%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831025537+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831025537+01'00') /Title (The English Nation: the Great Myth) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4247 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The English Nation: the Great Myth)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwin Jones has produced a powerful, complex, eloquent and truly remarkable book. It is a heady blend of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and politics, past and present - committed scholarship in the best sense. It rests on the conviction that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical understanding matters. Achieving a proper understanding of five or more centuries of history may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be crucial to making informed and sound political choices in the present. Reading the book has been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewarding experience, and this in good part I disagree - often strongly - with a good deal of what is in it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Nation)] TJ ET BT 127.364 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is one of those books that helps its readers to think about important matters, irrespective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their agreement or disagreement with it. I would recommend it to anyone..)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Summary)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument of Joness book is complex. Its claims can be summarised under three heads.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\) )] TJ ET BT 51.008 184.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 87.008 184.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The great myth of the books title, the idea of an English nation, was invented in the 1530s by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell. As a result of the Henrician Reformation the English suddenly became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insular, and viewed themselves as the elect nation, apart from all others. They became increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xenophobic and reluctant to accept that their history, culture or institutions owed anything to anyone else. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This contrasted sharply with the medieval world, in which the English saw themselves as part of a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian culture, and happily acknowledged that they were a part of the international papal church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\) )] TJ ET BT 51.008 87.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historiography)] TJ ET BT 125.012 87.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( English insularity, thanks to the propagandists of the 1530s, the common lawyers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-seventeenth century, and the Whig history invented late in that century by Gilbert Burnet, became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embedded in English historiography until the revisionisms of the twentieth century began to reveal the truth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(88)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwin Jones)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sutton Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroud)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glenn Burgess)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7391 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revisionism was, however, anticipated in the early nineteenth-century by the remarkable work of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lingard; but Lingards history, like that of contemporary revisionists, failed to have an impact on the great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth, which remained and remains entrenched in the history consumed outside of academe. Thus English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography has been thoroughly Anglocentric, refusing to accept that English history has been part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader European history, and deeply influenced by European culture and civilisation. It has consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to understand properly the medieval period, and thus failed to understand the revolutionary character )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Reformation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\) )] TJ ET BT 51.008 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics )] TJ ET BT 90.680 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The survival of the great myth continues, at the deepest level, to determine or sustain much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Eurosceptic English response to the European Union and to plans for further European integration. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English need to see that 400 or so years ago they were, even in their own eyes, part of Europe. Having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realised this, and accepted the Europeanness of their nation, they will be able to see the case in the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for full participation in the European Union. Furthermore, just as in the medieval past, the proper basis for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Union must be found in Christian civilisation and its values.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a bald summary of a complex, interlocking argument. My reaction to the book can be put equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baldly: Im unpersuaded by both its historical argument and its political recommendations; I agree with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good deal of its analysis of English historiographical traditions, but - crucially - find it difficult to accept the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical assumptions on which its history of English historiography is founded. Ill work through these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points in the same order that I have summarised Jones's arguments)] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can certainly be no doubting the importance of historical propaganda in the English Reformation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joness account can, indeed, be faulted for a failure to give any very full account or analysis of this, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though it constitutes, in the authors eyes, the crucial turning point in English history. There is, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, no mention of the manuscript collection of authorities and precedents, the )] TJ ET BT 452.636 410.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collectanea satis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(copiosa)] TJ ET BT 71.348 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, compiled by Cranmer and others, and mined for a good deal of the historical argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buttressed the early Henrician Reformation; nor is there mention made of the essential research of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar who discovered this collection, Graham Nicholson. Nonetheless, there is no doubt considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausibility in the claim that the assertion of royal imperial sovereignty and \(as part of it\) the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supremacy in the 1530s thereafter coloured English views of the medieval past, and in particular views of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between the )] TJ ET BT 171.992 325.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ecclesia Anglicana)] TJ ET BT 262.976 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the papal church of which it was a part. But three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important reservations should be entered. The first, which will be noted again in my discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, is that we need to recognise that the assertion of the royal supremacy, though buttressed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval historical examples, was not simply, perhaps not )] TJ ET BT 317.324 282.