%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141021042140+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141021042140+01'00') /Title (Museums and Culture) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2997 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Museums and Culture)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whose culture, and more specifically whose objects, are the central questions in these two very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books. In modern Western legal systems, objects can have only one owner, though that owner may be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporate or collective body. But what does it mean for a state or nation or community to own an object, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(875)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John MacKenzie)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719080227)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Cuno)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691133331)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(220pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Hill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7517 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what should we make of claims to hold objects in trust for all humanity? James Cuno?s polemical book has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one set of answers to these questions; in a more empirical and historically grounded work, John MacKenzie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has another. As an historian of museums, I find MacKenzie?s approach more compelling, and believe that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contributors to Cuno?s book would benefit from more historical situating of their institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacKenzie is well-known for his work on the culture of Empire in Britain around 1900; in this book he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks instead at the museums )] TJ ET BT 177.680 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 187.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Empire. He investigates how the essentially European phenomenon of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the museum played out in colonised lands, and how the new museums conceptualised and developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial, national and local forms of identity, whether exclusive or inclusive. He looks at a selection roughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order of foundation, beginning with Canadian museums and covering South Africa, Australia, New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zealand; finishing with Indian and Singaporean museums. He starts from the conviction that museums were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a way of knowing that was particularly characteristic of the 19th century and the modern, as worldwide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructures in transport and communications opened up the world to be known. Those infrastructures, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, both enabled and were created by the British Empire. The museum, therefore, ?symbolised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks, the support systems, and the skewing of administrative and legal provisions in the direction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasms of the dominant people? \(p. 4\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, MacKenzie recognises that museums were not and could not be simply an imposition by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant people on the territory. Rather, museums created a new encounter between different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituencies. Of course, this encounter was not equal, but this is not to say that people of different cultures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not interact with each other in museums. This is particularly clear in the museums where a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicities formed the potential audience, such as in the Raffles Museum and Library in Singapore, covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in chapter ten. As MacKenzie says, ?the themes of rapacity and of respect, of authoritarian dictation and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural dialogue, are worked out in this book? \(p. 5\). Some of the rapacity he uncovers is pretty grim, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly undermines the argument put forward by some of Cuno?s contributors that museums are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universally and transcendentally a force for good. Museums do not seem to be a force )] TJ ET BT 448.592 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for)] TJ ET BT 462.596 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( anything; they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions which can be used in a number of ways at different times, and MacKenzie demonstrates this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcefully through the scope of the book, which is deliberately comparative across a number of barely-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied institutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museums and Empire)] TJ ET BT 138.668 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( wears its theory lightly; there is a good deal of emphasis on the messy details of each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locality, and a reluctance to build a model of colonial museum formation. In the conclusion he does suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a number of loose phases that museums tended to go through, but it is equally clear that rhetoric was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly far removed from reality in these museums. They all, to a greater or lesser extent, were at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercy of personalities and funding crises. While one would not wish to see museum history reduced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personalities, in these fledgling institutions with very weak structures, individuals could exert a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionate influence. Equally, colonial governments with very tight budgets treated museums as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optional extras, so that funding varied wildly from year to year. The phases, then, characterised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacKenzie as proto-foundation, pioneering, transitional, pre-modern and modern, are not sharply delineated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or temporally fixed, and could be seen more as a number of key elements. They do draw attention to the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many of the museums started out as a transplant of bourgeois society in Britain, as offshoots of learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies; and then took up the twin rationales of economic usefulness and social improvement to underpin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their claim on state finances. Subsequently there is an interesting shift from natural history to ethnography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to audience engagement. Overall, it seems that while most museums begin by aiming at a version of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?universal? museum along the lines of the British Museum, they come to see their mission as reflecting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new national identity of the colony. Partly this is because of the greed and unscrupulousness of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal museums: in several cases colonial museums are driven to collect local ethnography because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems that wealthy American museums and collectors in particular will carry off the whole lot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this empirically-grounded study, therefore, MacKenzie concludes that the messages of these museums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ?ambiguously dynamic? \(p. 6\). This recognition that museums were not and could not be purveyors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a single, coherent message which they effectively transmitted to the visitors, is significant: museum history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has moved on from claims that the institutions were ideological instruments which physically inculcated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7014 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain behaviours and knowledge; ?technologies of progress? in Bennett?s phrase.