%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R 55 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R ] /Count 9 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140710014530+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140710014530+01'00') /Title (A Radical History of Britain. Visionaries, Rebels and Revolutionaries: the Men and Women who Fought for Our Freedoms) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4100 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Radical History of Britain. Visionaries, Rebels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Revolutionaries: the Men and Women who Fought for Our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.553 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Freedoms)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cover to the hardback edition of Edward Vallance?s )] TJ ET BT 307.604 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Radical History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 443.612 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows a Union Jack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superimposed on a montage \(King John signing the Magna Carta, the German Peasants? War of 1525 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.936 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.936 229.161 m 538.928 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.928 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Women?s Suffrage Movement, the Jarrow Crusade and the Battle of Cable Street\) designed to illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book?s subtitle: )] TJ ET BT 130.352 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Visionaries, Rebels and Revolutionaries ? The Men and Women who Fought for our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedoms)] TJ ET BT 82.004 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. One would be forgiven for thinking that the far-right and, for all its recent rebranding, racist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British National Party would welcome such imagery. As Vallance himself notes, their 2005 manifesto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitled )] TJ ET BT 73.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rebuilding British Democracy)] TJ ET BT 219.668 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( claimed that:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This country is the birthplace of modern democracy. This is no surprise; it is clear from what is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known of the way in which free men and women among Celtic, Anglo-Saxon and Norse )] TJ ET BT 64.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestors had a significant say in the running of their societies that personal freedom has deep )] TJ ET BT 64.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and strong roots among the native peoples of our islands. Even when those freedoms were )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppressed, as under the time of feudal darkness that followed the Norman Conquest, and again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(888)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Vallance)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781408700501)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(639pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little, Brown and Company)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ariel Hessayon)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.9357 229.4755 538.9277 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 6986 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the pauperisation of the yeomanry and creation of an urban proletariat during the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enclosures and Industrial Revolution, our people have always fought and even died to secure )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them again. From Magna Carta to the Peasants? Revolt, through the Levellers, the Chartists, the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early Labour movement and the suffragettes, we have defied the executioner, the rack, and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison door to wrest liberty of conscience, speech, action and political association from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs, barons and bosses, and from popes, priests and censor.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.956 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.956 723.795 m 392.948 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, both the chronological scope of Vallance?s book ? from the West Saxon King Alfred to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present day ? and its focus on Magna Carta, the Peasants? Revolt, Jack Cade?s Rebellion, the ?Commotion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Time? \(once known as ?Kett?s rebellion?\), Levellers, Diggers, )] TJ ET BT 337.604 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rights of Man)] TJ ET BT 426.608 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 449.936 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rights of Woman)] TJ ET BT 553.604 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Luddites, Peterloo, the Tolpuddle Martyrs, Chartists, the Suffrage Movement and early Socialism uncannily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echo this aspect of the BNP?s 2005 manifesto. The only notable dissonance is a final chapter on ?The Fight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Fascism? which contains a brief account of the one-time Labour MP Oswald Mosley, his Blackshirts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the famous ?Battle of Cable Street? on 4 October 1936, which in Vallance?s view sits, ?like the Jarrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Crusade? ... rather uneasily within a history of the Labour movement? \(pp. 535?6\). As the dust-jacket )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaims:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From medieval Runnymede to twentieth-century Jarrow, from King Alfred to George Orwell, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by way of John Lilburne and Mary Wollstonecraft, a rich and colourful thread of radicalism )] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(runs through almost a thousand years of British history ... traces a national tendency towards )] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, irreverence and reform wherever it surfaces in all its variety ... unveils the British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yeomen and preachers, millworkers, poets, miners and intellectuals who fought and died for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious freedom, universal suffrage, justice and liberty ... shows why, now more than ever, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their heroic achievements must be recognised and celebrated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides the disconcerting juxtaposition of Vallance?s subtitle )] TJ ET BT 332.324 410.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The [British] Men and Women who Fought for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(our Freedoms)] TJ ET BT 101.672 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the BNP?s sloganeering ?our people have always fought and even died to secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([freedoms]?, there are other arresting equivalences. Thus Vallance?s insistence that the ?very limited nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British liberty? is undermined by the ?untrammelled power of Parliament? together with his remedy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent ?further assaults by the government on civil liberties? ? namely, ?some body of specially protected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British constitutional law, incorporating the rights of the citizen? ? sounds not just like a variation on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?opportunistic? David Cameron \(pp. 549?50\), but also the BNP?s 2005 manifesto:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 287.