%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150727062258+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150727062258+01'00') /Title (Forms of Faith in 16th-Century Italy) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1823 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Forms of Faith in 16th-Century Italy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(883)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abigail Brundin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Treherne)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780754665557)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(274pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Bury)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8172 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The later 16th century in Italy was a period of 'mental stagnation' wrote G. R. Elton.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 437.612 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 437.612 783.075 m 451.604 783.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 451.604 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable statement apparently set in motion the entire research project from which the present group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays emerged \(p. 76, n. 64\); they contest its validity. Elton was far from alone in taking such a view; there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been scholars from very different backgrounds who have wished to portray the Tridentine church as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hugely successful negative force, suppressing intellectual and creative activity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.604 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.604 726.051 m 426.596 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.596 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is not easy to separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out the strands from which such views were developed, in order to be able to scrutinize their truth. Even for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who dispute 'mental stagnation' it may still be so present as an idea that when they uncover creativity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they immediately think that what they are discovering is 'resistance'. But can the Catholic Church, even after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trent, be understood as a monolithic entity \(an idea which Catholics themselves have often been happy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept\), proclaiming a consistent and agreed program of theory and practice? Any possibility of compromise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Protestants may have disappeared in the early 1540s, and the Catholic Church proceeded to define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own positions on the central matters under dispute, but is it credible to equate the rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism with the creation of a frozen orthodoxy? Do we not, throughout the 16th century, come up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against arguments and disputes, ranging from issues of discipline to those of dogma, between groups within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholic Church? And if there were such disputes and disagreements within the Church, what did that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean for the ability of the Church to control thought and cultural activity in a more general way?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The purpose of this book of essays, based on contributions to a conference held in 2007 at the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leeds, is to contribute to 'rethinking the experience of an "Italian Reformation"' \(p. 1\). The two editors are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecturers in Italian: Abigail Brundin at Cambridge and Matthew Treherne at Leeds. The method they propose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to adopt is to examine works of religious art ? paintings, poems, prose works, music ? as indicators of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and creative currents active in the spiritual and religious life of the time. The idea is that by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means stories can emerge that are different from those told by 'official doctrine and decrees' \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One historiographical debate that has focused attention on the issues around an 'Italian Reformation' has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been, of course, the issue of the choice of an appropriate name. In the introduction to the present volume, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different names are reviewed: 'Italian Reformation, Catholic Reformation, Counter-Reformation, evangelism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?' \(p. 3\). None of them are found entirely satisfactory and what is asked for instead is a term that 'suggests a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct Italian experience of reform, taking place both within and outside the Catholic establishment, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before and after agreement with the Protestant reformers was still held to be a possibility, at the level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official doctrine and also, crucially, at the level of popular piety and vernacular cultural practice' \(p. 3\). But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no such term is forthcoming. The key word here is 'reform'; and this may be the source of difficulty, for it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear what might be meant by the word if it is to be used to encompass official doctrine and popular piety. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reform of aspects of popular piety is what the official church often wanted to undertake, in acts justified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the suppression of superstition. Popular piety in Italy may have been, in some cases, influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge of the Protestant Reformation. But I have some difficulty in understanding what reform might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount to, so to speak from the inside, at the level of popular piety and vernacular cultural practice. Noel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Regan describes how popular musical forms, feeding into art music, could lead to a renewal of sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music at the highest level in the second half of the 16th century. Harald Hendrix's impressive sorting out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of 'simplicity', showing how Aretino's vernacular life of Christ, the )] TJ ET BT 409.136 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Humanit di Cristo)] TJ ET BT 502.484 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1535\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed the most complex rhetoric in order to communicate in a most 'simple' and direct way to audiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of different levels of education. But is it useful to think of either of these highly significant phenomena in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of 'reform'? The most hopeful method of getting away from these difficulties lies, it seems to me, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the desire expressed elsewhere in the same introduction, to arrive at 'a full understanding of Cinquecento )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious culture' \(p. 5\). Then 'reform' elements, to be found in institutional change, redefinitions of dogma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and strivings for personal spiritual renewal, can sit alongside learned and vernacular beliefs and practices of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new and traditional kinds as defining parts of that immensely vital culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My sense is that the notion of 'reform' often creates problems that mask rather than reveal the truth. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating essay on the Florentine Academy, one of the editors, Abigail Brundin, describes Vittoria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonna as 'reform-minded'. The implication is that it is the Protestant reform of which she was minded and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the reason her poems were the subject of lectures within the Academy was 'connected to the reform-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minded sympathies of Florentine academicians' \(p. 61\). Colonna was in search of a personal spiritual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 437.6117 783.3895 451.6037 795.