranging from Arabism and anti colonial contestation to recent Shi?i )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the Al Khalifah?s rule.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The detailed and convincing historical work developed by Nelida Fuccaro is based on a sound methodology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three elements might be highlighted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, Nelida Fuccaro chooses to give voice to a history of the )] TJ ET BT 341.648 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 404.636 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Her account of Manama and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahrain?s history goes back to the end of the 18th century: long after the departure of the Portuguese which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had established a fortification, and as the new spatial and political tribal order imported on the islands from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mainland is about to start.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This long term approach allows the author to make full use of a second remarkable choice, which is to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused her analysis on the transformations of the urban fabric and its institutions. As such, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformations are looked at as an indicator of relations between social groups, community institutions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state formation, without any teleological connotations. In this sense, the book more than lives up to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promises of its title. Firstly, many histories of Manama are indeed unfolded here rather than a univocal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, thus reflecting the richness of its different patterns and agents. Secondly, the study never loses its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the local social and urban history of Manama. In doing so, the author relates of course Manama?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history to regional or more global historical contexts, like the expansion of the British Empire in the Persian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gulf \(from India\). But she demonstrates convincingly that the development of Gulf cities cannot be only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read as the mere reflection of the world-system expansion, as has too often been suggested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, the third compelling element brought forward by Nelida Fuccaro is her use of sources. Indeed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcity of sources has probably prevented many historians from taking a closer look at the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies of the Persian Gulf. Looking into this history requires developing an impressive mix of imagination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and linguistic skills to assemble the primary documentation. The author?s search for information led her to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the most of many different documentary sources: official or private documents, registers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondences, archaeological findings, historical maps, images, or even folk traditions. In addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Empire sources, she has been digging extensively into public and private archives of Bahrain, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabic as well as in Persian. This work is in many ways a demonstration that a proper local history could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done, taking into account, but not relying only on, ?external factors? or sources for an explanation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of City and State in the Persian Gulf. Manama since 1800)] TJ ET BT 359.348 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is therefore an important historical work )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 4775 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many respects.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As mentioned, this work is a decisive stepping stone in a rising trend of re-evaluation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?exceptionalism? paradigm too often used when dealing with Gulf societies. This new trend is still nascent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but can be observed in other social sciences, such as migrations studies. Migration studies of the Gulf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries are quite developed, as the Gulf region is the third most important migration destination after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America and Europe. However, it is only recently that social scientists have started to shift away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an analysis of the ?exceptionalism? of migration patterns in the Gulf countries to replace them in the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical framework developed to observe migrations elsewhere in the world. One can see how Nelida )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fuccaro?s work will fit into this new understanding of Gulf societies in the social sciences and humanities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, this remarkable history of Manama sheds new light on the history of one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting city-states of the Gulf region and provides therefore a more profound and nuanced understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its recent path of development. As such, it is a very valuable addition to a poorly developed field ? history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and urban history of the Gulf region. It demonstrates that historical work can be carried out in this region. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should therefore inspire new generations of historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 521.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As can been seen on Google Earth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.304 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.304 520.227 m 286.292 520.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 507.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 2005 there were 727000 inhabitants of Bahrain, according to the UN sources. UN Population )] TJ ET BT 64.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Division <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.124 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://esa.un.org/unpp/>[accessed19)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.124 491.715 m 288.536 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.536 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 305.528 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( February 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.844 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.844 491.715 m 439.832 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 478.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 478.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The growing importance of Manama is testified by the choice made of the city as the new siege of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Political Residency after the independence of India.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.972 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.972 463.203 m 401.960 463.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I do not wish to respond but would like to pass on my sincerest thanks to the reviewer for such a detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful piece.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.829 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/116/3/909.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 367.923 m 281.012 367.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.012 369.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 364.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 346.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 346.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/872)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 345.417 m 322.316 345.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 320.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4572)] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://esa.un.org/unpp/>[accessed19)] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.240 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/116/3/909.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.3037 520.5415 286.2917 532.4215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.1237 492.0295 288.5357 503.9095 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://esa.un.org/unpp/>[accessed19) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.8437 492.0295 439.8317 503.9095 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.9717 463.5175 401.9597 475.3975 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 368.2375 281.0117 380.1175 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/116/3/909.full) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 345.7315 322.3157 357.6115 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/872) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005127 00000 n 0000005236 00000 n 0000005346 00000 n 0000005455 00000 n 0000009016 00000 n 0000009144 00000 n 0000009228 00000 n 0000009257 00000 n 0000009385 00000 n 0000009421 00000 n 0000009512 00000 n 0000017173 00000 n 0000017203 00000 n 0000017330 00000 n 0000017366 00000 n 0000017396 00000 n 0000017522 00000 n 0000017558 00000 n 0000017623 00000 n 0000024874 00000 n 0000024993 00000 n 0000029821 00000 n 0000029949 00000 n 0000030004 00000 n 0000030132 00000 n 0000030219 00000 n 0000030347 00000 n 0000030402 00000 n 0000030530 00000 n 0000030585 00000 n 0000030712 00000 n 0000030816 00000 n 0000030944 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31039 %%EOF