%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 30 0 R 50 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724001045+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724001045+01'00') /Title (Victorians and the Virgin Mary: Religion and Gender in England, 1830-85) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4808 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Victorians and the Virgin Mary: Religion and Gender in England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1830-85)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of late, the Virgin Mary has become somewhat fashionable in academic circles. This prominence reflects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her long-lasting cultural influence as an international historic and spiritual figure. Miri Rubin's recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnum opus )] TJ ET BT 104.684 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.004 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.004 236.289 m 338.996 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.996 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a much needed global examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the cultural significance of the Virgin Mary over the )] TJ ET BT 301.292 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue duree)] TJ ET BT 364.280 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. On a more localised level, Bridget )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heal's )] TJ ET BT 66.500 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.484 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.484 207.777 m 348.476 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 348.476 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the book under review here, Carol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Engelhardt Herringer's )] TJ ET BT 146.144 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorians and the Virgin Mary: Religion and Gender in England, 1830?85)] TJ ET BT 509.132 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a narrower focus and allows for the confessional and cultural understandings of denominational differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to shine through. Herringer, in this fine work, aims to develop a 'comprehensive and culturally situated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of Victorian representations of the Virgin Mary' \(p. 5\) which she argues tells us much about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herringer's incisive introduction sets out the parameters of her examination. Importantly, this is not a book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about devotional culture or religious theology, but one that analyses the sometimes rancorous discourses on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Virgin Mary written by typically male, clerical, English authors who, according to Herringer, reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the influential majority of those who published disputations)] TJ ET BT 323.348 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Virgin Mary between 1830 and 1885. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This periodicity is crucial to her argument as)] TJ ET BT 251.984 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during this 55-year period, Protestant concerns about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(873)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 28 February, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carol Engelhardt Herringer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719077531)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(221pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carmen Mangion)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.0037 236.6035 338.9957 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.4837 208.0915 348.4757 219.9715 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5509 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin Mary were heightened not by the immigration of Irish Catholics \(they figure minimally in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history\) but by those members of the educated elite that converted to Catholicism or were influential Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics. Herringer claims that prior to 1830 there were few controversies within and between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denominations regarding the Virgin Mary and after 1885, confrontational discourses declined significantly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herringer opts for a dual approach, considering the discourses regarding Mary from two confessional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities, one broadly Catholic and the other broadly Protestant. Under the Catholic umbrella, she groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman Catholics with 'advanced Anglicans'. These were typically members of the Church of England's high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church Anglo-Catholic movement, particularly Tractarians and ritualists, who supported the further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicisation of the Established Church and had theological and liturgical beliefs roughly similar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics. Doctrinally, Herringer argues, these Anglicans had in contemporary terms 'advanced in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious beliefs beyond that which the)] TJ ET BT 223.328 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church of England officially sanctioned' \(p. 14\). The Protestant side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the equation includes most Anglicans as well as dissenters such as Baptists, Methodists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congregationalists and Presbyterians. Aware these categorisations could lead to generalisations, she does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuance the sometimes divergent discourses in subsequent chapters so as to eschew over-generalisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite chapters titled ' The Catholic Virgin Mary' and 'The Protestant Virgin Mary', representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary of Nazareth, Herringer makes clear, were not uniform and this is evident especially in her final chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the formation of Victorian masculinities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic and advanced Anglicans saw the Virgin Mary as a model mother of Christ, loving and supportive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also integral to his ministry. She was, Herringer argues, a 'powerful woman with an extensive sphere of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action'. \(p. 64\) Her independence was visible from the beginning, when at the Annunciation she deliberated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before she agreed to bear the Christ child. This Catholic Virgin Mary was more than simply a loving mother, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she actively participated in her son's ministry becoming a model disciple. Pope Pius IX?s 1854 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promulgation, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ineffabilis Deus)] TJ ET BT 181.