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.6037 726.3655 426.5957 738.2455 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7600 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewal, trying to find a way of being a full Christian, and she was clearly interested in ideas whose ultimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source were in the writings of Luther or Calvin. In her spiritual sonnets she shows herself to have believed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centrality of Christ, but she also articulated beliefs in the value of the intercession of the Virgin and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saints and in the efficacy of images to move Christians to devotion. A sonnet of hers on an image of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virgin by St Luke is a remarkable and complex meditation in which she comments on the inadequacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image both to Luke's inner idea of Mary, and in terms of lifelikeness. The mental conception Luke had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed of her was too great for him to express coherently, while the lack of lifelikeness may \(she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculates\), have been the result of Luke's contempt for the ostentation of the artistry he would have had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deploy to make her seem real. However, she writes, the humble manner and gentle pose are enough to move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us and turn us to God. There may be elements in Vittoria Colonna's writing which could perhaps be labelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant but there was certainly a great deal which Protestants would have found anathema.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treherne in his brilliant essay on Tasso brings out some of the layers of assumption and prejudice that cloud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issues: the belief that sincere feeling can only exist in the context of freedom of thought and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tridentine church was hostile to any such freedom, as well as the entrenched belief that attention to forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rituals was attention to mere externals and therefore inimical to deep inner feeling. Tasso's late religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poetry ? )] TJ ET BT 76.004 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Lagrime della Beata Vergine)] TJ ET BT 230.660 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1593 and )] TJ ET BT 293.984 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Il Mondo Creato)] TJ ET BT 374.648 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1594 ? are used to show how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkable and moving expressions of faith were articulated by a poet intending to express only the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orthodox set of beliefs. And comparable points are revealed through the analysis of new musical forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerging in 16th-century Italy, developing from the very fertile resources of religious music used outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liturgy of the mass. The essays by Iain Fenlon and Noel O'Regan on music reveal evolution and organic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change rather than reform. Antonio Corsaro's excellent essay on manuscript collections of spiritual poetry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals an evolution in how poets thought about and presented their own work, which again does not seem to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have anything to do with 'reform'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Reform' carries with it the sense of a conscious rejection of the status quo and at one level can be used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imply an oppositional stance to orthodoxy. In this book one sometimes detects a desire to find heterodoxy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even when there is little more than a hint of anything of the sort. Because heterodoxy represents resistance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the supposedly repressive hand of the Catholic Church it is frequently regarded as virtuous, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars can seemingly feel quite guiltless about giving importance to the smallest signs of it: deducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicity, or even active participation, via reconstructions of friendship networks or tiny verbal or visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clues. As with any developed conspiracy theory, the justification for such an approach is that to expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything more substantial is nave because of the dangers that would have been incurred as a consequence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater explicitness. However, as a result, the question of what can be accepted by the historian as evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes a very pressing one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Crysa Damianaki's essay, Protestant ideas are supposed to have penetrated into the highest levels of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court of Cosimo de' Medici at Florence. She takes up a familiar argument to the effect that Jacopo da )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pontormo's last major works, the now-destroyed frescoes in the choir of San Lorenzo, were heterodox: 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest art work of the Protestant Reformation in the Florence of Cosimo I ?? \(p.77\). This is an odd claim. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What we know about Pontormo is that he was a conventionally pious Catholic; the very private diary he kept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he was working on the frescoes shows that he attended mass regularly, noting holidays and respecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fasts. The paintings, on the other hand, were evidently extraordinary and highly original. But there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence whatsoever that anyone at the time thought they were heterodox; they remained in place until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century, when they were whitewashed. The 16th-century commentators, some of whom expressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves at considerable length on the subject of these paintings ? Vasari \(1568\), Raffaello Borghini )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1584\) and Bocchi \(1591\) ? were sometimes censorious. Vasari did not at all approve of what Pontormo had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done and made his opinion extremely clear. In particular he thought some of the scenes incomprehensible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others as lacking the essential components for effective narrative. In general he thought they lacked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grace that had characterized Pontormo's earlier work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Damianaki claims that the Duke himself was pro-Lutheran, and, as others have before her, sees Vasari's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack as having been mounted in this way in order to deflect attention from the heterodox content: the Duke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to be saved from embarrassment. The only specific evidence she cites for her claim about Cosimo's )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7848 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious beliefs is a letter to Ambrosio di Gumppenberg from 1546 in which the Duke wrote that although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was hostile to any alliance with Lutheran princes because of religious differences, he would treat with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them when religious issues were not in question. Vasari's criticisms, on the other hand, fit precisely with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrent theme in his writing: the importance of intelligibility and narrative clarity, which he thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pontormo's frescoes lacked. That same complaint had, for example, been the focus of his very hostile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarks about Giorgione's decoration of the Fondaco de' Tedeschi in Venice. What is interesting about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vasari's writing on the San Lorenzo frescoes is that he felt able to criticize his principal patron's commission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this way; it can probably be inferred that the Duke himself disliked the paintings.