%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150227231558+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150227231558+00'00') /Title (The Pacific) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4018 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Pacific)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pacific)] TJ ET BT 89.012 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( forms part of the series ?Seas in History? edited by the late Geoffrey Scammell. Already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published are the volumes about the Atlantic, the Baltic and North Seas and the Indian Ocean. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of seas and oceans has an illustrious tradition \(Fernand Braudel, Kirti Chaudhuri, O. H. K. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spate, J. H. Parry?\) that has provided new insights into and perspectives on how human societies have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolved and are dependent on and connected by bodies of water. Oceans have played a fundamental role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world climate and have been a vital source of proteins, industrial materials and a variety of other products. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These economic activities were followed in many cases by systematic exploration and colonization. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maritime transportation in general is cheaper than land transportation and, in many cases, is the only means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for trade and immigration. Mercantile enterprises and colonization have had unpredictable ecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences, like the creation of Neo-Europes, using Alfred Crosby?s term, in the Americas, Australia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Freeman follows in the wake of the historians mentioned above. His book covers a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics \(geography, history, ecology, and representations of the ocean in art, literature and film\) through a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time frame that goes from pre-history to the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text is divided into eight chapters with well-chosen illustrations, useful maps and a bibliography. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction Freeman explains his interdisciplinary approach drawing from human geography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(886)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Freeman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0415775724)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arturo Giraldez)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6709 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental sciences, anthropology, sociology, political sciences and economics with the object of casting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new light on known historical events. In his own words: ?At focus is the interplay of human activities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical aspects of the Pacific, such as its sheer vastness, inaccessibility, remoteness, diverse and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changeability, and the productivity or hazardousness of its multitude of different environments? \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indigenous peoples colonized the archipelagos in the ocean and ?there is evidence that they had contact with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the coastlands of the Americas. And yet their sagas had a distinctly regional rather than a pan-Pacific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality? \(p. 3\). The Chinese and Japanese knew about the ?southern seas? but there is no evidence of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venturing into the ?eastern void? of the Pacific. Before Ferdinand Magellan it seems that non-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peoples lacked a clear conception about the oceanic hemisphere; ?it has taken many centuries for human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of the character and dimensions of the Pacific Ocean to take shape? \(p. 3\). In Asia knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Pacific geography was fragmentary and in Europe until the 1880s the ?Antarctic Islands? appeared in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps instead of the continent of Antarctica.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If coastlines were unknown until quite recently, other geographical features went unexplained for centuries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A crucial example is the changes in maritime circulation called El Nio. The inability to explain it made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impossible to establish the crucial relationship between this ocean circulation and the world climate. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignorance of plate tectonics made tsunamis and earthquakes mysterious events and left unexplained the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location of mineral resources like the silver mine of Potos or the 1848 Californian ?Gold Rush.? Recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific advances do not preclude lags in understanding of many physical processes and their interactions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with biological communities on the oceanic shores. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Pacific contains 45 percent of the planet?s waters, being the largest and deepest ocean of the world, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its area occupies one third of the Earth?s surface. Freeman adopts a conventional tripartite division of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area: the Asian Pacific rim, the American Pacific rim and the central-south Pacific. In addition to its vastness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the access to the Pacific from other oceans has always been difficult, which explains why large areas were an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unexplored frontier less than 200 years ago and the many deaths of European navigators due to scurvy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other misfortunes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A substantial part of chapter one is dedicated to ?Climatic-Oceanographic Influences?. The Pacific ?gyres? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(circular systems of ocean currents\) and the ?thermohaline circulation? form part of the ?global ocean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conveyor belt? that distributes heath around the world. Throughout thousands of years the Pacific has played )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a crucial role in the earth?s environmental changes which can be rapid and extreme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The atmospheric circulation patterns in the ocean originated the monsoons and trade winds on which peoples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Pacific are highly dependent but also the tropical cyclones. More frequently in recent decades, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant easterly winds are disrupted by contrary winds and currents known as El Nio Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oscillation \(ENSO\) and, less frequently, by the opposite effect called La Nia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Events of great importance in human history are related to ENSO: Polynesian migrations notably improved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their success when El Nio westerly winds and countercurrents helped the eastward voyages, and La Nia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(winds facilitated the movement of Maori peoples to New Zealand. Sir Francis Drake was saved in Sulawesi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a sudden reversal in the wind?s direction. In 1877?8 widespread drought caused famines in Asia resulting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the deaths of more than nine million Chinese and the uprising of indigenous Kanak people against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French in New Caledonia. In recent decades drought induced by El Nio and forest clearing in Indonesia led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to tremendous fires that covered the Asian-Pacific region with smoke.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Global warming is associated in the Pacific with rising sea levels, storm activity and the destruction of corals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Great Barrier Reef. Fisheries are in decline and jellyfish have extended their habitat to large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensions of the ocean; low lying coasts are being infiltrated by salt-water and destructive burning events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are numerous. Tropical diseases of plants and animals have increased as well as the spreading of malaria and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dengue fever to areas previously considered too cool to support the mosquito vectors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tectonic forces have been of crucial influence in human history. Earth crust movements produce )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7307 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earthquakes, tsunamis and active volcanoes that circled the Pacific in a ?ring of fire.? Earth dynamics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted in mineral deposits and rich soils that support large populations. The downside of volcanism are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large eruptions like the one at Toba \(69000 BCE\) in northern Sumatra that triggered a six year winter which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed many species of animals and plants and almost wiped out the hominids. The 1991 eruption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines caused hundreds of deaths and prompted the abandonment of Clark Field, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the largest US military bases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter two treats the occupation of the Pacific from prehistory to the first European voyages. From Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waves of population spread to the Pacific islands and the rim-lands. The Asian Pacific Rim had an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment consisting of coastal plains, river valleys and uplands covered by forests. Padi rice, fish farming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tree-crops on dry land supported large populations in river valleys and the deltas as of the Mekong, Chao )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phraya, Huang He and Yangtze. In South-East Asia padi rice cultivation also fed its peoples. Trade in spices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rice, sago, pottery and metal wares created trade networks that lasted for centuries. Trade brought new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies and religions like Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam to these areas. More recently Catholic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant missionaries spread Christianity. Eventually political entities like China, Japan and Korea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged and ?are perhaps more strongly intertwined with the historical role of the Pacific Ocean than other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polities in the Asian Pacific arena? \(p. 39\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In China the oscillations of El Nio/La Nia were behind the fall of the Mongol dynasty: typhoons destroyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expeditions to conquer Japan; famines \(as a consequence of severe droughts followed by floods\) reduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Chinese population to 80 million people; peasant rebellions exploded in the devastated rice-growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas of coastal lands and the Yangtze river. The Ming dynasty \(1368?1644\) took power and ushered a brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(era of China as a major Pacific power in the 15th century. The trading cities of the Yangtze were revitalized, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good relations were pursued with Japan and Korea and large fleets were dispatched in long-distance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expeditions. The admiral Zheng He took in his fleet a contingent of Chinese to Melaka and established in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1405 ?a community ? locally called Bukit China ? which still flourishes today? \(p. 44\). This was a rare event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because China was not intent on colonizing other peoples but also indicated the importance that the Ming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to the Straits of Malacca in the routes connecting with India, the Middle East, Africa and Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the same year, Zheng He?s fleet reached East Africa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chinese voyages were massive undertakings: The treasury ships measured each about 120 meters in length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 50 meters wide. The 1405 expedition consisted of 62 ships with a crew of 30,000 men. In the hulls they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried live animals, large water supplies and nurseries producing soybean sprouts to protect sailors against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scurvy. Pilots navigated using star charts, maps with landmarks and sailing instructions and primitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnetic compasses. When