%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 31 0 R 39 0 R 53 0 R 81 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141024113611+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141024113611+01'00') /Title (Imagining Armenia: Orientalism, Ambiguity and Intervention) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4712 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Imagining Armenia: Orientalism, Ambiguity and Intervention)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I first came into contact with Jo Laycock?s )] TJ ET BT 243.308 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining Armenia)] TJ ET BT 336.968 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( when I received the Manchester University )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press catalogue and found it listed on the page after my book. It interested me for two reasons: firstly it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struck me that the two books explored similar themes, the difference being my monograph dealt with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyprus, which had come under British rule, while Armenia had not )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.308 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.308 243.417 m 374.300 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.300 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and secondly because I have started )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on a project on the French trained Armenian Legion in British Cyprus during the Great War. It has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given me a great deal of pleasure to review )] TJ ET BT 243.620 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining Armenia )] TJ ET BT 340.280 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as my first foray into publishing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenian history \(outside of the history of Armenians in Cyprus )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.656 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.656 200.649 m 362.648 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 362.648 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The book is refreshing because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with the Armenian ?Question? from a social and cultural rather than a diplomatic and political angle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thus offers different insights into British imperialism and activism, and British and Armenian identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than diplomatic and political studies. Also, much of what I have read about the Armenian Genocide of 1915 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separates the Genocide from its context, which is that of the First World War, while Laycock firmly situates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Armenian Genocide within this context, as well as in the humanitarian and imperialist drive that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised British responses to the Eastern Question, but also to events in the Congo Free State and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere, in the second half of the 19th century. I highly recommend this book to all those who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in British cultural imperialism and the cultural aspects of war, and to those interested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenian ?Question?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(876)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 28 February, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanne Laycock)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078170)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrekos Varnava)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.3077 243.7315 374.2997 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 348.6557 200.9635 362.6477 212.8435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laycock?s )] TJ ET BT 88.328 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imaging Armenia)] TJ ET BT 172.652 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( explores the various British images and representations of the Armenian cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and plight from the 1870s to the 1920s. It therefore looks at how the British saw the Armenians as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionaries, as victims of massacres in the 1890s and as victims of the genocide of 1915. In turn this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means that the British perceptions were of a group of people who were at the same time victims, but whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some among them, were also ?revolutionaries? who challenged Ottoman rule and perhaps, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some historians, brought upon ? even invited ? the violent Ottoman reaction against the people they claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to lead \(for example Stanford Shaw and Guenter Lewy\). The British views oscillated between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternal/maternal imperial instinct to help those in need, and relative disinterest in what was happening in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure part of the Ottoman Empire, which, despite divisions across Conservative and Liberal politics, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly considered integral to the balance of power in the Near and Middle East. The attempt to stimulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public awareness, generate sympathy and funds to aid the suffering Armenians produced interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of Armenians, especially of women and children, which were driven by British social justice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial ?protectiveness? and ideas of the civilising mission. These approaches partly explain the multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British views of Armenians and the Armenian cause. Another angle Laycock explores well is the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filters that the British brought with them in dealing with Armenians. Laycock reveals these were determined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by various factors: the fact that Armenians were Christians; the historical relationship between England-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Armenians and their land; and British attitudes to the Ottoman Empire more generally, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the ?Greeks?. What Laycock does excellently is intertwine British social tensions with these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filters, which are so important in understanding the multiple British visions of the Armenians. She provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting comparisons with the Greeks and Jews. Moreover, she breaks the Armenians down along class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines, and also as victims, as people displaced and forced to become refugees, living in makeshift camps, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign cities, longing to return home, despite their suffering and loss.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than summarise Laycock?s achievement, my task here is to critically engage with this body of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as vigorously as I can based on my own work on British imperialism in Cyprus and the Ottoman Empire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hope of adding to the knowledge )] TJ ET BT 212.324 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imaging Armenia)] TJ ET BT 296.648 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( puts forward.