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, attested to the Immaculate Conception of Mary, thus she was declared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived without the stain of original sin. This was already a commonly held Catholic belief, based more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on church tradition than on scripture, and promoted the Virgin Mary to a higher plane of devotion by giving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her a singular grace and privilege. Many advanced Anglicans, while in accord with many Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of the Virgin Mary found this decree problematic. They along with most Protestants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protested that this dogma was not scripturally based, appeared to raise Mary to a status alarmingly close to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of Christ and diverted attention from the Trinity. Overall, this Catholic Virgin Mary was much too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanding and influential for Protestants. Their Virgin Mary, Herringer notes, though ?blessed?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioned primarily as a child-bearer. The Protestant Mary was a wife and a mother of several children and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to some Protestant detractors, wasn't even a particularly good mother. How could she lose Jesus in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the temple? Herringer points to a subtle undermining of the image of motherhood from within this discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(a rather surprising turn of events given the centrality of motherhood generally in Victorian culture\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant Mary appears as a stage mother, interfering in Jesus's ministry. This made her a rather suspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of womanhood and potentially, according to Protestant commentators, more powerful than her son.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7966 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both Virgin Marys' were a product of a mid-Victorian culture. In many ways, these discourses gel well with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 19th-century ideas of women's separate sphere and the perceived view that women's piety and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prayerfulness led to a higher moral authority. However, the Catholic Mary goes a step too far for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants and was perceived as a threat to masculine authority. Herringer convincingly argues that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes of the Protestant Virgin Mary reflect male tensions with the changing role of women in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. Threatened by women's incursion into the public sphere, male, typically clerical, Protestants used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this discourse to at least discursively return women to an imagined private sphere. There were also Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns regarding the intercessory role of Mary and fears that Mary diverted the faithful from their direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal relationship with God, thus unsurprisingly, Protestants rejected Marian devotion. The cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of the time were also crucial to these representations of the Virgin Mary. The decree )] TJ ET BT 480.248 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ineffabilis Deus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, reminded all of the authority and power of the Roman pontiff over the Catholic faithful only a few years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the 'Papal Aggression' had inflamed Protestant passions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.964 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.964 626.259 m 342.956 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.956 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This Protestant Virgin Mary was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to and a reaction against the Catholic Virgin Mary. She marked key differences between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant and Catholic beliefs. Protestant culture, in this instance, was united not necessarily by common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs, but certainly by a common antipathy towards the Catholic Virgin Mary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Important to this interpretation is the knowledge that models of masculinity for Victorian clergymen were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting also; the normative models of manhood once assumed by men of the cloth were now awkward in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant clerical world reshaped by factors such as the evangelical revival and the Oxford Movement. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter on the formation of Victorian masculinities powerfully brings these tensions to the fore and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds the representations of the Virgin Mary in the lives of four individuals, two Protestants and two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convert Catholics. Herringer's biographical approach considers how these four men defined the Virgin Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ways which shaped their construction of masculinity. Protestant champion of muscular Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Kingsley maintained that Anglo-Catholics and Roman Catholic men were effeminate. He saw their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship of the Catholic Virgin Mary, who he depicted as a powerful semi-pagan goddess, as particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emasculating as it replaced Jesus in devotional practices. His form of Protestantism drew a rigid dividing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line between the masculine and the feminine. Tractarian theologian Edward Bouverie Pusey, saw the Virgin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary as a good mother and a model of motherhood, but with limited authority. His own model of lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity espoused the separate spheres dichotomy with Mary firmly placed in the private sphere. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his association with Anglican sisterhoods, Herringer claims, was evidence of this hierarchy; he placed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself as the spiritual and administrative head of the sisterhoods he was involved with and allowed women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('conditional' autonomy \(p. 163\). \(While I don't doubt his own belief in his authority over the sisterhoods, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would question that this administrative authority existed in practice.