%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001063953+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001063953+01'00') /Title (Political Elites in South-West England, 1450-1500: Politics, Governance, and the Wars of the Roses) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4329 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Political Elites in South-West England, 1450-1500: Politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Governance, and the Wars of the Roses)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of its published historiography, the Southwest of 15th-century England remains one of the few grey, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if not blank, areas on the map. Although several doctoral theses have been written on parts of the region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the late 1970s, what has been published takes mostly article form and is consequently comparatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrow in focus. The notable exceptions are John Hatcher?s monographs on the society and economy of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Cornwall and John Chynoweth?s recent book on the Cornish gentry in the Tudor period )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.628 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.628 207.777 m 519.620 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 519.620 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supersedes A. L. Rowse?s older work. It is this geographical gap that Robert Stansfield?s book seeks to fill, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking as its regional limits an expanded Southwest, encompassing the four counties of Cornwall, Devon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Somerset and Dorset. Yet, the author?s stated objective is more ambitious than simply to add to the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canon of ?county studies?. The four southwestern shires formed the core of the ?region? entrusted by King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward IV to the rule of Humphrey, Lord Stafford of Southwick, and by examining political structures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks in this four-county block during the period from Jack Cade?s rising to the end of the 15th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stansfield seeks to demonstrate the relative importance of a regional approach \(as opposed to the county )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study\) to the investigation of late medieval politics and administration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book opens with an interesting discussion of concepts of regionality, and in turn examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credentials of the author?s chosen counties to be considered as a cohesive region in terms of geography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(885)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Stansfield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780773447141)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(84.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(550pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwin Mellen Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lampeter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannes Kleineke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.6277 208.0915 519.6197 219.9715 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7337 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and culture. Two successive chapters are devoted to a general treatment of the political structures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the south-west and of its ?political lites? \(as distinct from its political society\). The author?s principal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criterion for membership of this lite is landholding. Whereas a large group of individuals held offices under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Crown, the political lite, so he contends, attracted the most important offices by virtue of its land-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local standing \(pp. 102?3\). Across his southwestern region Stansfield identifies 14 peers and 21 members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gentry who constituted a ?regional lite? by virtue of holding Crown office in each of the four counties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the study, but finds that even their regional attachment was uncertain, as most of them held lands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought marriage alliances outside ?their? region. Nevertheless, for a deeper understanding of the place of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these lites in local society, so Stansfield rightly points out, it is necessary to place them within local and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional networks of affinity and connexion. How this might be achieved is demonstrated by case studies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lords Hungerford and two Cornish gentry families, the Arundells of Lanherne and the Edgcombes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cotehele.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main body of the book is divided into five chronological chapters which in turn examine the final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade of Henry VI?s reign, Edward IV?s first reign and the Lancastrian Readeption, the second reign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward IV, the reign of Richard III, and the first 15 years of Henry VII. They take as their starting point a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the leading magnates in the four southwestern counties, and seek to establish their ties among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regional gentry. The author seeks to identify Crown connexions, both in terms of membership of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal household and office holding under the Crown, and ? particularly in the further west ? under the duchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Cornwall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the 1450s, we are told, the dominant force in Somerset and Dorset were the Beaufort dukes of Somerset )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who formed an alliance among the baronage with the Lords Stourton and Hungerford, royal servants raised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the peerage during the earlier decades of Henry VI?s reign. In Devon and Cornwall, by contrast, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation was less clear: here society had been polarised since the 1430s by the rivalry of the traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaders of local society, the Courtenay earls of Devon, and the relative newcomer, William, Lord Bonville of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shute, who formed alliances with members of the Somerset and Dorset baronage, as well as the influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtier, the earl of Wiltshire, James Butler. The civil war of Henry VI?s later years removed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southwestern rivals Bonville and Courtenay, as well as the Lancastrian Beaufort cadets, from the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scene. By grants of lands and offices Edward IV set up his favourite Humphrey, Lord Stafford, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading magnate in the region, to whom the gentry clients of the dispossessed Lancastrian peers had to look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for patronage. The judicial murder of Lord Stafford in 1469 necessitated a reorganisation of southwestern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government after Edward IV?s exile and restoration in 1470-1. If initially the king?s brother, George, duke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Clarence, who had begun to exercise some influence in the region in the later 1460s seemed destined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the new leader of southwestern society, his authority was challenged almost from the outset by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rival claims of other members of the king?s inner circle: the chamberlain, William, Lord Hastings, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gained control of the heiress of the Lords Hungerford and her inheritance, Edward IV?s stepson, Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grey, later marquess of Dorset, who married the Bonville heiress, and the king?s brother-in-law, Anthony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wydeville, Earl Rivers, who as tutor to the young prince of Wales played a dominant role in the prince?