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The rights of British citizens ... must be set down in a formal Bill of Rights, the starting point )] TJ ET BT 64.016 272.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for which should be those parts of Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights of 1689 which are still )] TJ ET BT 64.016 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant to modern times.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.668 258.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.668 257.139 m 200.660 257.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, writing of the ?massive public demonstrations? and the ?millions who marched? against the ?illegal? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Iraq War, Vallance?s widely-shared uneasiness about the ?British Parliament?s ability to ignore the will of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the people? \(pp. 43, 550, 552\) resonates with the BNP?s isolationist call to ?withdraw all British troops with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate effect from Iraq?. Finally, having pointed out something well-known to historians ? that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provisions of Magna Carta, both in its initial incarnation and subsequent versions, were mythologized and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that for all its symbolism it ?guarantees very little? in a British legal context ? Vallance declares that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political agency of the British people has been crucial to the defence and extension of our rights and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedoms?; ?fragile freedoms?, what is more, that ?need to be jealously guarded if they are not to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encroached upon? \(presumably a response to the counter-terrorism bill of 2008, with its provision to detain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrorist suspects without charge for forty-two days\). So co-opting Percy Bysshe Shelley?s anger after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peterloo Massacre, Vallance ends with his belief in the British people?s readiness to rise once again ??like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lions after slumber?? and the ultimate ?lesson of Britain?s radical history: the struggle for our freedom goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on? \(pp. 43, 551?2\). A call to arise and be doing which, it must be said, repeats the message of the BNP?s )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.9557 724.1095 392.9477 735.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.6677 257.4535 200.6597 269.3335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7769 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2005 manifesto:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now our dearly-bought birthright of freedom is under mortal threat once more.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.276 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.276 756.819 m 457.268 756.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 719.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is emphatically not to suggest that in constructing his notion of )] TJ ET BT 363.356 719.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Radical History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 499.364 719.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Vallance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has knowingly acted as a cheerleader for the BNP. All the same it is, as he recognizes, a malleable tradition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And hence one readily appropriated for political purposes by the Right as well as, more familiarly, the Left. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, although the 19th-century witnessed the piecemeal rediscovery or recovery of what is now generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called British radicalism, that process was predominantly associated with two broadly left-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographic trends. One was bourgeois and liberal, essentially concerned with tracing the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratic and republican ideas in response to acute social and economic tensions. The other was Socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Marxist, likewise emphasizing secular class struggle but this time under the shadow of capitalism. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former approach was promoted during the 20th century by certain North-American based scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the development of individual liberties and constitutional restraints on the authoritarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise of power, as well as the intellectual antecedents of the American Revolution, the latter became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly associated with, among others, Protestant nonconformists, members of the Fabian Society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communists. For it was one-time English members of the Communist Party and the briefly influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians? Group of the Communist Party such as Christopher Hill, Rodney Hilton, A. L. Morton and E. P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thompson who were instrumental in creating a tradition of Marxist history in Britain that was severely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical of ?non-Marxist history and its reactionary implications?. Noted for its ?moral exhortation?, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passionately debated agenda had an urgent tone because, as Hill remarked, ?History plays an important part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the battle of ideas today?. Furthermore, Hill underlined the political value of a Marxist approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believing that it alone could ?restore to the English people part of their heritage of which they have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(robbed?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.668 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.668 447.699 m 89.660 447.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.660 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Accordingly, while Morton penned )] TJ ET BT 264.968 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People?s History of England)] TJ ET BT 414.296 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1938\), Thompson )] TJ ET BT 509.624 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 214.352 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1963\), and Hilton )] TJ ET BT 309.344 434.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bond Men Made Free: Medieval Peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Movements and the English Rising of 1381)] TJ ET BT 240.008 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1973\), Hill for his part turned from a doctrinaire Soviet-style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class conflict explanation for a supposed ?English bourgeois revolution? during the mid-17th century to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely influential study of radical ideas entitled )] TJ ET BT 281.648 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World Turned Upside Down. Radical Ideas During )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 143.348 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1972\). Hill?s subsequent essay ?From Lollards to Levellers? \(1978\) attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide both a genealogy and ecology for ?lower-class? radicalism by exploring the continuity of radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas within an orally transmitted ?underground tradition?. The fruit of this largely co-operative venture was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a partly fabricated ? in the sense of both manufacture and invention ? single, continuous English radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition spanning from the Peasants? Revolt of 1381 to the Chartists and beyond. Yet it appears that these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories also had another, self-serving, purpose as Glenn Burgess has recently suggested:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core historical project lay in the relationship of present to past embedded in the recovering )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a radical or revolutionary heritage that could make communism not an alien, foreign and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpatriotic implant into the green and pleasant lands of the sceptred isle but a suppressed native )] TJ ET BT 64.