\))] TJ ET BT 367.328 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oratorian Frederick Faber was by all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts an unusually emotive convert Catholic whose spiritual published works were popular but at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic even within the Roman Catholic Church. His adoration of the Virgin Mary led him to support a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity that idealised the feminine but his Mary was unique in that the privileges given to her, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never belong to another woman. Probably the most famous 19th-century Catholic convert John Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newman saw nothing amiss with the power and authority of the Catholic Virgin Mary. He saw a harmony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between masculinity and femininity which Herringer says blurred gender boundaries and made Newman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin Mary a model for both men and women. These four case studies point to the diversity of possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the Virgin Mary and provide important new insights into an understanding of 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinities in relationship with a female figure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this same chapter too quickly \(pp. 172?5\), dismisses the influence of the Virgin Mary on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant women. Although I'd agree that the Virgin Mary was probably not a considerable model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(womanhood for most Protestant women, I remain more convinced of Kimberly VanEsveld Adams's study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Lady of Victorian Feminism )] TJ ET BT 194.348 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that concludes the Madonna could be encountered in a way that ?promised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the elevation and empowerment of women?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.304 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.304 117.555 m 261.296 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.296 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I would have liked Herringer to provide a more probing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis on constructed renditions of the Virgin Mary and femininities from the published works of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors.I think also that it would have been helpful to address the Marian discourse authored by Catholic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Catholic women. Would a careful reading of published material have brought out a Mary that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something other than the usual symbol of domesticated womanhood? Certainly, I have found in my own )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.9637 626.5735 342.9557 638.4535 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 247.3037 117.8695 261.2957 129.7495 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8514 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in the archives of Catholic religious institutes that the Virgin Mary could be used to bolster female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority. For example, Cornelia Connelly, founder of the Catholic religious congregation the Society of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holy Child Jesus, wrote to Bishop Thomas Grant:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I took your letter ... and read it to Our Lady of Sorrows asking her in her own sweet meekness to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(listen to it, and the interior answer I got was ?burn the letter & tell the Bishop to forget what he )] TJ ET BT 64.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote & to come and tell you what more you can do than you have done.? I have burnt it my )] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord, & now will you come and tell me what more I can do than I have done?...)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 446.948 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 446.948 685.539 m 460.940 685.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Connelly used the Virgin Mary to challenge the bishop to rethink his decision on matters with which she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreed. Catholic women?s congregations often held Mary as their model of life, and while they developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a rhetoric that glorified women's piety and self-effacement, their actions tell another story of women with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough agency to develop and manage international institutions that operated schools and hospitals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed intricate social welfare programmes. Did they construct a model of Mary that validated these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities? The publication of the biographies of founders such as Augusta Theodosia Drane's, )] TJ ET BT 488.096 577.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Mary Hallahan: Foundress of the English Congregation of St. Catherine of Siena of the Third )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Order of St Dominic)] TJ ET BT 132.344 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1869\) or even publications by some women religious like Mary Potter, founder of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little Company of Mary, could bring additional insights into the discourses on Mary.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.336 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.336 533.235 m 457.328 533.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 457.328 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic confraternities, sodalities and guilds were dominant features of parish life, and many, like the ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular Children of Mary confraternity, retained the Virgin Mary as their model of lay life. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions published Rules of Conduct that could include representations of the Catholic Virgin Mary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this book does an excellent job in exploring the Virgin Mary and masculinities, its comprehensiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is limited in that it seems to quickly relegate Mary's impact on femininities as nonexistent for Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and adding nothing new to the usual trope of the domesticated model of womanhood for Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have two small quibbles which relate to Herringer's depiction of Anglo-Catholic sisterhoods as having 'less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autonomy' than Roman Catholic sisterhoods \(p. 51\). Susan Mumm's work argues quite the opposite as will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joy Frith's upcoming book on Anglican sisters and identity politics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.184 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.184 378.675 m 372.176 378.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 372.176 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While it is true that for many bishops )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican sisters were )] TJ ET BT 140.324 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(persona non grata)] TJ ET BT 228.992 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and this ostracisation probably hampered the growth of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sisterhoods, it )] TJ ET BT 103.688 351.