%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221234825+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221234825+00'00') /Title (The Origins of Racism in the West) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4293 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Origins of Racism in the West)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1994 I published a now widely cited and highly regarded volume entitled )] TJ ET BT 401.636 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Immigration, Ethnicity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Racism in Britain, 1815?1914 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.688 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.688 243.417 m 195.680 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 195.680 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which, at the time, faced critical comment. One of the phrases which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received particular attention consisted of the opening to chapter five \(entitled ?Racism?\), which began: ?All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minorities in all societies in all historical periods have endured hostility from the government and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority populations in the countries in which they live?. This may represent an unsubstantiated statement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but I would still have difficulty in rejecting it, both because of my own experiences and observations and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a result of decades of researching on aspects of the history of minorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The outstanding book under review here goes some way to proving this point. It originates in a conference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held at Tel Aviv University in 2005 entitled ?Racism in Western Civilization before 1700?. Most books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which make the transition from conference to edited volume usually cannot hide this transformation because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the unevenness of the coverage and the varying quality of the different pieces, as well as the often quirky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of highly idiosyncratic pieces, which bear little relevance to the central themes. The editors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Racism in the West)] TJ ET BT 198.680 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have largely avoided these traps. There are no real weak pieces, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some are better and more outstanding than others, while none of the contributions can be regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(887)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Miriam Eliav-Feldon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Isaac)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Ziegler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521888554)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(348pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panikos Panayi)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 181.6877 243.7315 195.6797 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7365 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal to the central themes of the volume. While this book is ultimately not the same as a single authored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the origins of racism \(the editors point out on p. 9 that it ?is by no means our intention or ambition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to provide a systematic history of the subject?\), reading it essentially gives that impression because of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tight chronological ordering of the successive pieces and the fact that virtually all of the authors tackle the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key themes of the volume. It is a first rate example of how an edited book could and should work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are essentially attempting to establish whether racial ideas \(and even ideology\) existed before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century. They see this century as a turning point, although the ideas which surfaced before 1800 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even 1850, essentially acted as a precursor to those which developed in the second half of the 19th century in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Rather than focusing upon all aspects of treatment of outsiders in European societies before the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the editors and contributors focus particularly upon perceptions and, more especially ideas, as this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above all a volume which primarily concerns itself with the origins and development of racial ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology, beginning in Ancient Greece. These ideas usually manifested themselves in the written word, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although some contributors to this volume illustrate the importance of visual images.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The necessarily long introductory chapter sets the scene for what follows. The three editors cover a series of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes. They point out that ?The aim of this collection of studies ... is to see whether we can trace a pattern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... of forms of rationalized prejudice, originating in the western world, in various periods before 1700? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5?6\), i.e. the sort of rationalized prejudice which had become normal in Europe by the beginning of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. They attempt and analyse several definitions of racism, essentially revolving around the assignation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of perceived negative common characteristics towards groups which differ from the norms of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assign them. Outsiders in the vast period covered by this book include Jews, Romanies, Muslims and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africans. As was the case with more modern forms of racism, those who marginalized black people, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several of the essays in this volume demonstrate, focused both on those in European societies and the lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which they originated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the introduction, the essays which follow do so on a chronological basis. Benjamin Isaac in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Racism: A Rationalization of Prejudice in Greece and Rome? gives a clue to one of the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current volume, as the piece partly consists of a response to the reviews of his book on racism in antiquity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 545.612 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 545.612 402.675 m 559.604 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This essay also introduces us to the central tenets of racism in the ancient world: ?environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determinism, the belief in the heritability of acquired characteristics and