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the historical contexts that needs understanding in any scholarly work on the Armenian Question is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader ?Eastern Question?. The Eastern Question relates to two historical developments between 1774 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1923 in the Near East: the conflicts of the European Powers as they sought to protect and expand their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests, informal or formal, real or imagined, in the Near East; and the creation of ?ethnic? nationalities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman Empire and the formation of nation-states \(Greece, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albania\) or desired nation-states \(Egypt, Armenia, Israel\). Armenia fits well into this and Laycock correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims that scholars have tended to focus on the ?high? politics, diplomacy and imperialism of the ?eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question?. She has gone a long way to rectifying this by emphasising the social and cultural meanings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters between the British and Armenia. Laycock focuses on categorising the British reaction to and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of the Armenian plight, identifying ?Armenophile? pressure groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, while achieving this, she could have taken her analysis a step further and related her socio-cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical focus to the decision-making. Perhaps this is why Laycock overlooks Arman John Kirakossian?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph )] TJ ET BT 91.676 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Diplomacy and the Armenian Question: From the 1830s to 1914)] TJ ET BT 437.660 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.660 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.660 219.603 m 454.652 219.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 454.652 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In any event, a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of what I mean is Laycock?s treatment of the Armenian Question in 1878. She argues that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British fear of Russia that resulted in the policy to ?prop-up? the Ottoman Empire \(p. 8\), but why did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they fear Russia weakening the Ottoman Empire? By the 1870s the British had significant commercial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial interests in the Ottoman Empire and Egypt and an Ottoman or Egyptian collapse would have meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catastrophe for British investors and the government, who also had to worry about the fact that it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guaranteed \(along with the French government\) the Ottoman loan of 1854 to continue fighting the Russians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 119.811 m 48.008 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In order to circumvent this, Beaconsfield?s government asked Sultan Abdul Hamid II to cede to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British the right to occupy and administer Cyprus \(done in the Anglo-Turkish Convention\), ostensibly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish a military and naval base to help defend the Ottoman Empire from further Russian attack, but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality to protect British interests from an Ottoman and Egyptian collapse. Cyprus? insalubrity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceedingly hot climate made the island unsuitable in the eyes of many political and military elites to fulfil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a role and Beaconsfield?s government thought better of spending the money to correct the situation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.604 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.604 48.531 m 552.596 48.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 552.596 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.6597 219.9175 454.6517 231.7975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 120.1255 48.0077 132.0055 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.6037 48.8455 552.5957 60.7255 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8180 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This necessitated Gladstone?s Liberal government occupying Egypt when a local movement threatened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British interests there. So the question arises, to what extent discourses on Armenia were framed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites ? the politicians, bureaucrats, investors, businessmen, diplomats and others who stood to lose from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ottoman collapse ? and to what extent by those idealists, clergy and advocates who stood to gain from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenian independence? How were British interests reconciled alongside British idealism? How were these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?high? imperialists influenced by Laycock?s ?low? imperialists? Are such distinctions valuable? I think so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but both are also inseparable in forming a comprehensive picture, and both are not ?black and white?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laycock correctly states that ?even though Armenia was never a British imperial possession, imperialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the context for British encounters with Armenia? \(p. 23\). If this is the case, government policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more importantly how this policy was decided and influenced by forces such as pressure groups is vital for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive understanding of the British imperial encounter with Armenia. Also, Laycock?s argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that British Liberals led the Armenian cause, while well substantiated, does not resolve certain questions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, how does this assertion sit with the fact that it was Beaconsfield?s Conservative government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that forced Abdul Hamid II to sign the Anglo-Turkish Convention in 1878 \(also in the Berlin Treaty\) which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisioned for Ottoman reforms to its Christian provinces in Anatolia under British supervision? Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question is if the Liberals were so concerned with the plight of Armenians why did the Liberal government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not aid the Armenian cause in the 1890s? What do these two examples say about the impact of liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure groups?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other aspect of the ?Eastern Question? is nationalism and national identity and its relationship to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European imperialism. Laycock rightly situates the evidence alongside the main theories, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism and Balkanisation, to account for the fact that Armenia does not easily fit into ?east? and ?west? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saidian dichotomy. In this sense, Armenia compares well to Cyprus, although she excludes Cypriots from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the list of peoples in the Near East which do not fit into Said?s ?east? and ?west? dichotomy. Laycock?