%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722134134+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722134134+01'00') /Title (Nefarious Crimes, Contested Justice. Illicit Sex and Infanticide in the Republic of Venice 1557-1789) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4075 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nefarious Crimes, Contested Justice. Illicit Sex and Infanticide in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the Republic of Venice 1557-1789)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is most unusual for a historian to go into print in the introduction to their latest book and to wonder aloud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether it should ever have seen the light of day. Joanne Ferraro has a point. This study of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy enters territory in which any historian would wish to tread carefully. It deals with taboos which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries scarcely spoke about or recorded, and which entered the written record almost by accident: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incest, domestic abuse and infanticide. Ferraro?s hesitations, which were driven as much by her difficulty in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing back dispassionately from the sources as by the unpleasantness of her subject matter, are entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable. There is something visceral about the evidence given to the authorities investigating these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crimes: bedclothes soiled with blood, washing hanging out to dry from which blood stains had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsuccessfully removed, a formerly pregnant women kneeling in her own blood at Mass, a new-born baby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girl whose cries could be heard from a sewer. Records of birth cease to be a statistic. Ferraro and her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers are to be congratulated on having overcome them and made available a fascinating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating study which will provoke a great deal of further research. The book spans almost two-and-a-half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries and uses on material from different parts of the Venetian Republic to examine the nature of illicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual behaviour and the ways in which this was perceived by the Venetian state, the Church and above all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by local communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(874)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 28 February, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne M. Ferraro)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780801889875)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hopkins University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore, MD)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Cowan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 3964 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is organised around a series of case studies grouped into two major themes, father-daughter incest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the murder of newly born children by their mothers. The cases of incest under consideration illustrate its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence at all levels of society. The perpetrators were a farm worker from the Vicentino with a violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation in his own community, a migrant labourer working in the Brenta valley, a river raftsman on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piave, a silk merchant in Venice, and the Venetian patrician, Piero Capello. The mothers accused of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infanticide, as might have been expected, came from a much narrower social range, a servant, two unmarried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women from poor backgrounds, and an adulterous wife on a Dalmatian island. The case of Bianca Capello, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the daughter of a Venetian patrician, is given a chapter to itself, in part because of the weight of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentation around it, but also because it reveals some of the complexities of understanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of testimony. Bianca, it would seem, was the victim of sexual attacks by her father, her step-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brother and a local priest. Sent on several occasions to convents by her family, she displayed serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptoms of abdominal pain and fever which might have been the effect of syphilis, poisoning, pellagra, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a combination of illnesses. In the end her case was dismissed by the Council of Ten through lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence, and probably in order to avoid public scandal around a leading family. The accusations of incest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pregnancy and abortions were not made by Bianca, but by her mother and her maid and may have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made because they lived in a dysfunctional household in which power had shifted from Bianca?s parents to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her step-brother and his wife.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Priests recur throughout these cases, sometimes as confessors who chose not to report incest or infanticide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the authorities became involved, but more often as the suspected fathers of illegitimate children. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter is devoted to several of these relationships, including a woman who was seduced by her first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cousin, a priest with an economic hold over her family, another who lived together with a priest for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years and bore him three children, and a woman widowed at 17 who stayed on in her late husband?s house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his clerical brother and moved with him to a new parish. The varying behaviour of these priests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that communal attitudes were only partly influenced by the Tridentine rules banning concubinage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even in the 18th century. Some priests were open about their relationships, but the fear of disapproval or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovery led several to attempt abortions or infanticide, or to remove the evidence by placing new-born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in foundling institutions.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8477 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is microhistory at its best, and as such illustrates some of the strengths and potential weaknesses of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological approach. The book belongs to a growing historiographical tradition and Ferraro?s approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can not only be traced to the work of her mentor, Guido Ruggiero )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.628 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.628 754.563 m 366.620 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.620 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and to the publications arising from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Italian church courts project )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.644 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.644 740.307 m 203.636 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.636 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but has already been explored by the same author in her earlier work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases of dysfunctional marriage considered by the church courts in early modern Venice.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.904 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.904 726.051 m 474.896 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 474.896 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The field now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has its own online journal, the )] TJ ET BT 181.676 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Microhistory)] TJ ET BT 297.008 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, based in Iceland )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 383.984 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 383.984 711.795 m 397.976 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 397.976 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and while the richness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources from pre-industrial Italian secular and church courts has facilitated a substantial body of work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that area, the microhistorical approach has been used in studies over a much wider geographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological range. As Ferraro openly acknowledges, the cases which she has chosen to investigate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail in her book, such as the sexually abused Mattia Stanghelin of Galliera, Margherita Serena, accused of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having thrown her unbaptised newborn baby into a Venetian canal, or Antonia Locatelli, whose relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the priest Giacomo Antonio Sala led to abortion and infanticide, may well not have been typical. