%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916091347+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916091347+01'00') /Title (1688: The First Modern Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3728 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1688: The First Modern Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this brilliant and provocative book, Steve Pincus creates a welcome stir that will enliven the study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later 17th century. Its author is like his revolutionary Whig subjects: self-conscious and polemical about a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to set things on a new footing. The result is a bracing, combative, highly stimulating argument, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written in vivid and lively prose. The book is an ideal one to give to students, not only because Pincus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthuses about and revels in his subject in a way that is highly infectious, but also because he writes such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strongly argued and argumentative piece. Almost all the chapters court controversy and should provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ample scope for debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The overall argument is relatively easily summarised. The revolution of 1688 was the first modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. Like more recent revolutions, it was violent, popular, and divisive. It was not an aristocratic coup )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or a Dutch invasion, but a popular rejection of James II?s French-inspired, Catholic, absolutist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation of the state in favour of an alternative Anglo-Dutch vision that prized consent, religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration, free debate and commerce. By the mid-1690s this second, Whig version had triumphed. Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had experienced a truly transformative revolution that had reshaped religion, political economy, foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and the nature of the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(884)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Pincus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300115475)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(664pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Knights)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7238 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first half of this review will sketch out the argument in more detail. I shall then conclude with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections on it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter examines the way in which 1688 has been viewed by subsequent generations. Pincus seeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to explain why, if 1688?9 was really revolutionary, it should have acquired a reputation as conservative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate and peaceful. Discerning a change of Whig attitudes under Walpole in the 1720s and 1730s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pincus also suggests that the radicals of the later 18th century turned their back on what they saw as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperfect revolution. Both moderates and radicals thus came to see 1688?9 as a conservative revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the first group celebrated it for that and the second despised it for it. Pincus then takes the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly community to task for having ?claimed with a united voice? that the ?lives of most Britons were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably little affected? by the revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next five chapters \(part two of the book\) examine pre-revolutionary England. Chapter three adopts an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly comparative European perspective, arguing that by James II?s reign England was urbanising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?more rapidly than any place in Europe?; had become commercial; and had developed an infrastructure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication and debate \(p. 60\). These ?social and economic changes informed a new kind of politics? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(87\). Political change thus occurred in part )] TJ ET BT 237.980 560.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as a result of)] TJ ET BT 300.320 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a new type of commercial society. Chapter four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys politics in 1685. Pincus argues that the warmth with which his accession was greeted showed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the vast majority of English men and women were willing to accept a Catholic king as long as he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing to rule within the parameters established by the English constitution in church and state? \(p. 104\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters five, six and seven turn to an examination of the king and his policies. Chapter five takes issue with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macaulay?s interpretation of James?s policies as ?stupid and perverse? ? Pincus thinks James had political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill ? and also with historians who have suggested that James did not have absolutist intentions. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pincus argues that James ?pursued an aggressive and very modern agenda ? modern not because it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly tolerant but because it adopted the most up-to-date notions of state building? \(p. 121\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model was the brand of Gallican Catholicism developed by Louis XIV. The French king?s alliance with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuits and hostility to Rome shows that James deliberately surrounded himself with those closest to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French position. Indeed, Pincus argues, ?James?s commitment to French-style Catholicism placed limits on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his commitment to toleration? \(p. 135\). For James, toleration was merely ?a means to an end, not a deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(felt principle? \(p. 137\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six, the most traditional in the book, explains the ways in which James sought to modernise the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by reforms of the army and implement ?a very modern surveillance state? \(p. 153\) in which discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal policy was unwelcome and in which opposition resulted in removal from office. Chapter seven charts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the resistance to this process of Catholic modernisation which Pincus argues was more widespread than has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously been recognised. Returning to a thread running throughout the book, he sees this opposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arising on secular rather than religious grounds. Even those who wanted toleration saw ?that civil liberty was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a necessary prerequisite to real religious liberty? \(p. 180\). Indeed ?it was precisely because James II?