the belief in the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lineage? \(pp. 38?9\), which also remain important in subsequent forms of racism. Isaac holds on to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion made in his previous book that, while full blown racial ideas may not have existed in Greece and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome, there developed ?a pattern of recurring efforts to ascribe to groups of human beings common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics on seemingly logical and presumed scientific grounds from the late 5th century to late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquity? \(p. 56\), which he illustrates through the use of a series of key texts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most marginal \(in the sense of the extent to which it tackles the key themes\) essays in the volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter three by H. A. Shapiro on ?The Invention of Persia in Classical Athens?, begins promisingly with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quote from Edward Said?s )] TJ ET BT 164.660 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Orientalism)] TJ ET BT 221.996 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This piece essentially consists of an analysis of the depiction of real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mythological ?Persians? in 5th century BC Greek vases by an art historian. Although this is a deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical piece, which tackles various themes in the depiction of Persians, it does not really tackle the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of racism, in the way that many of the other contributions to this volume do. The piece is lavishly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated using surviving vases located in repositories throughout the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four by David Goldenberg on ?Racism, Symbolism and Colour Prejudice? is an ambitious essay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which focuses upon a wide range of views of black people from the Greeks through to the Romans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hebrews to the Early Christians. Goldenberg argues that the opposition towards them rested both upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance and the negative associations of the colour black \(with death and evil for example\) rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear of their actions or behaviour. However, Goldenberg questions whether the animosity which Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people faced in antiquity merits the description of racism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denise Kimber Buell in ?Early Christian Universalism and Modern Forms of Racism? tackles a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme. Partly based upon a reading the Acts of the Apostles, she suggests that, although Christianity displays )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 545.6117 402.9895 559.6037 414.8695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 6831 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indications of inclusiveness because it accepts anyone into the faith as long as they convert, it is equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusive because of the fact that it ostracizes those who reject its message. She makes comparisons with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently exclusive nature of modern racism, which draws clear boundaries between one group and another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but argues that fluidity of boundaries does not mean exclusiveness cannot happen. However, it seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to accept the idea of a racist early Christianity, certainly as argued by Buell, because the ethnic basis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is simply not strong enough. She implies that early Christians offered an alternative form of Jewishness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore marginalized those Jews who did not convert. Interestingly, in view of the discussion of Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusiveness, Jewish attitudes towards outsiders do not have their own essay in this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Bartlett?s ?Illustrating Ethnicity in the Middle Ages? is a concise piece, which does not attempt the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of intellectual contortions of Buell?s essay. It essentially demonstrates the role of visual images by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focusing upon a series of core texts and images and pays particular attention to views of Muslims, black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, Jews and the Irish. The essay begins by pointing to the role of hats in Hollywood westerns as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifies and then establishes common markers in the images of those minorities listed above whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning he deconstructs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Biller, in ?Proto-Racial Thought in Medieval Science?, produces an interesting piece which attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the widespread nature of proto-racism in medieval Europe. Biller both examines the ideas that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were put forward and the extent to which the texts which contained such views were reproduced \(by hand\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by early University students before the invention of the printing press, in an attempt to ascertain how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread they had become. While he is persuasive in his methodology about the importance of such ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst students, he is less so when it comes to tackling the issues of racial beliefs amongst the population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Ziegler?s ?Physiognomy, Science, and Proto-Racism, 1200?1500? is a detailed and fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deconstruction of a series of texts which make a connection between physical appearance and geography. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziegler demonstrates how many medieval writers created a link between geography, physical appearance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexion and character. Some authors also made a connection between faces and personality. Ziegler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out that while physiognomy might be viewed as an irrational belief, in the Middle Ages it played the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of ?a rational science? \(p. 182\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles de Miramon?s ?Noble Dogs, Noble Blood: The Invention of the Concept of Race in the late Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages? is one of the most important and interesting essays in the whole collection under review here. Based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost entirely upon French sources, this contribution essentially traces the origins of the concept and use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race and points to the fact that it initially categorized birds of prey and hunting dogs and then also applied to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobles. At the end of the