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that scholars have failed to engage with issues on Armenian political and identity development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because Armenia was not considered part of European or Imperial history is also true of Cyprus. At the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, however, it is also true that for some British, both Cyprus and Armenia did belong to the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space and these discourses existed alongside orientalist ones, thus resulting in neither Armenians nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cypriots being easy to categorise. It is this ?failure to categorise? into an ?east? and ?west? dichotomy \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps not the fact that they do not belong to European or Imperial history\) that has resulted in the failure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of scholars to engage with the political and national development of either.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.296 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.296 369.651 m 407.288 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.288 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These ?in-between? peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are simply too hard to understand.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.996 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.996 355.395 m 211.988 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 211.988 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is also true, however, that in the case of Cyprus? ?Europeanness? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British drew upon Hellenism and the unitary idea of a modern Greece. Laycock claims that Philhellenism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(led to the idealisation of Greeks \(p. 7?8\), but in my view it was the idealisation of the Greeks during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment and thereafter which led to Philhellenism. The idea of a unitary ideal for a modern Greece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes beyond Philhellenism and was a more general European approach to modern Greeks. Philhellenism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply the extreme form of the idealisation, which had seen every British school boy and girl forced to learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek. Eastern Orthodox Cypriots, especially for the British back home sitting in the comfort of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offices, were considered Greeks and this dominated initial policy, despite discourses that question the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Greekness? of the Eastern Orthodox Cypriots. Armenians, however, could not be considered Greeks, but as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laycock shows, they too had an important place in the British imperial imagination, dating back to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusades \(an imagination which again interlocks with that of Cyprus ? two branches of the Lusignan family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruled Cyprus and Armenia, until in the 14th century the Cyprus branch claimed the Armenian title\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being an interest of archaeological pursuits. Laycock does not explore the differences in meaning between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greece and Armenia, but recognises that modern Greece did not live up to the expectations that Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had created from their vision of ancient Greece. Laycock uses the term ?rediscovery? to account for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?renewed? British interest in Armenia and the attitude of those who encountered Armenia, but does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently prove that these words are appropriate when she justifies them by generalising that ?British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observers treated people, and place as passive and inert, waiting for British interest to bring them ?alive? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rest of the world? \(p. 43\). I associate these terms with the fact that Europeans had pre-existing filters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated through their education, religion, various ideas and movements, such as the Romantic Movement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their interest in archaeology, which affected how they envisaged modern Greece, the Holy Land, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyprus, and to a lesser extent Armenia. After reading chapter two it becomes apparent that Europeans )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.2957 369.9655 407.2877 381.8455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.9957 355.7095 211.9877 367.5895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8981 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought their own image of Armenia and Armenians to the Armenian Question and to Armenians, whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they visited the Armenian inhabited areas of the Ottoman Empire or not. By chapter five it becomes clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Armenian and Armenophile \(who the ?Armenophile?s? were could have been explored in greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth\) vision of an Armenian homeland resembled the Greek vision of the ?Great Idea? and indeed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the Erivan Republic was similar to the small Greek state established in 1830 ? both were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small part of the ?dream nation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.984 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.984 723.795 m 205.976 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book has the title )] TJ ET BT 141.008 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining Armenia)] TJ ET BT 234.668 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and one of the chapters \(chapter two\) has the subtitle ?Images of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenia during the Late Nineteenth Century?, yet there are a mere two images in the book. It may be that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laycock struggled to find images or that she struggled to obtain the rights to publish them, but given that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not discuss other images it leads me to conclude that she perhaps does not believe that images are as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital as words. I agree with John MacKenzie?s argument that ?a full understanding of orientalism requires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some comprehension of the extensive range of artistic vehicles through which representations of the orient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were projected?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.312 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.312 612.003 m 127.304 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.304 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The same applies to the other themes of Laycock?s book ? imperialism, warfare, identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laycock states that Armenians formed a minority in areas inhabited by a mixture of Turks, Kurds, Greeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others \(p. 2\), implying that the Armenians were never in the majority in any area and that they were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority compared to these other groups. This is highly contentious, since no irrefutable demographic data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exists. In Armenian heartland areas, such as the Vilayets of Van \(namely in Van town and Shatakh\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bitlis \(namely in Sasun\), there is little doubt that the Armenians were in the majority alongside Kurds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turks, but when Kurds and Turks are lumped together as ?Muslims? they do outnumber the Armenians. