%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 34 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063537+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063537+01'00') /Title (A Protestant Purgatory: Theological Origins of the Penitentiary Act, 1779) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4379 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Protestant Purgatory: Theological Origins of the Penitentiary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Act, 1779)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25 years ago, in a provocative reconsideration of English political and social history, )] TJ ET BT 443.624 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1688?1832, )] TJ ET BT 94.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. D. Clark advanced the then contentious claim that until the end of the long 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England remained what he styled a ?confessional state?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.956 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.956 236.289 m 317.948 236.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.948 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Missing from the wave of prior work by social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political historians of 18th-century England, Clark argued, was a close attention to the role of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the dominance within the political and intellectual world of conservative, Anglican theology. This was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contentious claim and it sparked robust reaction from scholars who objected to Clark?s conservative point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view, and his dismissal of a generation of scholarship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurie Throness?s study of 18th-century prison reform seems to be the first extended study in the flourishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminal justice history sub-field to take the Clark position as an explicit launching point for a re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the impact of theology on penology. Throness?s intent is to locate ?the religious basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(penality? \(p. 3\) in 18th-century England. The 1779 Penitentiary Act is the focus of his interests because, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, it has escaped detailed attention from most of the first wave of criminal justice history and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drafting and passage embodies the dominant religious tenor of the day. Throness? focus in this book is less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the legislature and the legislators, however, than the liturgy. The Penitentiary Act was an ambitious piece of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation, designed to impose a national scheme for the punishment of offenders that could serve as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(882)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laurie Throness)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754663928)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(379pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greg Smith)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.9557 236.6035 317.9477 248.4835 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7348 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptable substitute for the temporary suspension of transportation occasioned by the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary war. With transportation on hiatus until the war ended, both temporary and more permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedients were tried and discussed by parliament and other legislators \(including senior judges like Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Blackstone\) as possible additions to the penal repertoire of 18th-century England. Throness?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contention is that criminal justice historians to date have ignored the proliferate, potentially rich, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologically coherent English protestant views of the prison and punishment at this time and the important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact those ideas had on shaping penal ideas among government leaders, particularly those responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Act.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To achieve his end Throness has trawled through a remarkably wide range of theological texts, ballads, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadsides, sermons and religious tracts. Throness spends a good deal of ink in attempting to prove the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ubiquity of religious belief and Protestant-informed discourse in many aspects of official and legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercourse. His methodology offers a case study of the power of modern research tools like EEBO \(Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Books Online\) and ECCO \(Eighteenth Century Collections Online\) to pinpoint instances of desired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, phrases or concepts in a vast range of printed works in the service of a particular thesis. The volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of materials he has been able to draw from is impressive and fully documented in the book?s nearly 65-page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography. Although Throness has an eye for the sorts of ideas he seeks to foreground, at times, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis or contextualization of the original sources is thin or all too often absent, and the result is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader is presented with a selection of quotes that don?t always speak for themselves. In other instances the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected primary material he reiterates seems banal, or at best unsurprising. That 18th-century England was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more religious than secular society is not a novel claim ? even many of the Marxists and other ?revisionists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he dispatches so summarily and uncritically in the Introduction would agree. And finding in a massive heap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of protestant pamphlets on punishment a raft of comments on hell, purgatory, prison or imprisonment is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather like finding hay in a haystack. The argument that Throness seeks to construct by way of this method )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, in the end, only one of abstract proximity. That Protestant writers saw in their bible a rhetoric of reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and redemption in spiritual or ethereal prisons does not necessarily mean that the preeminent legislators of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the day, even if they too were devout Christians, saw an opportunity to work their particular faith claims into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latest legislation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a potted historiographical review in the introduction which runs roughshod over the theoretically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated and nuanced arguments advanced in the field of criminal justice history over the past 30-odd )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years, Throness gets to his chief claim: that the religious motivations for penal reform have been under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated by previous scholarship. The next third of the book is dedicated to constructing an analogy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between scriptural representations of imprisonment and imprisonment on Earth. Throness dives into dozens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of pamphlets, sermons and other writings by protestant divines and others whose words pass his test in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(search of the barest mention of prison, imprisonment, Hell or justice. It is hardly surprising that there should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be lots to draw from ? Throness is right to see 18th-century English society as one where the role of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more obvious, more apt to be articulated, and where religious interpretations of political or social policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates were expressed with facility, and particularly by the category of authors he cites. As well, given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologians were highly literate and had access to publishers, both the survival rate and the sophistication of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their tracts was bound to be high.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overall claim that this part of the books is supposed to support is that the Church of England was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drive a broadly uniform, theological position on imprisonment and that that theology was the cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological underpinnings of the Penitentiary Act.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This claim seems hardly novel while also revealing the author?s own bias in the spirit of Professor Clark?