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(primarily)] TJ ET BT 362.660 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 368.660 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historical assertion. While, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words of the Act in Restraint of Appeals \(1533\), divers sundry old authentic histories and chronicles showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England to have been an empire, nonetheless, the authority that the king wielded was the gift of God. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act Extinguishing the Authority of the Bishop of Rome \(1536\) referred to rights due to the king by the Law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of God. On such a basis, the exercise of papal authority in medieval England, whether with or without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consent of king and people, could only be a usurpation. This is important, because throughout the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones treats the claim for English imperial independence as if it were only an historical claim.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My second, and most important, reservation concerns the leap that Jones makes from the claims advanced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1530s to the wider assertion of English national identity. He portrays the change as sudden and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate, but does not fully document the link that is supposed to join a claim about the churchs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence of the papacy to broader assertions of Englands insular and peculiar identity. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons to doubt in detail the rather neat picture that results. Jones makes much, for example, of John Foxe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the idea of England as an elect nation. England as elect nation figures as a )] TJ ET BT 412.268 99.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(leitmotiv)] TJ ET BT 454.268 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( throughout the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones is certainly aware that much scholarship has questioned the validity of William Hallers original work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Foxe and the elect nation \(e.g. p. 52 & n. 103\), even giving a quick summary of it \(pp. 53-4\). This leads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him, in places at least, to suggest thasuccessive waves of European conquerors. What is interesting - and I )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8153 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will return to this - is why the myth of Englands ancient constitution seemed to become entrenched in public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life just when scholars were undermining its intellectual plausibility.)] TJ ET BT 365.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When this entrenchment occurred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the early Stuart period, the key source repeatedly cited was Fortescues )] TJ ET BT 408.932 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Laudibus Legum Angliae)] TJ ET BT 546.596 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones does not mention Fortescue at all. Yet doing so reminds us that the idea of the insularity of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law, its superiority to the civil law, and the corresponding superiority of English peasants to French, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes developed well before the Reformation. Nicholas Henshall, in his )] TJ ET BT 388.628 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Myth of Absolutism)] TJ ET BT 481.964 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, has written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interestingly of this tradition that contrasts the lot of Englishmen with that of their less happy Continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours. )] TJ ET BT 96.344 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is true that Jones does recognise the existence of pre-Reformation notions of Englishry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting these with the xenophobic attitudes of post-Reformation nationalism. He accepts that benign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions of English identity persisted after the 1530s until the present - indeed Jones himself expresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them \(especially in the Prologue and pp. 160, 252\) - and are said to be found in Shakespeare \(pp. 47-8\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps: the persuasiveness of this position is not helped by an account of Shakespeare that says nothing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henry V)] TJ ET BT 74.336 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It seems to me, then, that Joness account exaggerates the effect of the Reformation and underplays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continuity between late-medieval and early modern views. His account of the medieval view seems at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times \(p. 10\) to be too church-centred.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may be possible to suggest an alternative chronology. From the 1530s to the 1640s Englands history was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen by those participating in it to have been deeply embedded in the history of the European Reformations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, it was precisely its place in the European world that proved one of the key issues of contention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the period, and which helped to perpetuate the divisions of the English church, as Anthony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Milton has shown us in detail. There were competing conceptions of Englands place in the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious world. The construction of the idea of a national church was very much a post-Restoration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, and in good part a High Church development at that. It was only in this period that we can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin \(perhaps hesitantly\) to talk of an Anglicanism distinct from both Catholicism and the reformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition. Joness account, in contrast, seems to try to hard to make English insularity and isolationism a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct and fairly immediate consequence of the 1530s, and in doing so is seriously misleading about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of the period 1530-1660. Even beyond 1660, of course, insularity was hardly universal. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a tension between two chief claims of the book: on the one hand, we are told that the English became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insular in the 1530s; but, on the other, we are also told that it is the insularity of English historians that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blinded them to the European context of sixteenth and seventeenth century English history \(especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glorious Revolution\). These positions are not exactly irreconcilable, but they require us to believe that for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern period and beyond English history was not insular though the people who were making it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed that it was. They did not, at least through the seventeenth century, though Jones is surely right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that modern historians have not always noticed the fact. But, then, at other times, nor does Jones, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he tells us that after the Reformation, England was isolated from Europe until 1973 \(p. 15\). Tell that to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William III.