%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 33 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416115847+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416115847+01'00') /Title (The Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons c. 597-c. 700. Discourses of Life, Death and Afterlife) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4096 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons c. 597-c. 700. Discourses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of Life, Death and Afterlife)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publisher?s blurb for Marilyn Dunn?s new book claims that it is ?the first work on the subject to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combine a historical approach with insights provided by ethnography and anthropology?. As is often the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case with publisher?s statements, this is something of an exaggeration. There are few early medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical works being written today, let alone those dealing with aspects of early medieval religion, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not been influenced to a greater or lesser extent by anthropological and ethnographical approaches, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of these disciplines on early medieval archaeology has been even more substantial. That is not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that an overview of the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons from a specific anthropological perspective is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not welcome. Marilyn Dunn provides a stimulating reassessment that is also based firmly on archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contemporary written sources and demonstrates wide reading in the secondary literature. Her rsums of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence for certain key topics are reasons in themselves for consulting the book. However, what makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her book particularly distinctive \(as, to do it justice, the blurb goes on to explain\) is that it approaches the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject through cognitive anthropology, is particularly concerned with how Christian discourses on death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed in response to traditional beliefs, and is convinced that the Justinianic plagues of the 6th and 7th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries were a dominant factor in stimulating these changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introductory chapter explains the book?s viewpoint in greater detail. Cognitive anthropology is defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(878)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 28 February, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marilyn Dunn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847251893)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(280pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Yorke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6364 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a union between ethnography and cognitive science in order to uncover the common mental structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinning societies. Pascal Boyer, )] TJ ET BT 217.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion Explained. The Human Instincts that Fashion Gods, Spirits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Ancestors)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 105.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 105.344 766.563 m 119.336 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a key influence, as are various studies by Paul Whitehouse that explore differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between doctrinal religions such as Christianity and traditional ?imagistic? religions that are based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sporadic, collective rituals. These broader insights provide valuable constructs against which to view the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often elusive early medieval evidence. However, one also has to recognise, as Dunn does in her subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions, that some aspects of how religion and morality operate within a society will be culturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific. One wonders therefore just how similar 20th-century Tikopia in the southern Pacific, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas whose religious practices are called upon to provide parallels, was in all respects to 7th-century Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon England. One of the observations often made about the use of anthropological studies to illuminate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval past is that the evidence of distant peoples often seems to be preferred to that of peoples closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in date and time who might provide a more exact parallel. There are places in this book where greater use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence from the Anglo-Saxons? near neighbours, especially in Ireland, might have helped to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation further forward. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second chapter Dunn looks in more detail at ideas about the soul and the treatment of the dead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveal fundamental differences in approach between Christianity and non-Christian religions in late Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early medieval Europe. Christian concepts of one soul are contrasted with traditional ideas of dual souls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of death as a liminal period in which correct rituals had to be observed to enable the soul that remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the body at death to move on without posing a threat to the living. The ways in which major Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinkers such as Augustine were led into developing concepts of purgatory and of prayers for the dead in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to traditional funerary practices and beliefs are explained clearly and cogently. The chapter ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with looking at key developments in these areas by Columbanus and other Irish who worked in Francia in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 6th and early 7th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters three and six deal with the narrative of the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons. Inevitably much well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known ground has to be retrodden here, but the familiar story is presented clearly and engagingly. There is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instance, a very effective discussion of how Wilfrid embedded traditional expectations of an Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon leader in his life as bishop of Northumbria. Rather surprisingly there is no use or reference in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters to Nicholas Higham?s )] TJ ET BT 186.656 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Convert Kings; Power and Religious Affiliation in Early Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.684 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.684 371.907 m 91.676 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.676 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, also drawing on anthropological perspectives, covers much the same ground on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political context of conversion \(including a detailed discussion of the relevance of Frankish internal politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons\). Between these two chapters are two useful evaluations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for Anglo-Saxon pagan beliefs in life and death that are to be particularly valued for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdisciplinary approach, especially the attempt to relate the archaeological to the written evidence \(though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is also one of the areas where greater use could have been made of Irish parallels\). Archaeologists of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 20th century are taken severely to task for their ?functionalist? approach to Anglo-Saxon burial customs. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps not surprisingly, Dunn embraces the more recent work of a new generation of scholars, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally Crawford, Sarah Semple and Howard Williams, who are attempting to put religion back into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of pre-Christian burial ritual. However, Dunn goes further than many would in downplaying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of burial ritual for proclaiming a family?s status or claims to land, in addition to laying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dead to rest.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 105.3437 766.8775 119.3357 778.7575 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6837 372.2215 91.6757 384.1015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8279 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dunn?s interpretation of the written evidence for Anglo-Saxon paganism is strongly influenced by the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Richard North, and should perhaps have come with more of a health warning as many of North?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic interpretations and readings of the literature in the light of possible Scandinavian parallels have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been seen as highly controversial. It is disconcerting to read, for instance, apparently as accepted fact, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King Edwin introduced the cult of Woden into Northumbria shortly before his conversion. Bede, of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(says nothing of the sort, and such an interpretation depends on the identification of hidden meanings in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text and language. In this section it would have been worth considering how far aspects of Romano-British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion might have influenced what is referred to as ?Anglo-Saxon paganism?, especially in evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming from Northumbria where, at even the most generous estimate, Germanic immigrants must have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably outnumbered by the existing inhabitants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven looks beyond the initial conversion period to the stage of Christianization when adjustments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were necessary on both sides as the new religion was absorbed into Anglo-Saxon society. Topics covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include the expectations of warriors, the role of women, infant baptism, the cult of saints and attitudes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death. Much use is made in elucidating the last two themes of the )] TJ ET BT 350.648 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whitby Life of Pope Gregory the Great)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the )] TJ ET BT 72.008 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogues)] TJ ET BT 121.340 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that are attributed to the same pope. Following Francis Clark?s proposal that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogues )] TJ ET BT 86.348 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were actually written around the 670s and are only in part genuine Gregorian material )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.584 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.584 557.235 m 515.576 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 515.576 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Dunn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotes a case for this pseudo-Gregorian text having been compiled in Anglo-Saxon England, perhaps in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the monasteries associated with Wilfrid. This interesting proposal needs more detailed discussion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support than she has so far been able to provide.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.304 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.304 514.467 m 279.296 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 279.296 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A brief final chapter summarises the conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in the book that are generally in line with other recent works in seeing acceptance of the major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles of Christianity in Anglo-Saxon England by c.700, including its concepts of the afterlife and hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its burial rituals, but with survival or adaptation to many traditional beliefs and ritual practices continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneath the surface.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A recurrent theme in the book is the impact of the Justinianic plagues of the 6th and 7th centuries on both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pagan and Christian rituals and attitudes to the dead and the afterlife. This epidemic, which is thought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been bubonic plague, is first recorded in Egypt in 541 and spread rapidly through Europe with frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrences until the middle of the 8th century. Bede?s roll-call of Anglo-Saxon rulers and ecclesiastics who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died in the outbreaks of the 660s and 680s is eloquent testimony to high mortality levels. Dunn draws )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to ideas widespread in medieval and other cultures of revenants \(or vampires\) spreading disease )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how these could be combated by burial rituals, such as decapitation or removal of feet, which are often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be found in Frankish and Anglo-Saxon cemeteries. She argues that it was to meet heightened anxieties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about death, and doubts about the effectiveness of Christianity in dealing with the dangerous dead at a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of plague, that led churchmen, especially in the insular world, to develop more elaborate ideas of purgatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the efficacy of penance and prayers for the dead to ease souls into the Christian afterlife. As with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later Black Death, there are problems in discerning how far developments within a certain period \(a couple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of centuries in the case of the early Middle Ages\) were directly a response to plague as opposed to meeting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more general concerns about the transience