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.684 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.684 224.115 m 121.676 224.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vallance too acknowledges the problematic nature of ?a British radical tradition?, and is critical of what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as the ?historical continuum? presented in the ?great works? of Hill and Thompson; a ?continuum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalism? which ?arguably confused passing similarity with actual influence?. Nonetheless, contrary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he identifies as the ?urgings of some conservative historians?, Vallance insists that the idea of a British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?radical tradition? should not be abandoned \(presumably this would have been a very different work had he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heeded these unnamed conservative historians? advice\). Instead, he defends it as ?viable and important? ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no ?mere fiction? ? maintaining that many of the groups and individuals under discussion were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?undoubtedly ?radical? within the context of their own time?. Vallance, moreover, claims that ?there )] TJ ET BT 520.916 87.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 544.244 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of important continuities between radical movements?, that it was a ?variegated and ever-changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition? constantly ?reinvented? by a variety of different radical groups from generation to generation over )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.2757 757.1335 457.2677 769.0135 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.6677 448.0135 89.6597 459.8935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.6837 224.4295 121.6757 236.3095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 9232 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centuries to suit their own ends \(pp. 12?18\). All of which begs the obvious question: if Vallance?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical history of what is predominantly )] TJ ET BT 229.328 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 269.996 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the wider British dimension of the title is largely absent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until after the Napoleonic Wars ? is in fact little more than a sequence of episodes in context sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected only tenuously or in retrospect and separated until the beginning of the fourth part of his book by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaping chronological gulfs \(1215, 1381, 1450, 1549, 1641?50, 1688?89, the 1760s\), then what purpose does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it serve?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly Vallance aspires to be taken seriously as a scholarly authority in this field, but this is a far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing performance. Indeed, given the distressingly anorexic bibliography of primary sources \(a shade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over two pages\) and heavy dependence on secondary literature one could hardly expect )] TJ ET BT 456.224 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Radical History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 68.024 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to be brimming with original research or fresh insights. And while Vallance has undeniable literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talent, far too often ? notably in the second and third chapters of his book ? he closely paraphrases, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgement, the single modern authority upon which he is relying, namely Alastair Dunn?s )] TJ ET BT 506.288 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peasants? Revolt. England?s failed Revolution of 1381)] TJ ET BT 299.012 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and I. M. W. Harvey?s )] TJ ET BT 414.644 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack Cade?s Rebellion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1450)] TJ ET BT 58.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 597.747 m 75.008 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 75.008 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To illustrate the point, there are some examples in the )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.972 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.972 597.747 m 382.964 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 382.964 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to this review \(a thorough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation would probably reveal more\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet there is another purpose to Vallance?s book: a political agenda. Located somewhere to the left of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour in )] TJ ET BT 84.008 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET BT 130.676 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 136.676 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman)] TJ ET BT 210.344 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and John Pilger reading territory \(pp. 11, 38, 40?2, 430?1, 531, 551\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displaying an evident if understandable distaste for Thatcherism \(pp. 52, 228, 260\), )] TJ ET BT 436.628 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Radical History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain)] TJ ET BT 68.024 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is intended as a celebration of the British people?s capacity for dissent and, when necessary, recourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to direct action in defending their liberties and securing new rights \(pp. 11, 13, 18, 38?9, 119?21, 181, 201, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(526?7\). Nor to Vallance?s mind is his narrative a record of heroic failure, but rather a testament to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements of British radicals and radical movements. Continuing in this vein, he is scathing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heritage industry and its sanitisation of popular struggle ? a condemnation he extends to ?the media?s use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chocolate-box imagery? \(pp. 430?1\). Unlike the musician and lyricist Billy Bragg, whom he quotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approvingly, and his fellow left-wing artists and writers, Vallance appears to stop just short of seeking ?to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?reclaim the flag? from the far right? ? whether the Cross of St George or the Union Flag is unclear \(p. 