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without detailed statistical analysis of such sources, it is difficult to assess the frequency of incest, abortion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or infanticide and the book makes no claims to do so. In any case, because of the nature of these crimes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complicity of many in the community, who wished to avoid any public involvement for fear of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences, their very appearance in the records was often accidental. Frequently, it was an outsider who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set the legal process in motion. In the case of Mattia Stanghelin, the case was brought before the authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a Venetian bounty hunter travelling through the region in search of opportunities to be rewarded for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing criminals to justice. A doctor treating the patrician, Bianca Capello, in later 18th-century Venice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was so alarmed by the state of his patient that he contacted the Council of Ten. Marieta Todesca, a maid, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrested for infanticide after suspicions were roused when a servant in a neighbouring house heard cries from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a sewer. A Venetian living illegally in the city after having been banished, chose to contact the authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about a case of incest in the hope that this act of civic duty would help his own position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is always the possibility that these cases come to our attention because they were particularly extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and might in some way be invalidated as a result. On the other hand, the detail of the testimony surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and the actions of the community and the authorities which this reveals enables us to gain access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of cultural behaviour in a way closed to quantitative analysis. These cases have a much wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonance. They draw attention not only to the kind of circumstances in which incest, abortion or infanticide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place, but also to the divergent attitudes of those close to the people involved. These were not taboos to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which everyone shut their eyes, but, when faced with questioning by the authorities, it is evident that many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted out of fear, either of a man who was physically violent, or of an individual in a position of relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social power. All of this was overlaid on the potential weakness of women in the face of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual abuse and the more subtle pressures of having engaged in illicit sexual relationships. As Ferraro )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, the domestic hearth, which was generally celebrated by contemporaries as a place of safety for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, could facilitate abuse and discourage outside concern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Structurally, the final chapter on priestly involvement leaves something to be desired. The case studies are as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich as those on incest and infanticide, but here the focus has been moved from the specific crime to some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its perpetrators and while the widespread presence of priests in cases involving illicit sex deserves detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration, some of the power and momentum of the analysis has been lost in the process. Nor is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement of priests the only thread which runs through this book and would have benefited from more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. The unorthodox behaviour of the protagonists in these stories aroused much gossip. This, in turn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acted as the mechanism by which what was intended to remain secret within the family, or the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, particularly in isolated rural areas, might escape and come to the ears of the authorities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Speaking of incest or the unexpected disappearance of a new-born child reflected an awareness that certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral barriers had been breached, a willingness to engage in moral judgements at a safe distance from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals concerned, and a form of camouflage behind which individuals called to testify hid in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove that they were not guilty of keeping material facts from the authorities. By claiming that behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was widely known and that they had only heard about this from others, witnesses believed that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safe from prosecution. The ubiquitous presence of gossip networks was also something of which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigators were quite aware and which they used frequently as a way of finding out what had happened )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.6277 754.8775 366.6197 766.7575 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.6437 740.6215 203.6357 752.5015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.9037 726.3655 474.8957 738.2455 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 383.9837 712.1095 397.9757 723.9895 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7929 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and who was responsible. As the officials investigating the case of Laura Garsaglio in Treviso told her, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Everyone in the community has noted your intimate relationship with the priest Giuseppe Scotto. The entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city knows about this?)] TJ ET BT 144.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 176.672 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the denunciation of her father for incest by a girl of 13, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigators first tested the local gossip network. Gossip around a case of infanticide in the city focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a priest who frequently visited the house of a grocer with unmarried daughters, ate there and had his clothes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repaired by the women of the household. The potential damage from gossip about pregnancy to a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman?s reputation led some of them to use gossip networks to spread alternative rumours suggesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an illness rather than pregnancy had caused missed periods or a swollen stomach. The value of gossip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony, for all the dangers of inaccuracy or malign intent, was so high that the Venetian authorities gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it considerable weight to compensate for difficult cases where even the victims were unwilling to testify.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further thread running through these discussions is the way in which the victims of rape and the women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who killed or abandoned their babies received aid and support from those around them. The wife of a river )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raftsman who had raped her elder daughter first arranged to remove her from the house by marrying her to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man of 60, and when the latter was unable to pay for her continued support, she was sent for safety to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a servant in Venice. A shoemaker gave refuge to a single mother after she had given birth. An employer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave money to a female servant in a similar position and encouraged her to leave the city by gondola. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several cases where the fathers were priests, mothers were given support by other members of the clergy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who disapproved of their behaviour. A final theme considers the role of the foundling hospitals in Venice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Veneto, not only as recipients of the fruits of illicit sexual relationships but also as the temporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destination for children whose legally married parents could not afford to maintain them. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admission to the foundling hospitals was on the principle of anonymity, local clergy often acted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediaries in order to facilitate the entry of babies into these institutions, and surviving records tell tales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which underwrite Ferraro?s conclusion that the foundling hospitals were established as much to hide scandal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as for humanitarian reasons. This is a book which repays careful study and illuminates a world which most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its inhabitants would have preferred to have kept hidden.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Ruggiero, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Binding Passions: Tales of Magic, Marriage and Power at the end of the Renaissance)] TJ ET BT 542.660 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1993\); )] TJ ET BT 143.000 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Microhistory and the Lost People of Europe. Selections from Quaderni Storici)] TJ ET BT 519.320 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. E. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muir and G. Ruggiero \(Baltimore, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.664 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.664 346.899 m 316.652 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The project and its early fruits appear in )] TJ ET BT 259.304 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coniugi nemici. )] TJ ET BT 338.972 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La separazione in Italia dal XII al XVIII )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(secolo,)] TJ ET BT 97.676 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. S. Seidel-Menchi and D. Quaglioni \(Bologna, 2000\). There are three other volumes in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 94.340 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 94.340 304.131 m 148.328 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Ferraro, )] TJ ET BT 116.000 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marriage Wars in late Renaissance Venice)] TJ ET BT 322.304 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 403.952 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 403.952 289.875 m 457.940 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.microhistory.org/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 275.619 m 212.120 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 215.120 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 229.112 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 16 November 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.500 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.500 275.619 m 441.488 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 250.757 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse 1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 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