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book mentioned above. There is no space given to a critical examination of the counter narrative or to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative explanations for the penal policy developments he seeks to explain. The practical imperatives of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather sudden suspension of transportation brought on by the American revolt, along with the significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in government policy that saw the direction of progressively larger resources and legislation toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tackling the crime problem in England, especially in London since the 1670s, as the work of John Beattie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others has shown, are rather alarmingly undervalued in this interpretation. Though one of the obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues of incarceration to those who had advocated its expansion had always been the opportunity to reform )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8086 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the offender from within, this was not a creation of 18th-century theology. Throness himself makes frequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the Bridewell as the most significant early model for the penal, carceral institution that was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded under the Penitentiary Act. But if the Bridewell?s origins were, as it?s recent historian claims, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?soaked with religious rhetoric and reasoning? a century-and-a-half before the Penitentiary Act, then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theological origins that Throness claims to find in the 18th century are part of a much longer tradition.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.624 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.624 738.051 m 538.616 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throness seems to hit his stride in the first half of chapter three which draws upon a careful reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript sources and particularly correspondence between the key drafters of the legislation he is keen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine to provide a blow-by-blow history of the backroom negotiations that produce legislation. Still, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not clear how this chapter revises or expands the story of the Penitentiary Act?s creation found in Simon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devereaux?s 1999 article in )] TJ ET BT 171.308 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal)] TJ ET BT 260.312 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.312 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.312 654.771 m 277.304 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.304 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(True, Devereaux was less concerned with the theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underpinnings of the act, but the main point about the reformative potential for imprisonment at hard labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is covered. More significant for Throness is the emphasis on reform that prison could provide, and he tries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here to make the case that it was the theological milieu that influenced the Act?s drafters to model their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposed institution along those lines. However, Throness provides little support for this claim from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources generated by the principal actors themselves. There are no explicit, signal statements of the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformative role for the prison espoused by the key drafters. Religious or better redemptive themes are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in the most auxiliary ways, not quite as afterthoughts, but as addendums to the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantages of corralling and controlling a population of convicts who would have been sent away. Now that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had to stay within the country, there was a real question of what of utility could be done with them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What does emerge as the more interesting theme in this discussion is the role of hard labour and various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinions about what convict labour should be used for and what connections might be drawn between hard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour as good works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The claim that this is a uniquely ?Protestant? image of the prison as a reformative or redemptive space seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a little at odds with conceptions of punishment to be found in continental, Catholic contexts. But I appreciate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that his point is to explain how Anglican divines, in the absence of a belief in purgatory, wanted to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an earthy space where the sins of the offender could be cleansed and the soul repaired while still on earth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are other issues which creep into the text which suggest misreading of the secondary scholarship or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of familiarity with the most recent studies. For example, in discussing transportation the reader is told in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a footnote that the practice ?involved selling convicts as slaves to private landowners? \(p. 120 n. 49\). There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is more than a fine distinction to be made here between the indentured servant and the slave, a point that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important legal implications and should not be lost on anyone who has thoroughly researched the legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procedural history of transportation. There are a number of other jarring historiographical references as well, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where some very stale authorities are cited in support of his claims without any mention of the more recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work on the topic. The now discounted view of the pre-Peel police is trotted out to support an argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the persistence of patriarchal authority with no reference to recent work \(p. 41?2\). At other times, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throness?s desire to twist the evidence to fit his argument reaches rather too far.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.596 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.596 260.115 m 434.588 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social and legal historians, as well as criminologists and theologians ? the four groups of readers identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the book?s jacket blurb as having a ?special interest? in this book ? will likely find much to mull over and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many points to quibble with in this work. Some in the fourth group will hail this work as an important and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound contribution to the intellectual history of 18th-century penology, while I suspect that many in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three categories will not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 112.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. C. D. Clark, )] TJ ET BT 136.016 112.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society 1688?1832: Ideology, Social Structure and Political Practice During )] TJ ET BT 64.016 98.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Ancien Regime )] TJ ET BT 156.992 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.312 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.312 97.059 m 305.300 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 84.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Griffiths, )] TJ ET BT 135.680 84.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lost Londons: Change, Crime and Control in the Capital City 1550?1660 )] TJ ET BT 494.384 84.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008\), p. 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.012 69.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.012 68.547 m 179.000 68.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 55.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Devereaux, ?The making of the Penitentiary Act, 1775?1779?, )] TJ ET BT 401.960 55.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Journal )] TJ ET BT 493.964 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(42, 2 \(1999\), )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.6237 738.3655 538.6157 750.2455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.3117 655.0855 277.3037 666.9655 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.5957 260.4295 434.5877 272.3095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.3117 97.3735 305.2997 109.2535 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.0117 68.8615 178.9997 80.7415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 2198 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(405?33.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 102.344 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 102.344 795.075 m 156.332 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Margaret DeLacy states that Evangelicals in Lancashire were ?completely absent? 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