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents deployed the language of liberty rather than that of salvation ? that it makes little sense to discuss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their triumphs as an Anglican revolution? \(p. 198\). Having initially embraced the opportunity for religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom offered by James, more and more dissenters voiced their opposition to James?s Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation project. ?Most Whigs and Dissenters moved beyond a narrow politics of religious identity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1687 and 1688. They did not believe that religion was unimportant ? far from it ? rather, Whigs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissenters developed the claim that religious liberty was impossible without the protection of the law? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(209\). Even so, Pincus argues, the demise of James?s regime was not inevitable by the summer of 1688?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since he had proved remarkably successful \(p. 211\). ?James was able, using the resources, institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditions he had inherited, to mold a modern state? \(p. 213\). He was ?not the bumbling, bigoted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopelessly unrealistic king described in Whig historiography. He did much to centralise political power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England? \(p. 216\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next section of the book examines the revolution itself. Three chapters insist that 1688?9 was popular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent and divisive. It thus meets ?the theoretical standard of revolution? \(p. 223\) and can be compared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in France in 1789. Indeed, ?popular disaffection rather than military revolt destroyed James II?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7188 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernizing regime? \(p. 234\). 1688 was not an aristocratic putsch or a Dutch invasion. It was bloody, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence directed not just against Catholics but also James?s protestant supporters, and extensive in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland and Ireland. Rather than spawning political consensus, the revolution also fostered bitter division. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party-political differences rapidly rose to the surface and the temporary unanimity of groups in 1688 fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart soon after as a result of partisan feuding. ?As in all modern revolutions, there was a political ebb and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flow between those who simply wanted to dismantle the modernizing programme of the ousted leader and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who wanted to implement an alternative modernization agenda? \(p. 300\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fourth part of the book ? in many ways its intellectual heart ? therefore examines the revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation envisaged and ultimately effected by the Whigs. The first transformation, explored in chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11, was a revolution in foreign policy that was explicitly intended by the revolutionaries rather than being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the result of a Dutch king?s will. William did not simply impose his European agenda on the nation; instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the English invited William to England because they knew he would support their image of the national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest?, which meant war with France \(p. 307\). James?s aggressively pro-French and anti-Dutch foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy meant that ?most English people came to understand their own problems in remarkably modern and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist terms?; they saw the world in European terms \(p. 333\). This was not, however, a war of religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Catholic powers supported England and the Dutch; rather it was ?an international struggle against Louis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XIV, a tyrant and aspiring universal monarch, who was equally threatening to Catholic and Protestant? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(339\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second revolutionary transformation occurred in political economy, the subject of chapter 12. Against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those he sees as stressing hostility to new economic ideas, Pincus argues that the revolution has to be seen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of a debate ?between two rival modern economic programs? \(p. 368\), a ?fierce debate between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land-based Tory political economy and labor-centered Whig one? \(p. 369\). Both sides wanted the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary state to intervene in support of their economic programme. James had thus sought to use the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state to back Josiah Child?s East India Company, which sought to expand territorially in India. James had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?coherent and modern imperial policy? but it was at odds with Whig notions that property was created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human endeavour and that banks had much to do with the nation?s wealth \(p. 381\). The Whigs wanted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing rather than a landed society. And they initiated their economic policies in the 1690s after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaining the political ascendancy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third major revolutionary change, Pincus argues, occurred in the Church. Claiming that many scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insist that the revolution did little to change the Church of England and that ?the post-revolutionary Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England was united in its commitment to intolerance and persecution? \(p. 402\), Pincus argues that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed by 1688?9 into a church whose bishops upheld toleration and which placed the security of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties above all else.