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is indeed the point: identity seems to have been in flux during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman Empire, but religion was still the primary reference point, alongside regional and familial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What I found really interesting and a potential avenue for Laycock to further explore, is how the displaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors of the genocide saw the solution to their plight in terms of returning home. They saw their identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of their village and not in ?national? terms with the new republic created. Would they have felt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same if an Armenian homeland encompassing most of ?historic Armenia? had been established with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(village outside its boundaries? Europeans, it would appear, saw the nation state as the determiner of identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the only secure path for the future of the displaced, but they were not strong enough and did not have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest to seriously attempt to establish a mandate over an Armenian state \(along Woodrow Wilson?s lines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or those of anyone else\). After the First World War imperialism had been extended for the first time since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British occupied Cyprus east of Malta into the Middle East heartland, but there the British and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French had real interests ? oil ? and no serious rival, in Anatolia and the Caucasus they would have had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come into conflict with Kemalist nationalist forces and perhaps with Bolshevik Russia \(the latter already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being present on a greater scale than they were\). Displaced Armenians did not however all settle in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenian republic, nor in the United States, France and Britain, but also in numerous other cities in the Near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Middle East. For example, according to the )] TJ ET BT 265.316 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annual General Report for Cyprus for the Year 1920)] TJ ET BT 519.980 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were about 10,000 Armenians in the island )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.320 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.320 245.859 m 263.312 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 263.312 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, in the )] TJ ET BT 346.628 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annual Report for the Year 1931)] TJ ET BT 504.296 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it stated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the 1921 Census had found only 1,197 Armenians and a rise to 3,377 in the 1931 Census )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.652 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.652 231.603 m 504.644 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.644 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: thus most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 10,000 found in 1921 had not been counted as ?official? residents, but were living in refugee camps, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and most had subsequently moved on. Armenians preferred to settle in places under European rule, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lebanon, Iraq, and Cyprus, rather than in the Armenian Socialist Soviet Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a number of times while reading )] TJ ET BT 241.292 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imagining Armenia)] TJ ET BT 334.952 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that I felt that further context, explanation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and detail was needed. Some of these are:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 57.816 126.566 m 57.816 127.116 57.589 127.662 57.201 128.051 c 56.812 128.440 56.266 128.666 55.716 128.666 c 55.166 128.666 54.620 128.440 54.231 128.051 c 53.842 127.662 53.616 127.116 53.616 126.566 c 53.616 126.016 53.842 125.470 54.231 125.081 c 54.620 124.693 55.166 124.466 55.716 124.466 c 56.266 124.466 56.812 124.693 57.201 125.081 c 57.589 125.470 57.816 126.016 57.816 126.566 c f BT 64.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mention is made of the Armenian diaspora in Britain, but there was not enough detail on how many )] TJ ET BT 64.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenians there were, how organised they were, from what backgrounds they were from and how )] TJ ET BT 64.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential they were.)] TJ ET 57.816 83.798 m 57.816 84.348 57.589 84.894 57.201 85.283 c 56.812 85.672 56.266 85.898 55.716 85.898 c 55.166 85.898 54.620 85.672 54.231 85.283 c 53.842 84.894 53.616 84.348 53.616 83.798 c 53.616 83.248 53.842 82.702 54.231 82.313 c 54.620 81.925 55.166 81.698 55.716 81.698 c 56.266 81.698 56.812 81.925 57.201 82.313 c 57.589 82.702 57.816 83.248 57.816 83.798 c f BT 64.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laycock states that the US does not recognise the Armenian Genocide \(p. 6?7\), and it is true that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither the US government nor the US Congress have officially recognised it, but 42 of the 50 US )] TJ ET BT 64.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states have made individual proclamations recognizing the events of 1915 as genocide. This also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 191.9837 724.1095 205.9757 735.9895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 113.3117 612.3175 127.3037 624.1975 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.3197 246.1735 263.3117 258.0535 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.6517 231.9175 504.6437 243.7975 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R ] /Contents 54 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Length 10132 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.000 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raises the question whether genocide and mass killing should be ?recognised? by governments and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliaments, or left to courts and historians.)] TJ ET 57.816 771.062 m 57.816 771.612 57.589 772.158 57.201 772.547 c 56.812 772.936 56.266 773.162 55.716 773.162 c 55.166 773.162 54.620 772.936 54.231 772.547 c 53.842 772.158 53.616 771.612 53.616 771.062 c 53.616 770.512 53.842 769.966 54.231 769.577 c 54.620 769.189 55.166 768.962 55.716 768.962 c 56.266 768.962 56.812 769.189 57.201 769.577 c 57.589 769.966 57.816 770.512 57.816 771.062 c f BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baquda camp: where is it? How many people there? Were there other camps?)] TJ ET 57.816 756.806 m 57.816 757.356 57.589 757.902 57.201 758.291 c 56.812 758.680 56.266 758.906 55.716 758.906 c 55.166 758.906 54.620 758.680 54.231 758.291 c 53.842 757.902 53.616 757.356 53.616 756.806 c 53.616 756.256 53.842 755.710 54.231 755.321 c 54.620 754.933 55.166 754.706 55.716 754.706 c 56.266 754.706 56.812 754.933 57.201 755.321 c 57.589 755.710 57.816 756.256 57.816 756.806 c f BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why were Lloyd George and Lord Curzon pro-Armenian and anti-Ottoman?)] TJ ET 57.816 742.550 m 57.816 743.100 57.589 743.646 57.201 744.035 c 56.812 744.424 56.266 744.650 55.716 744.650 c 55.166 744.650 54.620 744.424 54.231 744.035 c 53.842 743.646 53.616 743.100 53.616 742.550 c 53.616 742.000 53.842 741.454 54.231 741.065 c 54.620 740.677 55.166 740.450 55.716 740.450 c 56.266 740.450 56.812 740.677 57.201 741.065 c 57.589 741.454 57.816 742.000 57.816 742.550 c f BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Sovietisation of the Armenian republic was not explained.