Middle Ages race therefore distinguished people along social rather than ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another outstanding essay is David Nirenberg?s ?Was there Race before Modernity? The Example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Jewish Blood? in late Medieval Spain?. This is a thoughtful and intelligent contribution written by a highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned expert in his field writing at the height of his powers as an historian. He focuses upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racialization of Spanish blood and demonstrates that the descendants of converts from Islam or Judaism still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faced marginalization. While Nirenberg asserts that it therefore proves difficult to reject the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racialized blood by the 16th century in Spain, he still has problems making a direct connection with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of the remaining contributions Valentin Groebner in ?The Carnal Knowing of a Coloured Body: Sleeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Arabs and Blacks in the European Imagination, 1300?1500?, covers a variety of questions relating to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sex between Europeans and others. Ronnie Po-chia Hsia, meanwhile, in ?Religion and Race: Protestant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Discourses on Jewish Conversions in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries?, makes some basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points about medieval and early modern antisemitism, while also, more interestingly, discussing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges facing Christianity as a result of the Reformation and imperial expansion and the consequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contact, particularly in the case of Roman Catholicism, with people in the New World. Miriam Eliav-Feldon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ?Vagrants or Vermin?? examines attitudes towards Gypsies in early modern Europe following their first )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 4917 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrival on the continent. Anthony Pagden?s ?The Peopling of the New World: Ethnos, Race and Empire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Early Modern World?, is like the contribution by David Nirenberg in the sense of a distinguished scholar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at ease with dealing with vast concepts. Pagden summarizes, in a few thousand words, whether or not race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and racism existed in Spanish views of the people of the New World. One of the issues covered in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating piece is the development of the idea of a second Adam, who gave birth to the peoples of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americas. The volume concludes with another interesting essay by Jorge Caizares on ?Demons, Stars, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Imagination: The Early Modern Body in the Tropics?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collectively, the essays in this volume, written by experts in the individual areas which they tackle, illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ancient and medieval origins of racism in Europe and the emerging Spanish Empire. Some of the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not deal directly with the issue of racism as understood during the 19th and 20th century. Nevertheless, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading of the book as a whole will demonstrate the concern of European writers with difference, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in terms of religion and appearance, since antiquity. While European society before the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century may not have developed the sophisticated racial concepts which peaked in the 19th and early 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, negative views of outsiders and the link with their inferiority seem ever present since antiquity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century scientific developments would allow the increasing sophistication of racial marginalization. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But concepts of racial inferiority, as argued especially by Benjamin Isaac, had existed since antiquity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether a straight line exists from Aristotle to the Nazis seems more complicated, and the book does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the aim of making such a link. Instead, it brings together a series of essays written by talented and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned scholars who, writing about their own individual specialism, demonstrate the centrality of concepts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of racial inferiority in European history. The book is essential reading for anyone interested in the origins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racism in Europe and beyond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Panikos Panayi, )] TJ ET BT 143.684 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Immigration, Ethnicity and Racism in Britain, 1815?1914 )] TJ ET BT 424.688 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.660 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.660 432.435 m 549.320 432.435 l S BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 418.179 m 90.344 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Isaac, )] TJ ET BT 144.332 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity)] TJ ET BT 368.336 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.324 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.324 403.923 m 512.312 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors are happy to accept this review and do not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 333.823 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 316.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 316.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/887)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 314.649 m 322.316 314.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 289.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4636)] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.872 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.6597 432.7495 549.3197 444.6295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 418.4935 90.3437 430.3735 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.3237 404.2375 512.3117 416.1175 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 314.9635 322.3157 326.8435 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/887) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000536 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000004970 00000 n 0000005079 00000 n 0000005189 00000 n 0000005298 00000 n 0000008859 00000 n 0000008987 00000 n 0000009071 00000 n 0000009100 00000 n 0000009228 00000 n 0000009264 00000 n 0000009348 00000 n 0000016766 00000 n 0000016796 00000 n 0000016924 00000 n 0000016960 00000 n 0000017025 00000 n 0000023909 00000 n 0000024014 00000 n 0000028984 00000 n 0000029112 00000 n 0000029167 00000 n 0000029293 00000 n 0000029348 00000 n 0000029476 00000 n 0000029531 00000 n 0000029659 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29754 %%EOF