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 142.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( encouraged more convent autonomy not less. Many Anglican sisterhoods, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this time period, operated outside the sanction of the bishop. Catholic congregations, on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not even open a convent in a diocese without the approval of the bishop; this was not true of Anglican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sisterhoods. And while many Protestants certainly preferred deaconesses over Anglican sisterhoods \(p. 89\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were rarely married in the 19th century)] TJ ET BT 248.624 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the deaconess life was certainly not as attractive to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant women as were sisterhoods given only 431 women became deaconesses in the 19th century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several thousand women became professed Anglican sisters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.284 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.284 264.627 m 338.276 264.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly this work suggests new directions for research. While it succeeds in illuminating the dichotomy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between Protestant and Catholic attitudes towards the Virgin Mary, these outlooks are in the main, male, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerical and middle-class.)] TJ ET BT 159.320 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This analysis of discourse needs to be balanced by a cultural history that examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the same detail the personal piety and religious devotion which was also a part of this discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century Virgin Mary. Despite Mary Heimann?s excellent work, )] TJ ET BT 367.280 182.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Devotion in Victorian England)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 167.091 m 48.008 167.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there still exists a lacunae on the cultural meanings and practice of the devotions to the Virgin Mary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(People experienced the Virgin Mary not in the abstract but in ritual and custom. Devotional life was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited to church spaces despite the spectre of anti-Catholicism; it was visible and public on the streets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain. It was not so unusual to see Catholic school students, like those mentioned in the annals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congregation of the Holy Family of Bourdeaux, marching along the streets of London in a procession headed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by banners of the Sacred Heart and the Virgin Mary.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.616 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.616 95.811 m 306.608 95.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.608 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Importantly too, the Virgin Mary could be found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private spaces and an analysis of devotional culture from the standpoint of the domestic interior is sorely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed. How important was the Virgin Mary to Catholic and Anglo-Catholic working-class families? How )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did material culture and the)] TJ ET BT 168.992 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction of devotions and emotions figure into Irish or English religious )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 446.9477 685.8535 460.9397 697.7335 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.3357 533.5495 457.3277 545.4295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.1837 378.9895 372.1757 390.8695 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.2837 264.9415 338.2757 276.8215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 167.4055 48.0077 179.2855 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.6157 96.1255 306.6077 108.0055 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 8389 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices? This working-class Virgin Mary also needs to figure into any comprehensive analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of the Virgin Mary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, this is a compelling and valuable work, engagingly written, well-organised and a welcome addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the debates on the Victorians and religion in the nineteenth century. It is a cultural and social history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Victorians' engagement with a religious figure that played an important role in the cultural imagination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Victorians. There is, however, another chapter of this story that needs to be told, one that develops a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin Mary that comes from the wider majority of Catholics and Protestants. Herringer has set the bar for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more research to be done on this fascinating topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miri Rubin, )] TJ ET BT 123.692 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mother of God: A History of the Virgin Mary )] TJ ET BT 344.012 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New Haven, CT, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.316 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.316 617.763 m 517.304 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bridget Heal, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cult of the Virgin Mary in Early Modern Germany)] TJ ET BT 396.656 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.976 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.976 603.507 m 547.964 603.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The formal re-establishment by Rome of the Catholic hierarchy in England and Wales in 1851 led to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some violent and extreme Protestant reactions that centred on the belief that this 'Papal Aggression' )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was focused on the conversion of England.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.308 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.308 560.739 m 324.296 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kimberly VanEsveld Adams, )] TJ ET BT 208.664 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Our Lady of Victorian Feminism)] TJ ET BT 365.996 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Athens, OH, 2001\), p. 226.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 503.312 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 503.312 546.483 m 557.300 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Radegunde Flaxman, )] TJ ET BT 169.004 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Woman Styled Bold: the Life of Cornelia Connelly, 1809?1879)] TJ ET BT 481.664 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\), p. 276.