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council for the duchy of Cornwall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The interlude of Richard III?s usurpation saw the removal of Edward V?s kinsmen and their retainers, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as a wider thinning of the ranks of political society, as many Edwardian loyalists from the region were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced into exile following the duke of Buckingham?s uprising. Richard?s introduction of trusted northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters, such as John, Lord Scrope of Bolton, was, however, tempered by the inclusion of local men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the office-holding lite, not least the long-standing Yorkist loyalist, John, Lord Dinham. The picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following Henry VII?s victory at Bosworth was of necessity complex, as Edwardians and old Lancastrian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalists needed to be rewarded and included in the new arrangements. Leadership of the former Stourton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Hungerford circles now fell to John, Lord Cheyne, who had married the widow of William, Lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stourton, and Edward, Lord Hastings, who had married the Hungerford heiress. Yet, as both men?s interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere precluded them from taking up leadership in the region, local authority in Somerset fell to Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles, later Lord Daubeney, while the King?s mother, Margaret, countess of Richmond and Derby, assumed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the place of her Beaufort ancestors. Further west, the removal of Lord Dinham to Westminster as Lord )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7902 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Treasurer of England and the king?s distrust of the marquess of Dorset paved the way for one of the Stafford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heirs, Robert, Lord Willoughby de Broke, to become the dominant force in Devon and Cornwall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This could have been an important study, but unfortunately the wheels come off at an early stage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stansfield?s regional approach is interesting and valid, but he is forced to conclude even in his opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter that the wider southwest including Somerset and Dorset, as well as Devon and Cornwall, did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitute a region under any of the possible criteria that he examines. From here on in, the reader is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly treated to a discussion of the two bi-county blocks in this southwestern non-region, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later chronological chapters revert to discussing each of the four counties in turn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This might not necessary be fatal, were each county competently studied. Regrettably, however, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displays a distinct aversion to archival research which undermines his conclusions, such as they are. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader is told that this book is to be considered ?a work of synthesis?, but it is hard not to feel that this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(code for the author?s reluctance to set foot in a record repository. As a result, Stansfield has barely, if at all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scratched the surface of the archival material available for each of his four counties. Just five family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections have been consulted, chosen ? as is painfully obvious ? not for the particular importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familes concerned, or with a view to even geographical coverage, but for the simple rationale that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendared form of the records could be accessed online. This point is illustrated vividly by the author?s case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies in chapter four. While the Arundell and Hungerford collections are substantial and may thus support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a degree of quantitative analysis, the same is surely not true of the eight Edgcombe deeds which form the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis of his analysis of that family?s circle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the important family archives that have been ignored are those of two leading noble families \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courtenay earls of Devon and the Lords Bonville of Shute\), and it is more than odd to find no reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made to the rich civic archives of e.g. Exeter, Barnstaple, Bridgwater and Wells. The records of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crown ? unique in their scope and richness ? have equally been left largely untouched: the author has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveyed the printed calendars of the principal Chancery rolls, the patent, close and fine rolls, but has made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little effort to flesh out the skeletal information provided by this material through researches in other record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes in the National Archives. The principal exception here are the receivers? and ministers? accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the duchy of Cornwall which have apparently been consulted in the original both at Kew and at the Duchy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offices at Buckingham Gate, but the information that the author has gleaned from them appears not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceed the identity of a few senior official appointments. By contrast, there is no attempt to examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawlessness \(or otherwise\) of the region, over which scholars have disagreed )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.588 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.588 345.651 m 418.580 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.580 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for instance through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of some of the records of the royal law courts, which might also have provided important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplementary evidence of retaining and patron-client relationships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Stansfield?s bibliography is comprehensive, questions also arise over his often uncritical use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary literature. While it may be true that some historians have ?generally accepted? Josiah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wedgwood?s guesses at the identity of many late medieval members of parliament, Wedgwood?s work was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely \(and rightly\) criticised from the outset. To use it, as Stansfield does, as a general dictionary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political biography to the extent of parrotting the mostly speculative vital dates given \(many of which can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily be corrected from standard sources like the inquisitions )] TJ ET BT 333.632 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post mortem)] TJ ET BT 393.296 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), is at best unwise, and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced into the text numerous irritating, if minor, factual inaccuracies. In other instances, it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s failure to read and comprehend the secondary literature correctly that undermines his argument. So, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, the )] TJ ET BT 115.328 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Complete Peerage)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 207.308 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 207.308 176.835 m 221.300 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 221.300 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does not state that ?an Edgcumbe was a member of every parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1446?7 to 1859?61? \()] TJ ET BT 164.660 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 177.992 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? p. 141\), as Stansfield claims in support of his choice of case study, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather that ?nearly? every parliament during that period for which returns are extant contained a member of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that family called either Richard or Piers ? in itself something of an overstatement: during the period covered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by this book an Edgcombe can be shown to have sat just once.