%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141227064628+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141227064628+00'00') /Title (A Lost Frontier Revealed: Regional Separation in the East Midlands) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4323 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Lost Frontier Revealed: Regional Separation in the East Midlands)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?holy grail? for academic local historians over the past 50 or so years has been the search for regions, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search conducted partly out of genuine interest, partly as a parallel to regional geography, and partly from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motives of self-preservation resulting from fears that ?local history? conveyed the impression of being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parochial and antiquarian. W. G. Hoskins, for whom the Department of English Local History at Leicester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University was set up after the Second World War, was unashamedly a parish historian, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated through his important study of Wigston Magna, Leicestershire, )] TJ ET BT 406.976 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Midland Peasant)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(reprinted in 2009 by Carnegie\), but he was not an antiquarian. Hoskins believed in seeing the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual parish as throwing light on wider patterns of change in communities well beyond the borders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his chosen village. In his wake came a number of Leicester-based scholars, most recently Charles Phythian-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adams, who has been Alan Fox?s mentor and guide in preparing this study of a region spanning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicestershire-Lincolnshire border near Grantham.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The regional debate is a problem in England because the state is a thousand years old, and if we omit Wales, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and Ireland, it has contained no separate forms of government or administration since the Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest. The county and parochial structure largely dates from before the Conquest, and affinities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalties have often been associated with these boundaries. The work of Joan Thirsk on agricultural regions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Alan Everitt on )] TJ ET BT 124.004 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pays)] TJ ET BT 146.000 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 152.000 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of Harold Fox on Wolds communities, has provided interesting Leicester-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(879)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Fox)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781902806976)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Hertfordshire Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hatfield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Beckett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7378 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into different types of communities being common to particular forms of agricultural practice, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing anything much more concrete than this has proved elusive. Cultural distinctions such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and local pride suggest that the peripheries \(Cornwall, north-east England for example\) have a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of their own independence. Yet when in 2004 a referendum was held with a view to establishing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(north-east regional assembly, which would have some of the powers won by Scotland and Wales in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, it collapsed in the face of almost universal apathy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this has prevented efforts from being made to identify regional distinctiveness, either through what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is now the Centre for English Local History at Leicester, or the regional centres around the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including, perhaps not surprisingly, Cornwall and north-east England. Indeed, it would be true to say that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate has been stirred up rather than calmed down by the difficulty of actually finding the distinctiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which historians have sought with such enthusiasm. Partly this is because the search for regions has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly associated with the desire to theorize the subject of local history, perhaps in an effort to provide it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with academic justification to meet the demands of research assessment exercises and other target-setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercises to which professional historians now have no option other than to sign up. In his editor?s preface, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Nigel Goose is explicit on the point, noting that the book provides ?a searching theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis?, and in what follows Fox is equally explicit in seeking to address some of the issues raised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phythian-Adams? argument that England consisted of a patchwork of ?regional societies? which coincided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with major drainage basins, and that as a result watersheds acted as frontier zones from the Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period to recent times. These regions, essentially economic regions were centred on what Phythian-Adams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has referred to as ?primate towns?. These regions, Fox maintains, contained some viability into the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern period and even into the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fox admits to having been a late convert to the model; indeed he freely acknowledges that he was ?several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years into the research before being persuaded that there was quite a strong case for a frontier zone?. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delay in adopting the model may explain why throughout the book he is less than gushing about his findings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At times he is so modest that one suspects he was squirming when putting fingers to word processor to state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case, and he was particularly vexed \(especially in part four\) by the possibility that most of the trends he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locates could simply be a consequence of the location of the county boundary rather than the watershed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he is searching. If so, was the county boundary drawn to reflect the existing economic regions, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the regions existing separately from the county boundary? It is an awkward issue that has been explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in some of Phythian-Adams?s other work, and Fox never quite makes up his mind, despite \(especially in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four\) offering a liberal sprinkling of place and surnames, transport routes and so forth. The proposed frontier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may, he concludes, have waxed and waned through the centuries, but ?it would seem that the feature which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was arguably there in the eighteenth century possibly had its origins well before the Norman Conquest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that certain aspects of it may still be with us today?\(p. 182\). This is hardly a ringing endorsement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phythian-Adams?s hypothesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fox sets out the hypothesis in the first part of the book. Chapter one includes an assessment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics of regional societies and their frontiers. Chapter two introduces the ?Test Area? straddling the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lincolnshire-Leicestershire border between Melton Mowbray, Oakham and Grantham, which is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjected to theoretical investigation. Within the area he identifies seven separate landscapes in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geology and geomorphology. Part two of the book concentrates on the measures indicating the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions of the countryside, and provides a great deal of useful information about the study area, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and enclosure in chapter three, wealth and poverty in chapter four, and cultural expressions \(folk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions, vernacular buildings, dialect and word usage\) in chapter five. The section contains some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting material, but Fox is unable to convince himself that this detailed assessment has told him much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value \(p. 95\). Apart from mud and stud buildings, which are almost peculiar to Lincolnshire, there was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much else distinctive about the test area, and the dominant sheep economy was probably more of a unifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor than one which divided people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part three, Fox turns to the experiences of individuals and families, although the ugly title of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mechanisms of segregation? is not very appealing, and chapter titles such as ?Personal spatial loyalties? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather complicate what is a discussion of how individuals related to their home parish and surrounding areas. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?general level? of part two is now supplemented by what Fox refers to as the differences expressed at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more personal level with chapter six on the individual, chapter seven on the family and clan \(an unusual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept in England\) and chapter eight on the infrastructure by which people from separate parishes made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contact with each other and the experience of the people in gaining access to local markets. Chapter six is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely based on 50 marriage register sets for 1754?1810: 24 in Leicestershire and 26 in Kesteven. After a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long discussion which includes evidence from parish registers and probate documents, Fox concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extra-parochial marriages in his 50 parishes have added ?some support to the assertion that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontier zone? in the 18th century, \(p. 137\) and that most people showed a reluctance to cross county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries in the search for marriage partners. That this hardly comes as a surprise, given what we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from geographers? studies of market patterns, goes more or less without saying, although Fox has at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided a wealth of data in support of a point which is more often asserted than demonstrated by historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven looks at dynastic families which are, in effect, those families which stayed put in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, as opposed to those which were more transitory, and concludes rather unsurprisingly that such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families did not move around much.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fox shows in chapters six and seven how parish register analysis reveals the links between families in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(test area, and particularly in a group of 14 parishes astride the county boundary, but in chapter eight he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes tack a little to look at how easily or not people would have found it to get around the area: what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the transport links? This chapter includes an assessment of road and carrier networks. The road system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be blamed if the cross border links were weak because it included the A1 and a number of other roads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which are A-classified today. Fox also looks at urban fields of influence and the role of ?primate towns?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter also includes a study of hiring fairs. But the overall conclusion is simply that the people of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicestershire and Lincolnshire ?were reluctant to make contact?\(p. 166\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part four revisits the case for the proposed frontier and its contexts, hence the title ?Overall judgement and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings?. Fox argues that ?the major theme running through this book is the hypothesis that the area around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lincolnshire-Leicestershire border was a frontier between regional societies in the eighteenth century?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He admits that he thought ?the study area appeared in theory to represent a frontier zone between economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions since the county boundary, following the route of a prehistoric track, is almost entirely co-incident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the watershed between the Trent and Witham drainage basins?\(p. 169\). But he concedes that having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(started from this position, he found it difficult to find the appropriate evidence, and that when he did find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicators like marriage patterns which appeared to support the general case, he was then concerned as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether he had found a frontier, or just the influence of the county boundary? That in turn led him to ask )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether county boundaries were deliberately created in frontier areas between societies, or did they, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established, produce a frontier affect, or at least help to accentuate it? Fox goes on to look at place name and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surname evidence, and other distribution links such as newspapers to conclude that ?even in the 21st century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain aspects of a frontier perhaps endure in the zone astride the Lincolnshire-Leicestershire border.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1952 W. G. Hoskins argued that academic local history should be about questions, and not simply offer a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series of narratives. That is not unreasonable, but what are the questions? Alan Fox has written a book which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is concerned with testing a hypothesis through the use of place-based data \(marriages and so forth\), but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the places themselves are of no particular interest. In other words, is the subject at an academic level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now divorced from the subject at grass roots level? Has it gone the same way as demographic history, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the village of Colyton in Devon famous in the 1960s as a testing ground for new methods of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstitution without any local people being aware of this importance, or of urban history in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of place is seemingly discouraged as being not a significant academic pursuit? Does this type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical approach do more than provide grist for an academic mill more concerned with ticking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government ?target? boxes than it is with understanding and unwrapping the history of individual places, be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they villages, parishes, counties or any other local units?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And where does this take us? As someone who has held a chair in an English university with the title of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Regional History, and who has also worked for the Victoria County History, I should declare an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest and it is this: Hoskins wrote of Wigston as an exemplar of ?place? as a way of opening up wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. My main concern having read Alan Fox?s book is that if we spend so much time trying to justify, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2596 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or find evidence in support of, a theoretical construct, are we in danger of losing sight of the essence of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history which is the study of the place? And, if we are, do we run the risk of academic local historians losing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touch with their communities outside of the universities, just as historians more generally have tended to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they have become obsessed by postmodern and structural issues without remembering that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of their community are simply interested in ?what happened?? Once we divorce the academic from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider community, in a subject like History, which does not suffer from the problems of understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are often associated, for example, with the pure sciences, are we in danger of creating a university-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history which bears no relation to the subject as it is enjoyed by the majority of society? Above all, is there a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger of professional historians searching for theoretical constructs which do not really work when applied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the ground? Alan Fox?s doubts about the regional model he is seeking to test make this a book which is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the end, less than convincing. We know more about the study area he has chosen to target, but whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frontiers or watersheds were of greater or lesser importance than good old county boundaries remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unproven.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 580.159 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 562.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 562.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/879)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 560.985 m 322.316 560.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 536.008 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.608 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 561.2995 322.3157 573.1795 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/879) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000005026 00000 n 0000005135 00000 n 0000005245 00000 n 0000005354 00000 n 0000008915 00000 n 0000009043 00000 n 0000009127 00000 n 0000009192 00000 n 0000016623 00000 n 0000016688 00000 n 0000024226 00000 n 0000024310 00000 n 0000026959 00000 n 0000027087 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 27182 %%EOF