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Charles de Tolnay, in an essay of 1950 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 255.308 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 255.308 669.027 m 269.300 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 269.300 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, suggested that Pontormo's frescoes were Valdesian he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven by prevailing historicist notions of the relationship between artistic style and philosophical outlook. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But with subsequent writers it may be suspected that the desire to impute heterodoxy is a symptom of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief in the stagnant conventionality of orthodoxy. The formal originality of Pontormo's work becomes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus, almost by definition, a rejection of such orthodoxy. This relates to an important methodological issue. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one of the features of visual images that they are open systems of meaning. This should be a reason for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proceeding with great care. If art, along with music and literature, present 'patterns of belief that often tell a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different story from that of official doctrine and decrees', as stated in the introduction \(p. 2\), how should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their supposed testimony be tested? Painting, as any of the arts, can develop according to internal pressures; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes of form may, but they do not necessarily, denote changes in wider structures of thought or belief.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This group of essays delivers on its promise of offering a 'wide range of approaches, cutting across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines' \(p. 4\): and by that means it reveals the variety of currents present in the religious culture of Italy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was no mental stagnation. But I would argue that the book also does something it did not intend: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reveals that 'reform' is not a useful concept to deploy as the central element in the attempt to understand that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. Italy in the 16th century was certainly affected by the Protestant Reformation, both positively and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negatively. There were certainly many Italians who wanted to reform the institutions of the church and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformulate and better communicate what was to be believed. There were many who wanted to find a way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a personal spiritual 'reform'. But these were very different kinds of 'reform', some more metaphorical than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial; and they could lead in very different directions. What needs stressing ? and many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors do so ? is that there was also great potential in ideas, practices and traditions that cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodated within the term.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the course of the 16th century in Italy, concern with the religious and spiritual aspects of life became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly prominent. There was a tendency towards a separation of the religious and the secular, as is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested by the already-mentioned contribution of Antonio Corsaro and by the very imaginative essay by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Nichols on the tradition of mythological painting in Venice. But were these phenomena not also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case in the Protestant parts of Europe too? The vitality of religious thought and expression in this period is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symptom of a general European preoccupation, which seems to have involved people at every level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society. There may have been a loss of the capacity of personal relationships to sustain an alternative to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formal institutions, as suggested in Stephen Bowd's sensitive essay on religious friendship. But while those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in positions of power may often have wanted to use those institutions to control or even entirely prevent a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative vitality of religious thought, the evidence of this book is that, in Italy, they were only very partially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. R. Elton, )] TJ ET BT 124.688 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reformation Europe 1517?1559)] TJ ET BT 280.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New ed., Oxford, 1999\), p. 134.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.648 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.648 137.571 m 497.636 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A very interesting commentary on this was provided by William Hudon in his essay, 'Religion and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society in Early Modern Italy', )] TJ ET BT 215.492 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American Historical Review,)] TJ ET BT 354.476 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 101, 1996, 783f.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.472 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.472 109.059 m 490.460 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles de Tolnay, 'Les fresques de Pontormo dans le choeur de San Lorenzo Florence', )] TJ ET BT 497.240 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Critica )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(d'Arte)] TJ ET BT 93.248 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 33, 1950, 38?52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.576 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.576 80.547 m 233.564 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors would like to thank Professor Bury for his full and detailed response to the book, which raises a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 255.3077 669.3415 269.2997 681.2215 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.6477 137.8855 497.6357 149.7655 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.4717 109.3735 490.4597 121.2535 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.5757 80.8615 233.5637 92.7415 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 875 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of important and fruitful points to be brought to bear on future endeavours in this area.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 751.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 733.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 733.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/883)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 732.057 m 322.316 732.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 707.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 692.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4618)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 732.3715 322.3157 744.2515 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/883) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000002503 00000 n 0000002612 00000 n 0000002722 00000 n 0000002831 00000 n 0000006392 00000 n 0000006520 00000 n 0000006604 00000 n 0000006695 00000 n 0000014920 00000 n 0000014950 00000 n 0000015078 00000 n 0000015114 00000 n 0000015144 00000 n 0000015272 00000 n 0000015308 00000 n 0000015373 00000 n 0000023026 00000 n 0000023131 00000 n 0000031032 00000 n 0000031062 00000 n 0000031190 00000 n 0000031226 00000 n 0000031354 00000 n 0000031409 00000 n 0000031537 00000 n 0000031592 00000 n 0000031718 00000 n 0000031773 00000 n 0000031857 00000 n 0000032784 00000 n 0000032912 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33007 %%EOF