546\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the Left has sometimes been accused of ?sentimentalism? \(cf. pp. 126?7\), even of romanticising its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived radical inheritance ? which before the nineteenth century did, more often than not, end in at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporary defeat ? there is a very serious issue at stake here. And that is the uses and value of public history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As historians we have a collective responsibility to maintain the highest standards of scholarly rigour, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when undertaking the challenging yet rewarding business of educating non-specialists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, shaping aspects of the past to advance present-day political goals is a practice almost as old as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discipline itself. Anyone engaged in this enterprise, however, must take the greatest care not to legitimise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the indefensible or give ammunition to dangerous extremists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.123 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I assume this was intended to illustrate English peasant rebellion. The image, however, is taken from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title-page of the anonymous )] TJ ET BT 218.996 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handlung, Artickel und Instruction ... von allen Rotten und Hauffen )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(der Bauren)] TJ ET BT 118.340 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( [Act, Articles and Instruction Concerning all Gangs and Mobs of Farmers)] TJ ET BT 479.000 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(] \(1525\). This )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contained the so-called Twelve Articles of the Swabian peasantry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.996 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.996 180.339 m 434.984 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/BNP_uk_manifesto.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 166.083 m 384.680 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.680 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 401.672 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 4 March 2010], and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly quoted on p. 547.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 178.676 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 178.676 151.827 m 232.664 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.688 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.688 137.571 m 139.676 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ibid.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.688 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.688 123.315 m 139.676 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Hobsbawm, ?The Historians? Group of the Communist Party?, in )] TJ ET BT 394.988 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rebels and their Causes. Essays )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Honour of A. L. Morton)] TJ ET BT 191.024 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Maurice Cornforth \(London, 1978\), pp. 21?47; R. Samuel, ?British )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist Historians, 1880?1980: Part One?, )] TJ ET BT 272.996 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Left Review)] TJ ET BT 353.660 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 120 \(1980\), 52?5, 73?5; Alastair )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacLachlan, )] TJ ET BT 129.992 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise and Fall of Revolutionary England. An Essay on the Fabrication of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seventeenth-Century History)] TJ ET BT 202.988 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, 1996\), pp. 79?87, 101?21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.304 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.304 52.035 m 454.292 52.035 l S endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 598.0615 75.0077 609.9415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.9717 598.0615 382.9637 609.9415 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.9957 180.6535 434.9837 192.5335 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 166.3975 384.6797 178.2775 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/BNP_uk_manifesto.pdf) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 178.6757 152.1415 232.6637 164.0215 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.6877 137.8855 139.6757 149.7655 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.6877 123.6295 139.6757 135.5095 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.3037 52.3495 454.2917 64.2295 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 5456 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Burgess, ?Introduction?, in )] TJ ET BT 211.664 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Radicalism, 1550?1850)] TJ ET BT 365.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Glenn Burgess and Matthew )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Festenstein \(Cambridge, 2007\), p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.336 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.336 780.819 m 293.324 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alastair Dunn, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Peasants? Revolt. England?s failed Revolution of 1381)] TJ ET BT 423.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Stroud, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.664 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.664 766.563 m 553.652 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Peasants? Revolt of 1381)] TJ ET BT 207.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R.B. Dobson \(1st edn., London, 1970\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 417.668 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 417.668 752.307 m 471.656 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. M. W. Harvey, )] TJ ET BT 149.324 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack Cade?s Rebellion of 1450)] TJ ET BT 298.640 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.288 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.288 738.051 m 431.276 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Mate, ?The economic and social roots of medieval popular rebellion: Sussex in 1450 to 1451?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 188.660 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45 \(1992\), 661?76, at 672.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.644 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.644 709.539 m 381.632 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Appendix)] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fatal blows were struck by a royal esquire, Ralph Standish, who ran him through, repeatedly, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a sword ... Tyler still had the strength to remount his horse, and he managed to ride a few )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paces towards his followers, before collapsing again.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 578.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Dunn, p. 133.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 552.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 526.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mortal blows were landed ... by a royal esquire, Ralph Standish, who ran Tyler through )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly with his sword. Tyler nonetheless struggled back on to his horse and managed to ride )] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a few paces back to his own supporters before collapsing.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 471.