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author?s lack of industry where archival work is concerned has also determined his choice of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodology. His opening chapters set out the problems and pitfalls inherent in the study of late medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political structures and networks in some detail, but the solution he offers is far from satisfactory. Seeking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways of addressing questions of retaining, affinity and connexion while avoiding extensive archival )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.5877 345.9655 418.5797 357.8455 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 207.3077 177.1495 221.2997 189.0295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7605 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researches, he arrives at a quantitative method of analysis pioneered by Scottish historians. Taking as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(base of evidence the property deeds and wills of his chosen case studies \(the Hungerfords, Arundells and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edgcombes\) the author divides their contacts and connexions into inner and outer circles, depending on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of times their names occur in the family?s transactions. This approach may provide a viable avenue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of analysis where limited material beyond a family?s property deeds is available, but its categorisations are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at best rough, and it is hardly surprising that historians of medieval England have drawn upon the wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary evidence available to them for a more subtle analysis of affinities and connexions. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stansfield?s numerical analysis takes little account of qualitative differences in the relationships between his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen examples and the men named in their transactions. Surely the relationship of the Hungerfords and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arundells with the knights and greater esquires among their connexions was different from that with, say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clerk Robert Udy? If Sir Philip Courtenay of Powderham is to be categorised as Hungerford kin by virtue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his marriage to the daughter of the first Lord Hungerford, is the same not also true of Courtenay?s son, Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip of Molland, even if the latter was only named in a single deed? The frequent occurrence of the leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lawyer Thomas Tropenell in the Hungerford deeds is surely accounted for by his profession, and the same is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly true of the busy lawyers Thomas Limbury and William Menwyneck in the case of the Arundells. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author himself is manifestly aware of the shakiness of his findings: the text abounds with qualifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adverbs such as ?perhaps?, ?maybe? and ?possibly?: their omission alone might have usefully shortened the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tome. Throughout, the subjunctive is the mode of choice. Where Stansfield is more assertive, his statements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are often odd. To describe Sir Hugh Courtenay of Boconnoc, a leading southwestern landowner, as ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungerford dependant? \(p. 219\) distorts his central role in Cornwall during Henry VI?s readeption. Nor does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the description of John Trenowith of Fentongollan \(who cannot, as Stansfield claims, be shown to have sat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Readeption parliament\) as a ?probable Arundell protg? do justice to the man?s extensive connexions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the Cornish gentry or his often complicated relationships with the various branches of the Arundell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. Humphrey, Lord Stafford?s choice of John Cheyne of Pinhoe, a one-time member of the circle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William, Lord Bonville, as one of his executors surely did not reflect ?Stafford?s connexions with this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nexus? \(p. 207\), but rather Stafford?s familial ties to Cheyne, his paternal aunt Alice?s brother-in-law. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most significant of the marriages contracted by the sisters of John, later Lord Dinham, was at the time surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not that of Katherine Dinham to Thomas Arundell of Lanherne \(even if a large share of the Dinham estates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with the family archive would eventually come to the Arundells\), but that to Fulk Bourgchier, heir to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the barony of FitzWaryn, which indirectly connected the Dinhams to the house of York through their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourgchier kin. The author?s case studies give the families he has examined undue prominence in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion. It is more than curious to see office holders after 1471 discussed in terms of their membership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Hungerford nexus?, when there is no sense of a continuation of other loyalties to, for instance, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formerly comital Courtenays. Similarly, his identification of ?Arundell affiliates? sometimes overrides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially more significant connexions: while Sir Renfrew Arundell of Tremodret was certainly first cousin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Sir John Arundell of Lanherne, he was also the steward of the southwestern estates of Richard Neville, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earl of Warwick, and Sir John Colshull of Binnamy was not only Sir Renfrew?s uncle, but also brother-in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law to Warwick?s longstanding servant John Nanfan of Birtsmorton.