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On occasion, this tension in Joness account becomes startlingly visible, for it is arguable that his historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments are themselves guilty of an historiographical Anglocentrism. He has constructed aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor and Stuart English history wrongly because he has constructed them Anglocentrically. The best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of this lies in Jones's brief comments on anti-Catholicismof the British context to English history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earlier, I asked why the myth of Englands ancient constitution became so important just at the time that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship was undermining it. At least part of the answer lies in the intense English reaction to James VI & )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Is plans for perfect Union between England and Scotland, as Christopher Brooks and forthcoming work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my own try to show. The subject still awaits much fuller investigation, but I would certainly predict that any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the development of English cultural identity over the early modern period will need to take into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account the fact that a good deal of it was forged in relation to the Scots. The British perspective important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in another way. Jones is interested in accounts of early British Christianity that suggested an independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apostolic foundation from the English church, and rejected any suggestion that the English church began its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life under papal authority. These accounts were of an ancient )] TJ ET BT 329.600 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British )] TJ ET BT 365.276 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, and need to be understood, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part anyway, as one strand in the effort to forge a )] TJ ET BT 273.284 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British)] TJ ET BT 305.960 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( identity in the early modern period. It remains, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, true that English attitudes to Scotland were far from free of xenophobia and ignorant prejudice; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a sense this is why the British context is important. One might venture the too neat generalisation that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6941 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland did more than Europe to shape English national identity, at least during the first half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century, because the Scots could )] TJ ET BT 252.968 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 268.304 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be viewed so readily through the lens of anti-Catholicism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a long time after the Reformation, religion remained more important than national characteristics in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaping attitudes to the peoples of the European continent. But religion served, on the whole, to bind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English with the Scots, as it did with the Dutch, and so hostility to the Scots ran along other channels much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Historiography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a good deal to admire in Joness account of English historiography since the sixteenth century. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things stand out. First, he exposes convincingly the extent to which English historians have adopted a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insular view of the past. I might doubt whether or not this was all a consequence of the 1530s, but I wouldnt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt that it characterises a core feature of much historical writing before \(and in\) the twentieth century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones is certainly right, for example, to point out that it is only very recently that the Glorious Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been seen for what it really was, a Dutch invasion - though, oddly, he does not give credit to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important work of Jonathan Israel in this area.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, Jones provides a fascinating and powerful account of John Lingard, and convincingly demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which Lingard prefigures modern revisionist history. Particularly notable in this account are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which Lingard is shown to have been able to escape the clutches of the great myth by insisting on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful documentary analysis, and by his reluctance to risk statements without evidence. He stuck to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts. Much of this will seem bizarre in our post-modern age, and yet there is something persuasive in Joness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claim that it was through careful use of evidence and adherence to rational principles for its evaluation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployment that Lingard was able to see the past more accurately than those around him. This is a view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical enterprise that is under attack; and I certainly wouldnt want to defend this from of documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positivism too far \(as will soon become apparent\). Nonetheless, Joness account is powerfully suggestive of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which evidence informs historical writing; and it invites us to recognise that - all things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered - evidence and reason are more likely than anything else to inform us accurately of the past. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of Lingard may, though, be vulnerable in other ways; and it certainly seems to underplay the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Lingards Catholicism, however muted that was, in his historical writing. Lingard shared many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes in his accounoday of Britains relationship with Europe: however false the great myth, it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow that Englands Euroscepticism is thereby condemned. \(This is not written out of any wish to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort to Euroscepticism, which is not an attitude that I share.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To call Englands separation form Europe an aberration \(p. 24\) is misleading in three ways. It is, as I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested above, factually incorrect. Jones makes it seem true by the fallacy of the excluded middle: either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England is part of a European institutional structure \(the papal church, the European Union\), or it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated in its own world of xenophobic isolationism. But for much of the modern period, the truth has lain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in between. England has participated in European affairs, and even at times been able to see itself as a part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a European civilisation, while at the same time maintaining a separate national and imperial identity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, the statement is misleading at the political level, because, even if we accept the aberrational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading, it would be an aberration of such duration that there would seem little reason to suppose that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be readily reversible. And, third, so what? That England was once part of the papal church seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me to constitute no sort of argument for \(or against\) any particular approach to Europe in the present. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is no more reason to return to the past than to move further away from it: the only answer today to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of monetary and political union, or perfect Union \(as James VI & I might have put\), must come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the needs and concerns of the present. Rosemary ODay, writing on Lingard and other Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of the early-nineteenth century, rightly suggested that Lingards own sense of context undermined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the judgements of value that his history could sustain:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once historians appreciated that historical context was all important, it became, of course, much )] TJ ET BT 64.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more difficult to project contemporary controversies back into the past. Catholicism in Marys )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign had been shaped by sixteenth-century events, habits of mind, and education. Nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Catholicism could, in reality, justify its claims to full integration into British society by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an appeal to nineteenth-century conditions and attitudes. But neither Lingard nor any Catholic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian faced up to this implication and took the next step. Blithely they sought to vindicate )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Catholicism by an analysis of Catholic and Protestant behaviour under Mary )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite their acknowledgement that this behaviour had been moulded by now extinct forces \()] TJ ET BT 510.272 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(op. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cit.)] TJ ET BT 79.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 65\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mutatis mutandis)] TJ ET BT 117.692 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, all of this could apply to Jones himself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, Jones's historiography gives very incomplete background to those concerns. His historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision sustains a view of Englands Europeanness; but his vision omits one important strand in the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical tradition - imperial and post-colonial history. This can sustain its own view of Englands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in the world, and at the least must seriously modify what Jones says about the insularity of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical writing. Part of the problem, indeed, is a willingness to treat isolationism, xenophobia, anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism, insularity, and nationalism as much the same thing. Imperial Britain \(not England\) was scarcely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolationist, except perhaps from a Eurocentric viewpoint. And the legacy of Empire surely has sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two alternative views to that emphasising the necessity of Britains participation in Europe, one stressing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Britain and the United States, the other Britains leadership role in the Commonwealth. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both can sustain conceptions of a modern Britain that are unEuropean but not isolationist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In so far as Jones gives us a specific vision of Englishness, it appears to lie in the pages of the Prologue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recounting a trip through the Cotswolds. Its focus is on the medieval parish church. It seems, though perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am reading too much into this, that this story establishes from the outset a nots to fit. From different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels they draw different lessons. His example was the Kosovo conflict. Did it resemble Vietnam \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which case, the West ought not to involve itself\) or did the situation parallel that of the 1930s, when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeasement of Hitler failed \(in which case, fight\)? Of course, it exactly paralleled neither. No complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical situations ever do parallel one another. It is impossible to draw direct lessons from historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels because the range of variables in each situation is so great that only a small set of them match up. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only thing you can be sure of with a political argument drawn from a direct historical parallel is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be in some way wrong, and quite possibly dangerously wrong. Joness book essentially commits the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability error on a grand scale. It assumes a parallel between medieval Christendom and the European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union, though more or less the only concrete similarity mentioned is that between canon law and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European law on human rights. All I can say is that no parallel of this sort can ever be valid enough to enable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us to draw specific policy lessons from it. We would be much more likely to enlighten ourselves \(in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kosovo case as much as in Joness example\) by asking what distinguishes situations that we may initially be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclined to see as so similar. No comparative history worth anything could fail to explore difference as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as similarity, for comparative history, like all history, helps us to understand why no comparisons are ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exact. Jones never explores the dissimilarities, and as a result his political counsel is not persuasive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 216.271 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 198.491 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 198.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/88)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 197.097 m 316.316 197.097 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 172.120 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.720 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/639)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.320 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 197.4115 316.3157 209.2915 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/88) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000544 00000 n 0000000626 00000 n 0000004925 00000 n 0000005034 00000 n 0000005144 00000 n 0000005253 00000 n 0000008814 00000 n 0000008942 00000 n 0000009026 00000 n 0000009091 00000 n 0000016535 00000 n 0000016600 00000 n 0000024806 00000 n 0000024871 00000 n 0000031865 00000 n 0000031949 00000 n 0000038100 00000 n 0000038228 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38322 %%EOF