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the few exasperating elements of this book is the dropping of names without there being sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of who they are and why they are important. Examples are: Isabella Bishop \(pp. 48?9\); William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ainsworth \(p. 49\); Alexander MacDonald \(p. 49\); H. F. B. Lynch \(p. 50\); W. H. Harcourt \(p. 156\); Some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these names and others \(William Ramsay\) do not appear in the index. Equally annoying were the constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to ?Turkey? instead of Ottoman Empire. This, in my view, is anachronistic, and fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguish between the Ottoman Empire and the state that succeeded it, the Republic of Turkey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these criticisms )] TJ ET BT 151.004 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imaging Armenia)] TJ ET BT 235.328 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( goes where no book on this subject has gone before, into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncharted waters of British perceptions of Armenians and the Armenian Question during the most turbulent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of Armenian history, when they were the victims of mass killing and eventually genocide. The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of Armenia was multilayered, oscillating between co-existence and clashes, occident and orient, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which aspect of this image influenced government policy and civil society? Was it a case of Armenia being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?too European? enough to bother about in the aftermath of the Ottoman collapse and the establishment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandates in the Middle East? Was it that the British \(and France\) did not have serious interests in Armenia? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or was it that they were unwilling to fight Kemalist nationalists? Laycock provides an interesting and timely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socio-cultural analysis of British views of Armenians and the Armenian Question, filling a void in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and answering numerous questions, while at the same time also leaving \(and creating\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various other questions which remain to be answered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrekos Varnava, )] TJ ET BT 160.316 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878?1915: The Inconsequential Possession)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.988 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.988 391.923 m 214.976 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Minorities of Cyprus: Development Patterns and the Identity of the Internal-Exclusion)] TJ ET BT 500.312 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrekos Varnava, Nicholas Coureas and Marina Elia \(Cambridge, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.936 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.936 363.411 m 476.924 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arman John Kirakossian, )] TJ ET BT 189.332 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Diplomacy and the Armenian Question: From the 1830s to 1914)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(English translation, Princeton, NJ, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 266.672 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 266.672 334.899 m 320.660 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Varnava, )] TJ ET BT 130.988 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism in Cyprus, 1878?1915)] TJ ET BT 334.664 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 65?92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.992 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.992 320.643 m 444.980 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, pp. 93?126.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 145.676 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 145.676 306.387 m 199.664 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid, pp. 152?201.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.676 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.676 292.131 m 205.664 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another excellent example is the Ionian Islands. Thomas W. Gallant, )] TJ ET BT 398.960 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experiencing Dominion: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture, Identity, and Power in the British Mediterranean)] TJ ET BT 342.344 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Notre Dame, IN, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.976 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.976 263.619 m 517.964 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the brilliant Stathis Gourgouris, )] TJ ET BT 239.348 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dream Nation: Enlightenment, Colonisation, and the Institution )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Modern Greece)] TJ ET BT 151.988 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stanford, CA, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.976 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.976 235.107 m 313.964 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John MacKenzie, )] TJ ET BT 150.992 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism: History, Theory and the Arts)] TJ ET BT 352.988 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1995\), p. 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.960 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.960 220.851 m 536.948 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(HMSO,)] TJ ET BT 101.684 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Cyprus: Report for 1920)] TJ ET BT 223.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1921\), pp. 4?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 345.668 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.668 206.595 m 405.656 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(HMSO, )] TJ ET BT 104.684 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annual Report on the Social and Economic Progress of the People of Cyprus)] TJ ET BT 475.328 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1931\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 5?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 178.083 m 162.332 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/518/207.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 123.315 m 313.004 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 316.004 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 119.983 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 102.203 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 102.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/876)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 100.809 m 322.316 100.809 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 75.832 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 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