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 70, with no note; all Vallance?s references to Dunn have ceased by this point, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 457.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his next four references \(notes 32, 33, 34, 35\) are to R. B. Dobson?s )] TJ ET BT 393.620 457.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Peasants? Revolt of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 442.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1381)] TJ ET BT 88.016 442.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 442.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 441.459 m 105.008 441.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.008 442.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(])] TJ ET BT 64.016 416.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 390.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was soon dragged back to Smithfield, where he was beheaded. But, given the severity of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wounds that he had already sustained, Tyler may well have been dead by the time he was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 361.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought back to Smithfield. In a grisly display, Tyler?s severed head was placed on a pole, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 347.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paraded before the rebels.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 321.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Dunn, p. 133.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... dragged him back to Smithfield, where he was beheaded. By this point, given the severity of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his earlier injuries, he may well already have been dead. His severed head was put on a pole and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paraded in front of the remaining rebels.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 214.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 70, with no note.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 187.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 161.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At some point on 16 or 17 June Richard II?s order countermanding the charter ... reached St )] TJ ET BT 64.016 147.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albans ... The new charter placed the Abbey and its buildings under his protection, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 133.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened grave punishment against any who inflicted any damage.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 106.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Dunn, p. 146.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 80.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.3357 781.1335 293.3237 793.0135 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.6637 766.8775 553.6517 778.7575 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 417.6677 752.6215 471.6557 764.5015 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 67 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.2877 738.3655 431.2757 750.2455 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 74 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.6437 709.8535 381.6317 721.7335 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 77 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj [55 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 441.7735 105.0077 453.6535 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 71 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Length 3317 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At some point on 16/17 June, Richard?s order countermanding his earlier charter concessions )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached St Albans. This counter-charter protected the Abbey and its buildings and threatened )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dire punishment to any who challenged it.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 71, with no note.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ghoulish sense of humour of the Suffolk rebels was indulged ... who made the head of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavendish confess into the ear of Cambridge, and then the two exchanged kisses.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Dunn, p. 154.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 610.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 584.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Suffolk rebels displayed a ghoulish sense of humour, first making the head of Cavendish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 569.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear to confess its sins to Prior John Cambridge, then making the two exchange kisses.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 543.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 72, with no note.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 491.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On 17 June ... an expedition of twelve horsemen and twenty-five archers set out from London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Kent under the leadership of the King?s elder half-brother, Thomas Holand, Earl of Kent, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sir Thomas Trivet.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Dunn, p. 169.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 410.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the 17th, an expedition of twelve horsemen and twenty-five archers was sent from London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 369.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Kent under the leadership of the King?s half-brother Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, and Sir )] TJ ET BT 64.016 355.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Trivet.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 329.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 75, with no note.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 302.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 276.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ball was sentenced to be drawn, hanged and quartered, and the execution was carried out in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s presence on the following day ... His remains ... were quartered and sent to the four )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corners of the kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 221.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Dunn, p. 174.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 169.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Ball was ... sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered. The execution was carried out )] TJ ET BT 64.016 155.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the following day and his remains were sent to the four corners of the kingdom.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 128.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 76, with no note.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 102.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 76.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Stephen Slegge] and Robert Est, a gentleman from Maidstone, together with a great gang, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 62.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegedly 200 strong, broke into the close of Edward Neville, Lord Abergavenny, at Singlewell, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 75 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 73 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Length 4371 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two miles south of Gravesend, looted his granary, and assaulted his servants.