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 517.971 m 185.000 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Potter, )] TJ ET BT 127.676 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Path of Mary)] TJ ET BT 212.672 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London,1878\); Mary Potter, )] TJ ET BT 357.992 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mary?s Call to Her Loving Children, etc. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, [1882]\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.332 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.332 489.459 m 204.320 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Mumm, '"A Peril to the Bench of Bishops": sisterhoods and episcopal authority in the Church )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England, 1845?1908', )] TJ ET BT 184.496 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Ecclesiastical History)] TJ ET BT 342.824 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 39, 1 \(2008\) 62?78; Joy Frith, )] TJ ET BT 495.488 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglican )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sisterhoods and the Politics of Victorian Identity)] TJ ET BT 298.688 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 433.988 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 433.988 446.691 m 487.976 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Beginning of Women's Ministry: The Revival of the Deaconesses in Nineteenth Century Church of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 104.684 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Henrietta Blackmore \(Woodbridge, 2007\), Appendix 2; A.M. Allchin, )] TJ ET BT 468.296 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Silent )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rebellion: Anglican Religious Communities 1845?1900)] TJ ET BT 332.012 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London,1958\), p. 120. The actual numbers of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglican sisters professed is difficult to quantify given the limited access to convent archives. Susan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mumm has collected approximately 2200 biographies from the 28 sisterhoods who granted her access )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their archives. Susan Mumm, )] TJ ET BT 220.340 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stolen Daughters, Virgin Mothers: Anglican Sisterhoods in Victorian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 98.024 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\), pp. xiv, 227.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.684 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.684 346.899 m 296.672 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Heimann, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Devotion in Victorian England)] TJ ET BT 335.672 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 414.320 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 414.320 332.643 m 468.308 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holy Family of Bourdeaux Archives: Tower Hill Annals, August 1885.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.988 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.988 318.387 m 466.976 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/vic/summary/v051/51.3.adams.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 263.619 m 345.032 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 348.032 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://jts.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/1/442.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 235.107 m 271.028 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.028 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 231.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 213.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 213.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/873)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 212.601 m 322.316 212.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4576)] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/vic/summary/v051/51.3.adams.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://jts.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/1/442.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.3157 618.0775 517.3037 629.9575 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.9757 603.8215 547.9637 615.7015 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.3077 561.0535 324.2957 572.9335 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 503.3117 546.7975 557.2997 558.6775 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 518.2855 184.9997 530.1655 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.3317 489.7735 204.3197 501.6535 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 433.9877 447.0055 487.9757 458.8855 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.6837 347.2135 296.6717 359.0935 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 414.3197 332.9575 468.3077 344.8375 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.9877 318.7015 466.9757 330.5815 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 47 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 263.9335 345.0317 275.8135 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/vic/summary/v051/51.3.adams.html) >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 235.4215 271.0277 247.3015 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://jts.oxfordjournals.org/content/61/1/442.full) >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 212.9155 322.3157 224.7955 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/873) >> endobj xref 0 78 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000677 00000 n 0000005537 00000 n 0000005646 00000 n 0000005756 00000 n 0000005865 00000 n 0000009426 00000 n 0000009554 00000 n 0000009638 00000 n 0000009667 00000 n 0000009795 00000 n 0000009831 00000 n 0000009860 00000 n 0000009988 00000 n 0000010024 00000 n 0000010089 00000 n 0000015651 00000 n 0000015742 00000 n 0000023761 00000 n 0000023791 00000 n 0000023919 00000 n 0000023955 00000 n 0000023985 00000 n 0000024113 00000 n 0000024149 00000 n 0000024268 00000 n 0000032835 00000 n 0000032865 00000 n 0000032993 00000 n 0000033029 00000 n 0000033059 00000 n 0000033187 00000 n 0000033223 00000 n 0000033253 00000 n 0000033381 00000 n 0000033417 00000 n 0000033447 00000 n 0000033575 00000 n 0000033611 00000 n 0000033641 00000 n 0000033767 00000 n 0000033803 00000 n 0000033833 00000 n 0000033960 00000 n 0000033996 00000 n 0000034164 00000 n 0000042606 00000 n 0000042734 00000 n 0000042789 00000 n 0000042917 00000 n 0000042972 00000 n 0000043100 00000 n 0000043155 00000 n 0000043283 00000 n 0000043338 00000 n 0000043466 00000 n 0000043521 00000 n 0000043649 00000 n 0000043704 00000 n 0000043832 00000 n 0000043887 00000 n 0000044015 00000 n 0000044070 00000 n 0000044198 00000 n 0000044253 00000 n 0000044381 00000 n 0000044436 00000 n 0000044563 00000 n 0000044676 00000 n 0000044803 00000 n 0000044906 00000 n 0000045034 00000 n trailer << /Size 78 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45129 %%EOF