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.596 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.596 795.075 m 446.588 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacKenzie?s book is therefore a particularly useful addition to the corpus on museums and Empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing an alternative perspective to that of most work hitherto. The very removal of material from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial territories to represent Empire in Britain set up tensions in the colonies. The effect of contributing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibits to international exhibitions was also transformative for fledgling colonial museums. This enables us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to see afresh the representations of such colonies in museums and exhibitions; while the colonies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented in the metropole by a set of objects and discourses, there was a great deal more going on ?back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cuno?s book originated in a conference titled ?Museums and the Collecting of Antiquities: Past, Present and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Future?, held in 2006. Of the nine essays included, three are quite close versions of papers presented, four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are versions of essays published elsewhere, and two are new, commissioned works. There is a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unevenness of tone as a result, though there have clearly been authorial and editorial efforts to make it all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hang together. The essays all engage with the idea that objects, particularly antiquities and ethnographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, have a status as knowledge-producing which in effect lifts them above the ordinary; they deserve to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen, studied, communed with by as large a proportion of humanity as possible. Therefore, the claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive ownership put forward by modern nations, and, apparently, archaeologists, are to be resisted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is arranged in three sections. The first section argues essentially that museums are a universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good, particularly encyclopaedic museums such as the British Museum. It should be pointed out that two of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the three authors in this section are themselves directors of such museums, and therefore hardly unbiased. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil MacGregor?s essay gives an historical justification for the British Museum, as an institutions founded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?for everybody, for the whole world? \(p. 39\), which is somewhat partial and tendentious. Enlightenment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals were not as inclusive as he suggests, and museums such as his were founded in a particular historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moment which enshrined power differentials that a relatively large but arguably unfocused collection could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not mitigate, and may even have reinforced. He goes on to argue that the ?hideous? acquisition of the Benin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bronzes had the beneficial side effect of destroying Western stereotypes and racial hierarchies, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely overstating the case by some margin.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.316 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.316 402.675 m 258.308 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay in this section, and one of the best in the book, is by Kwame Anthony Appiah, who does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(act as an apologist for museums. His is almost the only essay which gives any sign of understanding those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who argue against the appropriation of objects by Western museums, and who does not belittle them. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, he acknowledges the complex economic and political processes that have brought us to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position. He comments, ?The problem for Mali is not that it doesn?t have enough Malian art. The problem is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it doesn?t have enough money? \(p. 78\). This is a compelling statement of the problem facing developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries seeking some sort of cultural heritage. Appiah would enlist the market to sort out the problem, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licensing and taxing excavations and exports; but one can?t help suspecting that this would not be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate solution to Mali?s money problems, and instead would accelerate the stripping of the country?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical artefacts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section is devoted to what appears to be an ongoing argument between museums and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeologists, of which I have to say I was unaware. The argument focuses on the problem of thefts from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological sites, and of measures to deal with them. Authors argue here that refusing to acquire, publish, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or even talk about unprovenanced objects is an over-reaction, and a pointless restriction on academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom, which seems a tenable argument; and that archaeological excavation is not that important anyway, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which does not. It is a little disconcerting getting just one side of the argument, and one hesitates to judge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without hearing the archaeologists? response. What can be said, though, is that the tone of the debate is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rancorous to say the least. Sir John Boardman asserts, speaking of archaeology, that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my own observation of a profession to which I have belonged for over half a century ... has not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led me to any great admiration for some of its procedures and motivations. Indeed I am not sure )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.5957 795.3895 446.5877 807.2695 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 244.3157 402.9895 258.3077 414.8695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7511 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that I have encountered any scholarly group so prone to arrogance, and I know that this is a view )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly widely shared in the academic community. ... [S]ome archaeologists are not the best )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people to make dispassionate judgements about relics of antiquity? \(p. 108\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now, this firstly raises the question of who )] TJ ET BT 243.668 729.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(are)] TJ ET BT 259.664 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the best people to make dispassionate judgements about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relics \(why, museum curators of course!\), and secondly leads to the question, what if we substitute ?museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curators? for ?archaeologists? throughout? It does not advance the debate, to say the very least. Clearly, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic or professional group is wholly ?on the side of the angels?, but equally clearly, heaping blame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solely on one group is counter-productive. One of Sir John?s chief accusations against archaeology is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fails to disseminate knowledge about antiquities, by not publishing excavation reports; therefore objects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be removed to museums where they can be publicly seen. However, museums are not necessarily the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragons he suggests when it comes to publicising objects: one estimate suggests museums rarely display )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than 50% of their objects and may often display less than 25%.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.304 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.304 614.259 m 378.296 614.