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([I. M. W. Harvey, )] TJ ET BT 153.320 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack Cade?s Rebellion of 1450)] TJ ET BT 302.636 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 39.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.636 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.636 768.819 m 349.628 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.628 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(])] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(... with Robert Est, a gentleman from Maidstone, and a gang of some two hundred men he broke )] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the close of Edward Neville, Lord Abergavenny, at Singlewell, two miles south of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gravesend. They looted his granary and assaulted his servants.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 82, with no note; while Vallance?s previous note \(note 4\) cites Harvey, pp. 29?30, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his next note \(note 5\) on p. 86 is to M. Mate?s ?The economic and social roots of medieval )] TJ ET BT 64.016 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular rebellion: Sussex in 1450 to1451?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.008 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.008 633.027 m 290.000 633.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the 1440s, then, both Norfolk and Suffolk were in the grip of adherents of the duke of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suffolk.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Harvey, p. 44.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 1440s, the counties of both Norfolk and Suffolk were in the grip of adherents of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duke of Suffolk...)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 82, with no note; the next note on p. 86 refers to Mate, ?The economic and social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of medieval popular rebellion?.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notorious Sir Thomas Tuddenham of Oxburgh acted as MP for Suffolk in 1431 and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thenceforward for Norfolk in three parliaments...)] TJ ET BT 64.016 341.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Harvey, p. 45.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 314.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 288.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notorious Tuddenham of Oxburgh acted as MP for Suffolk in 1431 and, from then on, for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norfolk in three parliaments...)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, pp. 82?83, with no note; the next note on p. 86 refers to Mate, ?The economic and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 233.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social roots of medieval popular rebellion?.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the best-recorded example of his heavy-handed use of force comes in January 1449 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he and Lord Moleyns backed and incited the attack and seizure by a large gang )] TJ ET BT 64.016 152.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprising several hundred armed men of John Paston?s manor at Gresham, smashing gates )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and doors, rifling possessions in the house; and, with the manor taken, combing the countryside )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in pursuit of Paston?s friends, tenants, and servants through houses and barns, stabbing into )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sheaves and straw after their quarry. Poor tenants of the manor were intimidated into making )] TJ ET BT 64.016 95.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(false plaints in the hundred courts against these associates of Paston who naturally dared not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear in public to defend themselves in court, nor could they even obtain copies of the plaints )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to answer them by law because the keeper of the court was in league with Lord Moleyns and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 74 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6357 769.1335 349.6277 781.0135 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 77 0 obj [72 0 R /Fit] endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 79 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.0077 633.3415 289.9997 645.2215 ] >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 81 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Length 4501 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuddenham.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Harvey, p. 47.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most infamous example of his methods came in January 1449. Heydon and Lord Moleyns, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bishop of Chichester, backed by a large gang comprising several hundred armed men, incited )] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attack and seizure of John Paston?s manor at Gresham in Norfolk. Heydon?s men smashed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gates and doors, rifled through Paston?s possessions and, with the manor taken, combed the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countryside, pursuing his friends, tenants and servants in and out of houses and barns, ruthlessly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stabbing at sheaves and straw after their quarry. Poor tenants of the manor were intimidated into )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making false complaints in the hundred courts against these associates of Paston, who naturally )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not appear in public to defend themselves in court. Nor could they even obtain copies of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaints so as to answer them by law, because the keeper of the court was also in league with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moleyns and Tuddenham.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 83, with no note; the next note on p. 86 refers to Mate, ?The economic and social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of medieval popular rebellion?.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They marshalled themselves into some kind of military array, appointing captains to order their )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranks. These leaders hid their identities behind such names as ?King of the Fairies?, ?Queen of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 467.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Fairies?, and ?Robin Hood?, a trick used by poachers. Thomas Cheyne, the captain in chief, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went under the name of ?the hermit Blewbeard?.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Harvey, p. 65])] TJ ET BT 64.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They organised themselves into a military-style array and appointed captains under various )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pseudonyms ? ?King of the Fairies?, ?Queen of the Fairies? and ?Robin Hood? ? a trick ... that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebels had also employed in 1381. Thomas Cheyne himself went under the name ?the hermit of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 332.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blewbeard?.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 85, with no note; the next note on p. 86 refers to Mate, ?The economic and social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of medieval popular rebellion?.])] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 239.