%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826063801+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826063801+01'00') /Title (Imre Nagy: A Biography) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4796 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Imre Nagy: A Biography)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imre Nagy is undoubtedly one of the towering figures in 20th-century Hungary, having had a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the current of history twice within his lifetime and again 31 years after his death. Owing to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drive for silence over the recent past by Nagy?s successor Jnos Kdr, in an attempt to depoliticise society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and therefore prevent questions about his own rise to power, Nagy's name remained absent from the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse in Hungary for the 30 years following his execution, even if the opposite was the case west of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(iron curtain. Thus, it transpired that no comprehensive biography of Imre Nagy was written in Hungary until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jnos M. Rainer undertook the task following the system change in 1989. As Rainer wrote in the preface, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what spawned this was that after writing a brief biography for the Spanish language journal )] TJ ET BT 475.604 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hungra)] TJ ET BT 516.272 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realised that Nagy?s life was largely unknown \(p. xix\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the following decade, Rainer produced a two volume biography of Nagy, one covering his life from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1896?1953 published in 1996 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.348 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.348 131.625 m 193.340 131.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.340 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and another from 1953-1958 published in 1999 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.984 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.984 131.625 m 442.976 131.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.976 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, totalling just under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1000 pages in length. In 2002, Rainer condensed this into a single volume under 200 pages in length, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while still useful to the scholar, is much more accessible to a non-academic audience.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.272 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.272 103.113 m 458.264 103.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 458.264 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Since its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication, Rainer?s biography has generally become considered the definitive work on Nagy?s life. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condensed version was first translated into Polish in 2004 and then into German in 2006, with the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English edition being translated from the German. Until this book was published, there was no biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(880)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jnos Rainer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845119591)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(258pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zoltn Csipke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.3477 131.9395 193.3397 143.8195 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.9837 131.9395 442.9757 143.8195 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 444.2717 103.4275 458.2637 115.3075 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7189 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagy available in English published since Soviet and Hungarian archives opened with the fall of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism and system change in 1989. The work also makes use of Nagy?s own unfinished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography, as Rainer states that much of Nagy?s early life was unavailable from other sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This shortened work wisely condenses the period from 1896?1953 to approximately 60 pages, as this time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagy's life is unlikely to be of much interest to most readers. Those with a specific interest in this period ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who are likely to be knowledgeable of Hungarian ? are advised to consult the original full-length biography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, this section makes it clear that Rainer does not intend his work to be a hagiography. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rainer?s goal of presenting a biography as objective as possible resulted in his being sued by Nagy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughter Erzsbet in 1996 over a television documentary for which he provided the historical background, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because she felt it might tarnish his image.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.664 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.664 654.771 m 252.656 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rainer's biography of Nagy?s early life shows the path that Nagy took from belonging to a lower-middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class family in Kaposvr \(a small city in south-western Hungary\) through becoming a prisoner of war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia where subsequently the October Revolution and Russian Civil War took place. After returning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary in 1921 and participating in the communist underground, Nagy again left for the Soviet Union in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930. As Rainer reveals in the work, more often than not, Nagy?s travels within the communist hierarchy, be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they vertical or horizontal, were not the products of Nagy?s own planning or manoeuvring but rather what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might even be described as being in the right place at the right time. Observing just that, Rainer wrote of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagy?s promotion in the communist hierarchy in 1944: ?Nagy?s rise to ministerial status is attributable less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his special competence than to the special political circumstances? \(p. 36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagy, a firm believer in the communist system, was nonetheless not one to stand up to a challenge to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views, as Rainer repeatedly illustrates. While at times this was a reflection of Nagy?s own tendency to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict or at other times acts of self-preservation, he was certainly not of an assertive disposition in public. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although he would stand by views in private waiting for the opportunity that they would be applicable or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proven correct, he was still willing to perform the customary act of self-criticism. What becomes more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable about Nagy as one reads Rainer?s biography is just how unremarkable he was.