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are some curious omissions, particularly in the middle years of Edward IV. So, for instance, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no detailed discussion of the south-western rebellions of 1470 in the context of the duke of Clarence?s role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the region. Nor is there any real engagement with the events of 1473, when John de Vere, earl of Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupied the island fortress of St. Michael?s Mount and the efforts to dislodge him under the leadership of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Henry Bodrugan and Sir John Arundell of Lanherne were found wanting. Henry VI?s Readeption itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receives curiously cursory treatment at the end of the discussion of Edward IV?s first reign: the focus here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Humphrey, Lord Stafford, and the two years after his death are mentioned only in passing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout, the book suffers from a plethora of factual errors and inaccuracies, some of them minor, others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less so, and in their majority adopted directly from the secondary literature or printed sources. Nowhere is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this more apparent than in the series of lists and tables which make up the final third of the volume, most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably, a ?Directory of the South-West Gentry?. This is clearly a misnomer: as a footnote indicates \(p. 106\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is in fact no more than a list of office holders and above all members of Parliament. No distinction is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7059 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn between landed gentry, merchants and lawyers, and county MPs are lumped together with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives of the many parliamentary boroughs of the south-west. Addresses and dates of births and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deaths have mostly been copied verbatim from J. C. Wedgwood?s parliamentary biographies, while lists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheriffs, escheators and justices of the peace are more fully available elsewhere. Office holding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership of Parliament have apparently only been taken into account if they fell within the author?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological boundaries, even though such service was surely relevant for the assessment of an individual?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing even if it occurred earlier in his career. As a result, the information assembled here is ultimately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningless: not only is it incomplete, it is also in many instances quite simply wrong.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, to cite just a few examples, Sir Thomas Arundell of Tolverne who died in 1443 \(rather than in 1445, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as stated here\) and who is listed here merely as a JP, held the shrievalty of both Cornwall and Devon and sat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Parliament as a knight of the shire. John Speke of White Lackington is a conflation of two men, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two John Radfords of Poughill and Oakford listed are one and the same person. The three Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tregarthyns are just two men, the elder of whom sat in Parliament, while \(contrary to what is stated here\) it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the younger who served as sheriff of Cornwall in 1491?2. ?William Dinham? and ?John Nimbury? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall are phantoms conjured from the )] TJ ET BT 237.980 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of Patent Rolls)] TJ ET BT 357.656 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In many instances \(Renfrew Arundell, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger Champernoun, Henry Champneys, Theobald Gorges etc.\), membership of Parliament has simply been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored; conversely, carpetbaggers who probably never set foot in the southwestern boroughs they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented in the Commons \(Henry Chicheley, Sir William Danvers, Thomas Driffield, Henry Fillongley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir John Fineux, Thomas Froxmere etc.\) have been included. ?Courtenay, Edward \(fl.1478?92\)? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Courtenay, Sir Thomas \(fl.1455\)? are of course two later earls of Devon, and to be told that the latter was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a member of the southwestern political lite \(whereas the complete outsider Driffield apparently was\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beggars belief. It would be otiose to continue this list.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is, in summary, not only a disappointing, but in many respects a pointless book. It has nothing to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by way of new findings, and such conclusions as it draws are undermined by the author?s lack of research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and knowledge. Its price tag of 84.95 \(or $139.95 in the United States\) is nothing short of ludicrous, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will surely be treated by history librarians everywhere with the contempt that it deserves. It will be left to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others to enhance our knowledge of the south-west by exploring its rich \(and still hardly tapped\) archives: it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is time for a new book on the south-west, but unfortunately this is not it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Chynoweth, )] TJ ET BT 151.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tudor Cornwall)] TJ ET BT 228.704 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.700 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.700 320.643 m 358.688 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(e.g. J. P. D. Cooper, )] TJ ET BT 163.676 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda and the Tudor State: Political Culture in the Westcountry)] TJ ET BT 502.676 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\); Hannes Kleineke, ?Why the West was wild: law and disorder in fifteenth-century Cornwall and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devon?, in )] TJ ET BT 119.672 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Fifteenth Century III: Authority and Subversion)] TJ ET BT 370.316 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 393.644 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Clark \(Woodbridge, 2003\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 75?93; and see Peter Fleming?s )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.996 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.996 263.619 m 286.328 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.328 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 303.320 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on Cooper?s book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.644 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.644 263.619 m 450.632 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, ed. G. E. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cokayne )] TJ ET BT 109.676 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET BT 130.676 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(13 vols., London, 1910?49\), ix, p. 315.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.668 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.668 235.107 m 381.656 235.107 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 219.775 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 201.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 201.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/885)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 200.601 m 322.316 200.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 175.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4626)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.824 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/paper/flemingP.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.6997 320.9575 358.6877 332.8375 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.9957 263.9335 286.3277 275.8135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/paper/flemingP.html) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.6437 263.9335 450.6317 275.8135 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.6677 235.4215 381.6557 247.3015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 200.9155 322.3157 212.7955 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/885) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000000697 00000 n 0000005078 00000 n 0000005187 00000 n 0000005297 00000 n 0000005406 00000 n 0000008967 00000 n 0000009095 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000009208 00000 n 0000009336 00000 n 0000009372 00000 n 0000009437 00000 n 0000016827 00000 n 0000016918 00000 n 0000024873 00000 n 0000024903 00000 n 0000025031 00000 n 0000025067 00000 n 0000025097 00000 n 0000025225 00000 n 0000025261 00000 n 0000025326 00000 n 0000032984 00000 n 0000033096 00000 n 0000040208 00000 n 0000040336 00000 n 0000040391 00000 n 0000040519 00000 n 0000040623 00000 n 0000040751 00000 n 0000040806 00000 n 0000040934 00000 n 0000040989 00000 n 0000041117 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41212 %%EOF