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cheyne was captured with the aid of some of the citizens of Canterbury on Saturday, 31 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January, just a week after the rising had begun ... [he] was sent to Westminster to be judged and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was subsequently hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn ... His head was sent to London )] TJ ET BT 64.016 196.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bridge and his quarters were distributed between London, Norwich, and two of the Cinque )] TJ ET BT 64.016 182.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ports; although not without some difficulty, since no one was willing for fear of their lives to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take on themselves the job of transporting the dismembered corpse to its several destinations)] TJ ET BT 64.016 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Harvey, )] TJ ET BT 109.328 141.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jack Cade?s Rebellion of 1450)] TJ ET BT 258.644 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 65?66])] TJ ET BT 64.016 115.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 88.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cheyne was finally captured with the aid of the citizens of Canterbury on Saturday 31 January, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 74.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just a week after the rising had begun. He was taken to Westminster to be judged and was then )] TJ ET endstream endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 84 0 R ] /Contents 83 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Length 4454 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn. His head was sent to London Bridge and his quarters )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were distributed between London, Norwich and two of the Cinque Ports; although not without )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some difficulty, since no one was willing, for fear of their lives, to transport the dismembered )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corpse to its several destinations.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, p. 85, with no note; the next note on p. 86 refers to Mate, ?The economic and social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of medieval popular rebellion?])] TJ ET BT 64.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was another story that he was a sorcerer of the black arts, capable of summoning up the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devil in animal guise, and that during 1449, whilst living in Sussex in the household of Sir )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Dacre, he had murdered a pregnant woman and had had to flee the country ... At least a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portion of this may have been true: between December 1448 and December 1449 a John Cade, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yeoman, of Hurstpierpoint in mid-Sussex, did abjure the realm, the escheator for Surrey and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sussex taking 20)] TJ ET BT 145.352 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(s)] TJ ET BT 150.020 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. from the profits of Cade?s horse, gown, and bed. The manor of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hurstpierpoint was held at this date by Sir Thomas Dacre. He was son of Lord Dacre of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North but he himself made his links among the most prominent families of the South-East. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, his son-in-law was the very Sir Richard Fiennes, future first Lord Dacre of the South, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose uncle was the notorious Lord Saye...)] TJ ET BT 64.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Harvey, pp. 78?9])] TJ ET BT 64.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 453.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In another tale he was a sorcerer of the black arts, capable of summoning up the Devil in animal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 439.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guise; during 1449, while living in Sussex in the household of Sir Thomas Dacre, Cade was said )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have murdered a pregnant woman and then fled the country. This part at least may be true. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 410.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between December 1448 and December 1449, a John Cade, yeoman, of Hurstpierpoint in mid-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sussex, did ?abjure the realm? \(promise to go into exile\), while the escheator for Surrey and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sussex confiscated twenty shillings from the profits of the sale of Cade?s horse, gown and bed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hurstpierpoint at this time was held by Sir Thomas Dacre, the son of Lord Dacre of the North )] TJ ET BT 64.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but with links among the most prominent families of the South East. \(Indeed, his son-in-law was )] TJ ET BT 64.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very Sir Richard Fiennes, future 1st Lord Dacre of the South, whose uncle was the notorious )] TJ ET BT 64.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Saye.\))] TJ ET BT 64.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Vallance, pp. 87?8, with no note; the next note \(note 7\) on p. 91 does quote Harvey, but refers )] TJ ET BT 64.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to page 88 of her book])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 256.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 238.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 238.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/888)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 236.889 m 322.316 236.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 211.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4639)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/pdfs/BNP_uk_manifesto.pdf)] TJ ET endstream endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 237.2035 322.3157 249.0835 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/888) >> endobj xref 0 86 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000377 00000 n 0000000414 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000000743 00000 n 0000004895 00000 n 0000005004 00000 n 0000005114 00000 n 0000005223 00000 n 0000008784 00000 n 0000008912 00000 n 0000008996 00000 n 0000009025 00000 n 0000009153 00000 n 0000009189 00000 n 0000009280 00000 n 0000016319 00000 n 0000016349 00000 n 0000016477 00000 n 0000016513 00000 n 0000016543 00000 n 0000016671 00000 n 0000016707 00000 n 0000016805 00000 n 0000024627 00000 n 0000024657 00000 n 0000024785 00000 n 0000024821 00000 n 0000024851 00000 n 0000024977 00000 n 0000025013 00000 n 0000025043 00000 n 0000025171 00000 n 0000025207 00000 n 0000025340 00000 n 0000034625 00000 n 0000034655 00000 n 0000034781 00000 n 0000034817 00000 n 0000034945 00000 n 0000034981 00000 n 0000035109 00000 n 0000035164 00000 n 0000035291 00000 n 0000035406 00000 n 0000035534 00000 n 0000035589 00000 n 0000035716 00000 n 0000035771 00000 n 0000035898 00000 n 0000035953 00000 n 0000036079 00000 n 0000036134 00000 n 0000036253 00000 n 0000041762 00000 n 0000041890 00000 n 0000041945 00000 n 0000042073 00000 n 0000042128 00000 n 0000042256 00000 n 0000042311 00000 n 0000042439 00000 n 0000042494 00000 n 0000042622 00000 n 0000042677 00000 n 0000042707 00000 n 0000042834 00000 n 0000042870 00000 n 0000042935 00000 n 0000046305 00000 n 0000046396 00000 n 0000050820 00000 n 0000050850 00000 n 0000050978 00000 n 0000051014 00000 n 0000051044 00000 n 0000051172 00000 n 0000051208 00000 n 0000051273 00000 n 0000055827 00000 n 0000055911 00000 n 0000060418 00000 n 0000060546 00000 n trailer << /Size 86 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 60641 %%EOF