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rainer discusses Nagy?s short terms as a popular Minister of Agriculture and ineffective Minister of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Interior, adding that in light of what Nagy?s successors Lszl Rajk and Jnos Kdr ?achieved? in the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post, Nagy?s unremarkable tenure shines a more positive light on him \(p. 43\). Rainer also includes quotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from non-communist politicians in the 1940s, who observed that Nagy was the most ?Hungarian? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muscovites who returned to Hungary after the war \(p. 47\). In contrast to Hungarian Communist Party First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretary Mtys Rkosi?s plans of hyper-industrialisation, Nagy advocated a slower transition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism. The result of this conflict was that Nagy resigned his government posts and moved to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university positions, where he continued his examination of the ?agrarian question? in Hungary through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lens of Marxism-Leninism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1950, however, Nagy again became a member of the government as the Minister of Requisitions, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oversaw collections from the rural peasantry. Following bad harvests and increasing quotas, the agents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this ministry made life miserable for the majority of farmers. Nagy, frequently at odds with the Planning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office nonetheless did not enjoy total control over his ministry, the agents of whom generally responded to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders from higher up. Even as he ineffectively opposed these ideas, Nagy remained in his post. Rainer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that as a veteran of the Soviet purges in the 1930s, Nagy knew the best way to guarantee his survival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to remain in the public eye and wait for Stalin to disappear \(p. 57\). Whether or not it was Rainer?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intent, the image this paints of Nagy is a man loyal to his convictions but spineless to do anything about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them, passively waiting for a chance to put forth his proposals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is also interesting about this part of Nagy?s life is that it is the section that is overlooked in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Hungary. Today, Nagy is remembered primarily for his role in 1956 so that even mainstream )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties of the Right will only offer mild criticisms, even if they distance themselves. Most of his life prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1953 is overlooked or forgotten, as if his actions in 1956 absolved him of this period. Rainer?s inclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this part of Nagy?s life, which of course could not be dismissed in a thorough biography, highlights how a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.6637 655.0855 252.6557 666.9655 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 6141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selective memory developed around Nagy in post-communist Hungary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagy?s life changed forever in 1953 when he became prime minister, and it is from this year forth that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of Rainer's biography is concerned with, which is also the most well known period of his life. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was during this time that Nagy slowed the pace of industrialisation and stopped collectivisation with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intent of improving living standards, as he sought a more gradual and Hungarian road toward socialism. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rainer repeatedly mentions, Nagy was a firm believer that each country?s path toward socialism or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism would have to incorporate that nation?s peculiarities, so that no two paths could be identical. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagy?s ouster from the position of prime minister in 1955 was something of a watershed in Nagy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adherence to the party, for although resigning \(which was also prompted by heart problems\) for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, Nagy did not practice the customary self-criticism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rainer makes it clear that Nagy was quite reluctant to become involved in the revolution, and for the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(days remained passive. Although Nagy was appointed prime minister the morning of October 24 1956, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinists surrounded him, and it was only days later that he began to fulfil the role that history will always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember him for. Even then, Nagy was responding to the street, not leading the charge, which is why some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have questioned to what degree Nagy can be considered a revolutionary. Rainer himself observes:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was not Imre Nagy who shaped revolutionary Hungary in 1956; rather he came increasingly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and through a gradual process to resemble it ? until the two became virtually synonymous \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(138\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it is assumed that Nagy?s execution after the revolution was a foregone conclusion, Rainer makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that it was not the Soviets who wished to see Nagy executed, but Jnos Kdr, whose legitimacy would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never be settled so long as Nagy lived, for Nagy refused to resign as prime minister \(p. 150\). At his trial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nagy was not permitted to challenge the accusations levelled against him, despite repeatedly illustrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farcical nature of the trial, and only allowed to speak at the end, at which point he stated that his trial had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been fair. After Nagy was sentenced to death, he used the opportunity to ask for clemency to deliver his final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, in which he stated his belief that the trial was a ?miscarriage of justice? and that one day, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction would be overturned ?by the Hungarian people and the international working class', concluding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he did not ask for clemency \(p. 163\). One cannot help but think of Arthur Koestler?s Rubashov as he or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she reads Rainer?s biography of the man who stuck by his ideals as the party he obediently served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed around him, eventually devouring him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, it was in death that Nagy for the third time changed the trajectory of Hungarian history in 1989. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since he had never received a proper burial following his execution, the increasingly organised democratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition forced a public memorial service upon the government, which at first resisted but eventually tried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to co-opt it. This moment not only undermined the tenuous credibility of the socialist state, but as Rainer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ugly details ? that the corpses were wrapped in tarpaper and laid face down in the graves, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the grave had no identification, or, in Nagy's case, was identified by a false name in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 175.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burial document ? allowed people to recognize the vileness of the Kdr regime \(p. 193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 136.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Kdr killed Nagy, Nagy can be said to have posthumously destroyed Kdr?s system, and perhaps even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kdr himself, for on 6 July 1989 as Nagy?s conviction was being overturned in court, Kdr died at home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period of Nagy?s life that has traditionally received the most attention is from 1953-1956. It is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods before and after those four years, however, that scholars already familiar with Nagy will find the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 67.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most interesting in this work. While some details of Nagy?s life prior to his return to Hungary after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War were known, the detail that Rainer provides helps explain why Nagy acted the way he )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 5742 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did in the defining moments of his life and paints a fuller picture of the reluctant leader. This work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesises into one coherent book the many twists and turns of Nagy?s life in English for the first time, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the first biography to include material about Nagy?s final days that were only made available to the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the system change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the end of the book that differs the most from the Hungarian edition, in that the final chapter from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungarian edition has been expanded and broken into two chapters. The first of these chapters, ?Post )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortem?, focuses on the treatment of Nagy in western historical accounts from the time of the revolution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989. Rainer traces the various different interpretations taken by those who wrote about Nagy, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associates who wished to praise him, to books that focused on Nagy?s relationship with communism, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through works that relied heavily upon theoretical frameworks. This section is in essence a short literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The truly new chapter is 'Resurrection'. In the Hungarian editions \(both original and abridged\) Rainer closes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his biography with Nagy?s reburial. In the English edition, the account of Nagy?s reburial and the events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading up to it are expanded upon, but what is genuinely new is the fate of Nagy?s and the revolution?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory in post-communist Hungary, which given the publication date of 2009 somewhat oddly cuts off at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the turn of the millennium. Those wishing to know more about Nagy?s symbolic use in post-communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary are advised to turn to Karl P. Benziger?s)] TJ ET BT 273.632 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Imre Nagy, Martyr of the Nation: Contested History, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Legitimacy, and Popular Memory in Hungary. )] TJ ET BT 260.660 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This work is not mentioned in Rainer?s biography, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the likely explanation is that Benziger?s work was published in 2008.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rainer only half dips his toes into politics in this section. The reason this has its problems is because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although alluding to various political jousting over the memory of 1956 and to a lesser extent Nagy, Rainer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoids specifics, in contrast to the rest of the work which is lush with detail. Perhaps this is because unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gyrgy Litvn, his predecessor as 1956 Institute director who was willing to wade into the political debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over 1956, Rainer has sought to confine himself to scholarly differences of opinion. Indeed, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking features of Rainer?s other works has been his ability to avoid becoming entangled in the frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messy political arguments that surround 1956 in contemporary Hungary, and to a lesser extent, the figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imre Nagy. While this section in no way mars the book, it is disappointing, and in many respects, given its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half-hearted nature, would have been better left out or added as an afterword.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Additionally, Rainer?s treatment of Nagy?s status as an informer is better explained in the full-length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography. In the Soviet Union in the 1930s, Nagy had an informer file opened on him under the name of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volodia \(given in other texts as Volodya or Vologya\). As Rainer notes, the ?Volodia Dossier? was released )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1989 by the Soviets to discredit Nagy as communism crumbled in Hungary. In the English translation, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volodia issue receives one long paragraph, but receives ten pages in the original edition published in 1996. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clearly established that Nagy was not really in a position to resist becoming an informer, and that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an act of self-preservation more than anything else. As a further way of explanation, it includes how Nagy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered that he was being followed around at this time, and even instructed his daughter on what to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should he and his wife disappear, having her memorise a number that she in the end never had to call. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals the paranoia of late 1930s Moscow and why Nagy acted the way he did, which unfortunately does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not come across in the condensed version.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 7351 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As noted at the beginning of this review, this work is a translation of a translation, and with that, several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems arise. Any errors possibly made whilst the book was translated into German would be carried over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the English edition. Likewise, it is a further departure from Rainer?s original manuscript. This makes it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain if any mistakes in the work are Rainer?s or a translator?s, even if Rainer stated in the introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that minor changes were made with the subsequent editions \(p. xx\). One particular example is the treatment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the mob justice at Kztrsasg Square during the revolution when several secret police officers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lynched. Since Rainer?s work is a biography of Nagy, who was not present at the scene, it understandably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receives only a brief mentioned in the original biography and in the condensed Hungarian edition. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English edition, however, the lynching receives more space, and the paragraph closes with the observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?These events seriously worsened the situation and significantly harmed the image of the uprising? \(p. 121\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even ignoring the use of the word ?uprising? in place of ?revolution? \()] TJ ET BT 373.952 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(felkels )] TJ ET BT 412.940 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 481.268 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(forradalom)] TJ ET BT 535.940 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is the word Rainer uses in the Hungarian edition\) to describe 1956, itself a matter of debate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary, this new sentence is incorrect. While no doubt this was the darkest moment of the revolution, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the events arguably had an impact on the decision making by those wavering over how to respond to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution \(Kdr later claimed it to be one of the reasons he turned against the revolution after initially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting it\), paradoxically, it did not harm the image of the revolution. The lynching at Kztrsasg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Square was acknowledged as an unrepresentative isolated incident \(except where 1956 was intentionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mislabelled a counterrevolution\) and it has for the most part been expunged from the memory of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution in Hungary today. As much as it was the one part of 1956 that could be discussed in Kdr?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary, today it is the most frequently omitted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, the book could have used one more read through by an editor. For a published work, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(featured more than a handful of typographical errors, missing prepositions or punctuation marks and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awkwardly phrased sentences that could have been fixed before publication. This is not a criticism of Rainer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it does not reflect well upon the publisher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, despite these criticisms, for those wishing to learn more about Imre Nagy, one of the few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals to have gained enough power to provide communism with a human face in Central and Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, this work is an excellent starting point and deserves its place in either a personal or university )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library. For those wanting to learn more about Nagy's tortured path to martyrdom, however, they are better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(served reading Rainer's original extended biography of the man who refused to compromise his ideals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the avalanche of evidence to the contrary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 269.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Rainer)] TJ ET BT 123.344 269.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, Nagy Imre, Politikai letrajz, Els? Ktet 1896?1953)] TJ ET BT 382.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Budapest, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.672 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.672 268.131 m 524.660 268.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 255.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Rainer, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 255.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nagy Imre, Politikai letrajz II, 1953?8)] TJ ET BT 321.668 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Budapest, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.324 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.324 253.875 m 464.312 253.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 241.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Rainer, )] TJ ET BT 129.344 241.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nagy Imre)] TJ ET BT 180.332 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Budapest, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.988 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.988 239.619 m 322.976 239.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 226.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K. P. Benziger, )] TJ ET BT 140.672 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imre Nagy, Martyr of the Nation: Contested History, Legitimacy, and Popular )] TJ ET BT 64.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memory in Hungary)] TJ ET BT 161.996 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Plymouth, 2008\), p. 127.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 288.668 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 288.668 211.107 m 342.656 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 186.245 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 156.339 m 251.996 156.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.996 157.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 153.007 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 135.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 135.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/880)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 133.833 m 322.316 133.833 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 108.856 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4605)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=11024)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.6717 268.4455 524.6597 280.3255 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.3237 254.1895 464.3117 266.0695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.9877 239.9335 322.9757 251.8135 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 288.6677 211.4215 342.6557 223.3015 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 156.6535 251.9957 168.5335 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=11024) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 134.1475 322.3157 146.0275 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/880) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000532 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000005483 00000 n 0000005592 00000 n 0000005702 00000 n 0000005811 00000 n 0000009372 00000 n 0000009500 00000 n 0000009584 00000 n 0000009613 00000 n 0000009741 00000 n 0000009777 00000 n 0000009806 00000 n 0000009934 00000 n 0000009970 00000 n 0000009999 00000 n 0000010127 00000 n 0000010163 00000 n 0000010247 00000 n 0000017489 00000 n 0000017519 00000 n 0000017647 00000 n 0000017683 00000 n 0000017748 00000 n 0000023942 00000 n 0000024007 00000 n 0000029802 00000 n 0000029921 00000 n 0000037325 00000 n 0000037453 00000 n 0000037508 00000 n 0000037636 00000 n 0000037691 00000 n 0000037819 00000 n 0000037874 00000 n 0000038002 00000 n 0000038057 00000 n 0000038184 00000 n 0000038301 00000 n 0000038429 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38524 %%EOF