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section focuses on the equally vexed and probably better known problem of cultural property, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the claims of often relatively new nations to hang on to it, through export bans, or even get it back, via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restitution claims. Two of the essays here, by Brown and Gillman, are thoughtful, exploratory, and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgemental, but the final one, by Merryman, while proposing a ?straightforward? solution to problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural property, seems to oversimplify and replace one dogma with another. Merryman proposes that an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?object-oriented? approach to disputes over cultural property would ask, in order of importance, what would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best serve the preservation of the object, what would best enable the truth to be known about the object, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what would enable optimal access for scholars and the public to the object. It is not clear why these three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas are prioritised as they are, nor what ?truth? might entail, how the competing claims of scholars and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public are to be mediated; nor, indeed, who is to arbitrate in applying this approach to disputes. It seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely possible that both opposing parties might believe that their retention or acquisition of an object )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would best serve the interests of preservation, truth and access. Additionally, in the emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preservation, though Merryman suggests in different circumstances it may be served by retention or removal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of objects, there is something of that argument that ?they? cannot possibly look after anything as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?we? can, they are just too poor/feckless/useless scholars.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.952 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.952 388.419 m 324.944 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways Merryman?s article encapsulates the approach of the book as a whole, both in its fondness for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcendental absolutes \(?the truth?\) and in its lack of interest in interrogating categories which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently used, such as ?source nations? and ?market nations?. While source nations can include almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any, the fact that ?market nations? only comprise a very small proportion of all countries is never really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made explicit or discussed. This, to me, is the fundamental argument against seeing museums as universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment institutions dedicated to the benefit of all humanity ? they are self-evidently institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicated in and enmeshed in a whole series of power relations, expressive of global economics and geo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political systems, which benefit some nations at the expense of others. This is not to say that curators do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the highest motivations \(though from the evidence of this volume ?museum chauvinism? seems fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread, as one might perhaps expect\), but that museums can never transcend their specific, historically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produced, setting, and can never be innocent autonomous actors. Foucault argued that knowledge is power, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and whatever we think of Foucault, we can no longer be naive about what knowing things may entail. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacKenzie?s book, by uncovering the details of the historical process whereby museums came into being, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to chart how museums were used, what sort of knowledge they produced, why and with what effects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving a view of museums as institutions neither good nor evil, merely products of their time. They are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently superior or inferior to archaeology, they hold their objects for specific and historically variable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons, and it is hard to argue that they have ever been apart from the workings of power. The future for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums must surely lie in understanding and acknowledging their historical embeddedness, and working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through it. MacKenzie does in fact take some of his museum histories up to the present day, though this is of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity quite sketchy; the most successful museums appear to be those who do not hide their past under a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of transcendent universality.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 364.3037 614.5735 378.2957 626.4535 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.9517 388.7335 324.9437 400.6135 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 3352 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Bennett, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of the Museum)] TJ ET BT 255.008 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1995\), section III.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.316 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.316 743.811 m 448.304 743.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacGregor has made the argument for the British Museum as a ?universal? museum before: it is well )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refuted in Mark O?Neill, ?Enlightenment museums: universal or merely global??, )] TJ ET BT 459.956 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museum and Society)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2 \(2004\), 190?202.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.336 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.336 701.043 m 215.324 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruno Frey, )] TJ ET BT 125.012 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Arts and Economics: Analysis and Cultural Policy)] TJ ET BT 367.676 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Berlin and New York, 2003\), chapter )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.016 672.531 m 127.004 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an example of this type of argument, see Dorothy King, ?Elgin Marbles: fact or fiction?? )] TJ ET BT 513.272 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET BT 110.684 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 July 2004, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.688 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2004/jul/21/highereducation.parthenon)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.688 644.019 m 553.988 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 78.008 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed 10 November 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.628 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.628 629.763 m 283.616 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 604.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 585.919 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 568.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 568.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/875)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 566.745 m 322.316 566.745 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 541.768 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4584)] TJ ET BT 34.016 512.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4585)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2004/jul/21/highereducation.parthenon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.3157 744.1255 448.3037 756.0055 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 161.3357 701.3575 215.3237 713.2375 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0157 672.8455 127.0037 684.7255 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6877 644.3335 553.9877 656.2135 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2004/jul/21/highereducation.parthenon) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.6277 630.0775 283.6157 641.9575 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 567.0595 322.3157 578.9395 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/875) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000529 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000003660 00000 n 0000003769 00000 n 0000003879 00000 n 0000003988 00000 n 0000007549 00000 n 0000007677 00000 n 0000007761 00000 n 0000007826 00000 n 0000015396 00000 n 0000015487 00000 n 0000022554 00000 n 0000022584 00000 n 0000022712 00000 n 0000022748 00000 n 0000022778 00000 n 0000022906 00000 n 0000022942 00000 n 0000023033 00000 n 0000030597 00000 n 0000030627 00000 n 0000030755 00000 n 0000030791 00000 n 0000030821 00000 n 0000030949 00000 n 0000030985 00000 n 0000031104 00000 n 0000034509 00000 n 0000034637 00000 n 0000034692 00000 n 0000034820 00000 n 0000034875 00000 n 0000035002 00000 n 0000035057 00000 n 0000035185 00000 n 0000035310 00000 n 0000035438 00000 n 0000035493 00000 n 0000035621 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35716 %%EOF