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter of the book takes the debates over the assassination plot against William in 1696, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequent widespread subscription to a national ?association?, as testament to how much had changed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Embracing William as rightful and lawful king, most ?now eschewed a moderate and ambiguous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of the events of 1688?9? \(p. 454\). Notions of hereditary divine right were abandoned; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plot ?dealt the final deathblow to Jacobite economics? \(p. 461\). The assassination plot of 1696 ?made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible for the Whigs to consolidate their radical revolution? \(p. 473\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pincus?s methodology and many of his recurrent themes are extremely welcome. The book?s concern to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in the whole, and hence to correlate changes in politics, religion and the economy, helps us to evade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly ghettoes. The book?s deliberate use of the secondary literatures of other disciplines, notably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and social sciences, is important and should help us to stand back from events in 1688 to ask how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they fit into wider patterns of change. The thrust of the book?s argument, that 1688?9 was the first modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, is made in the light of a wide-ranging analysis of the literature on revolutions. The criteria for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution are set out and, it is suggested, centre on state modernisation programmes. These open spaces for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contest by conceding the need for radical change, are often related to international affairs and create new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of publics and politics. Though this is a wide definition of revolution \(and requires us to think harder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about modernisation theory\), encouraging historians to engage with the social science literature in this way )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8130 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must surely be a good thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pincus?s desire to compare the revolution of 1688 to other revolutions and to compare England with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental neighbours is methodologically refreshing. Similarly he has an important case to make when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charting of a shift from the confessional concerns of the earlier 17th century to the more complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest-ridden world of the 18th, in which matters of political economy featured prominently. Indeed, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will make the book an important read for anyone studying the 17th century and trying to assess the degree of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change and continuity over the century. By stressing that key changes occurred in the later Stuart period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than earlier, and that these help to explain the character of Britain in the 18th century \(not a point that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he makes a good deal of but which his concern with political economy makes very clearly\) Pincus?s book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will find a place in any discussion of the timing and impact of revolutionary change. The overall argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 1688?9 was and is important and that the controversies it both reflected and created penetrated a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political nation are also an important addition to work by Geoff Holmes, Bill Speck and \(more recently\) Tim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harris who showed how popular and divisive partisan politics were in this period. Pincus really does show )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why 1688 mattered and why it can?t just be dismissed as the last invasion of England or as an aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coup. By refocusing attention on the later 17th century as a period of national importance and as a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exciting changes, Pincus has helped to reinvigorate it and make it worthy of discussion and debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this suggests, I have great sympathy for many of the arguments put forward. But, in the interest of further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating that discussion and debate, I shall suggest that some of the strengths of the book also, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paradoxically, admit weaknesses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pincus is nicely argumentative, delights in controversy and is keen to take on scholars, both dead and alive ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but sometimes this is also problematic. He invents some historiographical Aunt Sallies to knock down. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each of the three chapters in part four, outlining revolutionary change, he creates a rather distorted view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what historians actually argue. There are very few scholars, I think, who don?t admit that the revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed the contours of foreign policy or that this change was not in some way part of a longer struggle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against French influence and power, as he suggests at the start of chapter 11. At the beginning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following chapter Peter Dickson and John Brewer, who between them have done most to establish the notion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a financial revolution in the 1690s, are lumped together with a ?profound consensus? that sees no demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for modern financial institutions. Pincus?s characterisation of the historiography of the church, at the start of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 13, is also rather questionable. There are few historians who don?t recognise the changes brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about by the revolution or who are unaware of divisions between Low and High Church wings or who argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the church was ?united in its commitment to intolerance and persecution? \(401?2\). Pincus, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather needlessly, exaggerates the coherence of scholars ranged against him. Moreover, if we take two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard textbooks for the period, Geoffrey Holmes?s )] TJ ET BT 295.292 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of a Great Power)] TJ ET BT 418.616 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Julian Hoppit?s )] TJ ET BT 519.944 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberty? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 77.684 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 77.684 288.627 m 91.676 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 91.676 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( we can find many of the arguments developed in Pincus?s book. Similarly, although Pincus and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Harris disagree about the strength of James?s regime \(Pincus thinks it much stronger and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful\), the argument that 1688?9 was more important than the mid-century revolution and was radical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent and popular \(particularly in Ireland and Scotland\) is shared by Harris?s recent )] TJ ET BT 446.924 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolution)] TJ ET BT 498.920 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.920 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.920 245.859 m 515.912 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 515.912 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to say that Pincus?s book is not original or well footnoted. Indeed, there are over a hundred pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes. But he highlights areas of disagreement rather than agreement with other historians. Sometimes that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a virtue; but not always, and it can actually make it harder to appreciate his own contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other strengths can also at times leave his argument vulnerable. Pincus must surely be right to argue that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions are not made overnight and he does well to integrate an account of change in the restoration era )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into an account of 1688. Yet he is himself open to the accusation that he makes against others of an overly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short chronology. There is relatively little consideration of the claims of the mid-century revolution ? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also violent, divisive and popular. A more sustained comparison between the two 17th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions would have been extremely useful to show how they differed and answer a series of questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are raised by Pincus?s argument. How precisely did debates over property and political economy differ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1680s from those of the 1640s? How was the ?public? of the later Stuart period different to that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier? Was the vision of religious toleration different in the later period? How did the imperial impulse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-century differ from that of the end? I think there were differences \(though also interesting parallels\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 77.6837 288.9415 91.6757 300.8215 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.9197 246.1735 515.9117 258.0535 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7401 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but these are never spelt out. Perhaps there is scope for a collection of essays comparing the two 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century revolutions and indeed those with the American and French revolutions of the 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, by ending his account in 1696 Pincus leaves himself little scope to examine the medium and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer term impact of 1688?9; and the early end-date may actually leave a false impression of Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph. He ends his story at the high-tide of Whig fortunes. Just a few years later, in 1698?1700, the Whigs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were divided and weakened; and if the story had ended in 1710 or 1713, it might have sounded very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different. By then, the Tories were resurgent. Ideas about non-resistance and about the danger of toleration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were again being openly discussed in the popular literature; and the political economy of the Whigs was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distrusted and reviled. At the end of Anne?s reign, then, the revolution and its principles seemed far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being consolidated; they were once again being contested. Longer term, the critique of the later 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicals about what the revolution failed to achieve also deserves some real consideration. Moreover, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservations make Pincus?s claim that 1688 ?paved the way for parliamentary democracy? \(p. 43\) seem a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needless exaggeration of his argument, one that ironically give his analysis a Whiggishness even though he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is explicitly countering Macaulay?s Whig interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pincus is excellent on integrating different branches of history. It is genuinely refreshing to read an account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that brings together politics, religion and economics, as well as drawing on the theoretical literature about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions and modernisation. So it is slightly curious that one of the central concepts of the book ? the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? is so lightly conceptualised and that Pincus doesn?t make more of the social history of the state that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been developed by Mike Braddick, Phil Withington, Patrick Collinson, Steve Hindle and others. Central to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pincus?s argument is that there were competing state-modernisation programmes. By ?state? Pincus tends to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean a centralising, bureaucratic state that becomes, as he puts it on page 467, ?more than a local affair?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the social historians have taught us that the early modern state was never merely a central or local affair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor was it simply about institutions. We can talk of a parish state and also of a dispersed state, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions were locally situated, socially constructed and which also relied less on power than on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation. The ideal of the voluntary office-holding, participatory state was one retained by many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary Whigs. There were many others who discerned in the post-revolutionary state a decay of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?public spirit?, a danger of overly large royal influence as a result of the enormous amount of patronage now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at its disposal and a restricted freedom of self-governance, whilst at the same time remaining deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supportive of revolution principles and indeed interpreting the latter as representing their own ideals. Pincus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that both ?sides? wanted to transform the state and that one vision of the state triumphed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another; but the battle against a centralising, bureaucratic, authoritarian and coercive state was certainly not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over by 1696.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this suggests, Pincus?s polemical vigour, so refreshing in many ways, sometimes leads him to over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplify the complexity of the dividing lines. For example, Sir Bartholomew Shower is described as an anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monopolist lawyer who successfully pleaded that property was not limited to land but also included mobile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth \(pp. 385?6\). Pincus hails his argument as sounding the deathknell of an opposing political economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on land, exemplified by James II?s policies and by the East India Company. The decision that Shower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to secure is described as a ?landmark? one. Shower thus outlined ?a very different imperial regime? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the one espoused by James II. We would conclude from this that Shower was a revolutionary Whig. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, he was a Tory, who was knighted for his services to James II, with whom he was very closely identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the late 1680s. He was attacked as a Francophile, mercenary and popish tool of the king ? the very reverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the image that his legal argument would suggest. The larger point to be made here is that the ambiguities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of positions within the two competing ideological camps are important and sometimes need more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two reservations might also be made about the interpretation of 1688. First, the attempt to rehabilitate James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is interesting but there is also a tension in the argument. Pincus goes out of his way to say that James was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilful politician; that he was, until as late as the summer of 1688, rather successful; and hence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution was not inevitable. But he also refers to institutional collapse in 1688 and stresses the depth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular and elite hostility to James?s policies. Given that collapse and hostility, and the reliance of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on large ranks of unpaid office-holders, it is difficult to argue that James?s absolutist policies and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 4747 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernising programme were really very successful at all ? or at least not without offering some yardstick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for measuring ?success?. Of course, hindsight is a wonderful thing and certainly in 1687 the king still )] TJ ET BT 524.288 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(seemed)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong. But the strength of James?s modernised army state was always rather illusory, an edifice of royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power built on a monarchical republic. It took courage to challenge it; but once challenged, it fell apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather rapidly in England, if not in Ireland. Second, Pincus is also excellent at showing the divisions within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism and how James II surrounded himself with Francophile Jesuits and emulated Louis XIV?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model. But \(beside the issue of whether the French and English states were sufficiently similar for that to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work\) this creates another tension. In 1685 Louis XIV tore up religious toleration in France; yet after 1686 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James II in England embraced toleration as a central policy. Pincus argues that the latter was only ever a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means to an absolutist end; but the ideological defences of toleration that he encouraged complicate any use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of France as a model and ironically also promoted commercial arguments that were designed to appeal to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whigs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are only a few of the controversies that Pincus?s excellent book stirs. That it invites such debate is one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its very real strengths and makes it a book that will be difficult for any student of the 17th century or of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions to ignore.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 153.656 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of a Great Power: Late Stuart and Early Georgian Britain, 1660-1722)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1993\); Julian Hoppit, )] TJ ET BT 216.680 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land of Liberty?England 1689?1727)] TJ ET BT 395.024 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.672 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.672 503.715 m 527.660 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Harris, Revolution: the Great Crisis of the British Monarchy, 1685?1720 \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.316 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.316 489.459 m 557.312 489.459 l S BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 475.203 m 78.008 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/515/994.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 420.435 m 309.008 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 312.008 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 391.923 m 154.700 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 388.591 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 370.811 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 370.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/884)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 369.417 m 322.316 369.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.440 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4622)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.640 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/515/994.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.984 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/common_knowledge/v017/17.1.pocock.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.6717 504.0295 527.6597 515.9095 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 517.3157 489.7735 557.3117 501.6535 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 475.5175 78.0077 487.3975 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 420.7495 309.0077 432.6295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/515/994.full) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 392.2375 154.6997 404.1175 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/common_knowledge/v017/17.1.pocock.html) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 369.7315 322.3157 381.6115 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/884) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000550 00000 n 0000000632 00000 n 0000004412 00000 n 0000004521 00000 n 0000004631 00000 n 0000004740 00000 n 0000008301 00000 n 0000008429 00000 n 0000008513 00000 n 0000008578 00000 n 0000015869 00000 n 0000015934 00000 n 0000023175 00000 n 0000023266 00000 n 0000031449 00000 n 0000031479 00000 n 0000031605 00000 n 0000031641 00000 n 0000031671 00000 n 0000031799 00000 n 0000031835 00000 n 0000031900 00000 n 0000039354 00000 n 0000039473 00000 n 0000044273 00000 n 0000044401 00000 n 0000044456 00000 n 0000044584 00000 n 0000044639 00000 n 0000044765 00000 n 0000044820 00000 n 0000044947 00000 n 0000045054 00000 n 0000045181 00000 n 0000045331 00000 n 0000045459 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45554 %%EOF