the emperor Hong Le died, his grandson continued these activities but after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death of Zheng He in 1433 during the seventh and last Chinese expedition the fleets were dismantled. China )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Japan officially disengaged from maritime activities which ?allowed a maritime power vacuum to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop in the western Pacific? \(p. 45\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter considers the population of the Americas and the three cultural zones of Oceania, Melanesia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polynesia and Micronesia. At the far eastern corner of the Polynesian triangle Rapa Nui, named Easter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Island by the Dutch explorer Jacob Roggeveen in 1722, suffered an ecological catastrophe caused by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deforestation and competition over the construction of stone statues of guardian ancestors \()] TJ ET BT 471.272 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(moai)] TJ ET BT 495.272 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) that led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war between clans. During the 1860s Peruvian slavers took the remaining population to work in guano )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mining: Chapter three tells the story of the efforts by political entities to control the Pacific. Imperial China, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Iberians, the colonies of Britain, France and Germany in the South Seas, the Japanese Asia Co-prosperity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sphere, and the ?legitimate national interests? of the US. The aims of imperial powers were to control and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulate the wealth of the region justified by bringing civilization to indigenous peoples. Imperial dominance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was backed up by military forces capable of confronting hostile natives or other imperialists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferdinand Magellan?s voyage opened up the ocean to European knowledge and exploration. He concluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in J. H. Parry?s phrase ?the discovery of the sea.? James Cook?s three voyages and the expeditions? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific labors were the prerequisite to the expansion of the British Empire in the Pacific. Imperial rivalry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with England propelled the French to Pacific exploration and colonization. To improve access to French )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7519 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies in 1876 a society was formed to construct a canal similar to the Suez Canal without success, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally under President Woodrow Wilson the Canal was opened in 1915.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Demographic constraints compelled colonial administrators to allow immigration to Pacific colonies from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, China and Japan, many arriving as indentured workers, all of which contributed to the diversity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population in the Pacific region. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four covers the technologies in transport, navigation and mapping that made possible ?to overcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the daunting friction of distance? \(p. 99\). The Pacific dimensions were overcome by western technologies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the caravels and galleons to the large container carriers and also by aviation. Developments in map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making and navigational aids greatly facilitated the crossing of the ocean. A completely different trajectory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was followed by the Polynesians, ?the greatest seafarers the world has even known?, \(p. 101\) who used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celestial navigation and ?the reading of environmental clues? to reach their place of destination. Chapter five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with the exploitation of resources in the Pacific and the concurrent violence and environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degradation. Whaling and the collection of sea otter furs, beche-de-mer, pearls and tortoise shells depleted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Pacific of all these species, but sandalwood exploitation was ?the most violent and ruthless of the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms of assault on Pacific resources? \(p. 132\). Fisheries also are currently being depleted. The exploitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of minerals such as gold, nickel and copper has produced numerous episodes of violence like the California )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gold Rush. Confrontations over nickel mining in New Caledonia have resulted in deadly clashes between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kanaks and the French settler community helped by armed forces during the 1980s. Conflicts also took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place over the copper-gold open mine of Panguna in the island of Bougainville in the same years. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand-pull exercised by China over Pacific resources throughout history is currently exemplified by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importation of iron ore, ?as it produces over 350 million tones of steel per year, larger than the combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(output of its Pacific rim rivals, the United States, Japan and Korea? \(p. 148\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six presents the conflicts and wars since Magellan?s arrival to Pacific waters and continues until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vietnam War. Freeman examines with detail the Second World War in the Pacific that opened up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear age and US hegemony in the region. Chapter seven, entitled ?Picturing the Pacific: The Ocean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hemisphere in Art, Literature and Film,? begins with the impact of drawings made by Europeans in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voyages, representing the South Seas inhabited by attractive men and women as ?noble savages? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle of an earthly paradise. The trend was continued by the Orientalism of the Victorian Era in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polynesian stereotype was adopted in fashion design, jewelry, furnishings and art in general. The chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues with an examination of literary works about the ocean \(Herman Melville, Robert Louis Stevenson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jack London and Joseph Conrad\) to be followed by natural scientists \(Joseph Banks and Charles Darwin\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anthropologists \(Bronislaw Malinowski, Raymond Firth and Margaret Mead\). Chapter eight concludes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book with an examination of current issues like nation-building in ?Pacific microstates,? urban and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrial expansion, technological changes in shipping, the building of ports and commodity trade and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of these developments on the ecology of the ocean. If in the 15th century Imperial China was already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(active in the Pacific the current China ?with its huge reserves of cash from decades of profitable trade, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seized the opportunity in the present global recession to buy resource deposits around the Pacific cheaply, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuring that it has the raw materials needed for even greater expansion of its carbon-emitting industries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while stealing a march on its debt-ridden former Pacific rivals, the United States and Japan? \(p. 241\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freeman ends his volume with a balanced observation: ?Despite the sobering lessons of the past and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travails of the present, however, there is still room for optimism about the future in what will surely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hailed as the ?Pacific century?? \(p. 241\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pacific)] TJ ET BT 89.012 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a ?map of time? whose object is the oceanic hemisphere through history. The term is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borrowed from the poet Henry Reed ? ?the maps are of time, not place? ? and the historian David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian?s book entitled )] TJ ET BT 157.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Maps of Time)] TJ ET BT 223.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Donald Freeman has followed a rigorous methodology in which a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic physical geography with its challenges and resources is the scene for human activities and in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies at different levels of technological development interact among themselves and with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment over the centuries. The author has carefully inserted anecdotes in wide contexts to exemplify a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular historical feature, like the successful Bounty mutineers able to escape retribution simply because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royal Navy lacked good maritime charts of the ocean, or how the Chinese fleets fended off scurvy but )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class distinctions put obstacles in the path of eliminating the same affliction on British ships.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The effects of human activities in the ecology of the region are present in the majority of its chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ecological degradation is exemplified by the inhabitants of Easter Island that sealed their fate due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irresponsible deforestation, by the need to close factories during the Beijing Olympic Games to protect the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletes? health and by the possibilities for navigation using the Bering Strait due to global warming.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freeman?s treatment of current maritime transportation across the Pacific could be summarized in a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentence: ?More than half of the world?s tonnage of container ships in 2008 comprised vessels that are too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large to fit through the Panama Canal, which is thus threatened with obsolescence? \(p. 225\). Considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the six largest container ports and several large bulk ports are located in the Pacific Rim there is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt about the crucial social and economic relevance of Pacific Ocean regions. Freeman avoids the pitfall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of privileging in his narrative the countries of the rim over the Pacific archipelagos. Carefully he situates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these societies in the context of the Pacific?s interrelations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book explains with extreme clarity geographical categories, technology and economic events reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the US-led global recession of 2008?9. This volume could be used in undergraduate and graduate courses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and also to be read with great profit by historians, social scientists and the general public. Freeman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learning and elegant writing style as well as his historical intelligence makes )] TJ ET BT 404.636 546.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Pacific)] TJ ET BT 459.632 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an excellent ?map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of time? of the oceanic hemisphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author found the review by Arturo Giraldez to be thorough, fair and positive, and he is happy to accept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it without further comment)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 475.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 457.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 457.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/886)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 455.961 m 322.316 455.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 430.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4630)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 456.2755 322.3157 468.1555 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/886) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000521 00000 n 0000000603 00000 n 0000004673 00000 n 0000004782 00000 n 0000004892 00000 n 0000005001 00000 n 0000008562 00000 n 0000008690 00000 n 0000008774 00000 n 0000008839 00000 n 0000015601 00000 n 0000015666 00000 n 0000023026 00000 n 0000023091 00000 n 0000030663 00000 n 0000030747 00000 n 0000034092 00000 n 0000034220 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34315 %%EOF