of life at a time when death in battle or by disease would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been commonplace. Some of the attempts to relate a range of developments in burial ritual as reaction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plague seem to go rather too far. It is suggested, for instance \(p. 95\) that the development of ring-ditches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around graves in Kentish cemeteries in the late 6th centuries was to provide a greater barrier between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living and dead because of a fear of revenants. The more usual interpretation is that they are an indicator of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status, imitating prehistoric barrow burial, and this viewpoint receives some support in contemporary Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written sources. It is also suggested that the burials around mound five in the Sutton Hoo elite cemetery were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of people who had died of plague rather than, as is more generally interpreted, those who had been executed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 176\). Dunn has not had the advantage of consulting Andrew Reynolds?s recent book on execution sites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sets out detailed evidence for the latter interpretation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.292 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.292 117.555 m 336.284 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 336.284 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The development of execution sites is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pieces of evidence to suggest that there were several different types of ?badness? or of unnatural death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that required special burial rituals in the early middle ages to protect the living by outlawing such people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the community of the normal dead. ?Deviant? burials, including rites such as decapitation or weighing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the body with stones, have a long history in Europe that stretches back into the prehistoric past, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.5837 557.5495 515.5757 569.4295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.3037 514.7815 279.2957 526.6615 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 322.2917 117.8695 336.2837 129.7495 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 4292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that revenants were perceived as a recurring problem in a number of different circumstances, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which epidemic disease, of course, could have been one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discussion of such issues serves to illustrate how very difficult it can be to draw definite conclusions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early medieval past when so many aspects are not fully recorded. Formation and examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypotheses, developed with the aid of observable patterns from other times and places, is the only way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward as Marilyn Dunn so effectively illustrates in her erudite, but sometimes controversial, contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the debates about the Christianization of the Anglo-Saxons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 633.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pascal Boyer, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 633.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Religion Explained. The Human Instincts that Fashion Gods, Spirits and Ancestors)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 617.763 m 196.328 617.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Higham, )] TJ ET BT 154.340 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Convert Kings; Power and Religious Affiliation in Early Anglo-Saxon England)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.988 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.988 589.251 m 214.976 589.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 576.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Clark, )] TJ ET BT 135.008 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pseudo-Gregorian Dialogues)] TJ ET BT 298.328 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(2 vols., Leiden, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.648 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.648 574.995 m 470.636 574.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See also Marilyn Dunn. ?Reading the )] TJ ET BT 246.992 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dialogues)] TJ ET BT 296.324 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, )] TJ ET BT 307.652 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studia Patristica)] TJ ET BT 388.664 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 39 \(2006\), 355?61.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.984 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.984 560.739 m 536.972 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Reynolds, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon Deviant Burial Customs)] TJ ET BT 338.000 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 416.648 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 416.648 546.483 m 470.636 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/523/1492.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 491.715 m 319.004 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.004 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 488.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 470.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 470.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/878)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 469.209 m 322.316 469.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4596)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/523/1492.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 618.0775 196.3277 629.9575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.9877 589.5655 214.9757 601.4455 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.6477 575.3095 470.6357 587.1895 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.9837 561.0535 536.9717 572.9335 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 416.6477 546.7975 470.6357 558.6775 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 492.0295 319.0037 503.9095 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVI/523/1492.full) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 469.5235 322.3157 481.4035 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/878) >> endobj xref 0 49 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000598 00000 n 0000000680 00000 n 0000004828 00000 n 0000004937 00000 n 0000005047 00000 n 0000005156 00000 n 0000008717 00000 n 0000008845 00000 n 0000008929 00000 n 0000009020 00000 n 0000015437 00000 n 0000015467 00000 n 0000015595 00000 n 0000015631 00000 n 0000015661 00000 n 0000015787 00000 n 0000015823 00000 n 0000015921 00000 n 0000024253 00000 n 0000024283 00000 n 0000024411 00000 n 0000024447 00000 n 0000024477 00000 n 0000024605 00000 n 0000024641 00000 n 0000024671 00000 n 0000024799 00000 n 0000024835 00000 n 0000024961 00000 n 0000029306 00000 n 0000029434 00000 n 0000029489 00000 n 0000029617 00000 n 0000029672 00000 n 0000029800 00000 n 0000029855 00000 n 0000029983 00000 n 0000030038 00000 n 0000030166 00000 n 0000030221 00000 n 0000030348 00000 n 0000030457 00000 n 0000030585 00000 n trailer << /Size 49 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30680 %%EOF