%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 54 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818081158+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818081158+01'00') /Title (The Papacy and Crusading in Europe, 1198-1245) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4497 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Papacy and Crusading in Europe, 1198-1245)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In March 1208 Pope Innocent III proclaimed a crusade against Raimon VI, count of Toulouse, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Provenal heretics? supposedly infesting the comital lands between the Garonne and Rhne Rivers. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those ?signed with the cross? were offered the same rights and privileges as crusaders journeying to the Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Land. If they ?rooted out perfidious heresy, purifying the land,? the pope promised remission of sins. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Attack the followers of heresy more fearlessly than even the Saracens,? he exhorted, ?since heretics are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more evil!? This holy war lasted 21 years. After 1211 it was known to northern Europeans \(especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French\) as the crusade into the ?lands of the Albigensians?. The Albigensian Crusade was the first of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Rist classifies as ?internal? crusades within Latin Christendom as opposed to ?external? expeditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Levant. Innocent III died in 1216 and the crusade against the )] TJ ET BT 358.616 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provinciales heretici)] TJ ET BT 458.936 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was continued by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two other popes, Honorius III and Gregory IX. Indeed, after becoming pope in 1227, Gregory IX )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promulgated crusades and sanctioned wars against other heretics and papal enemies. He supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns against the ?pagan? Cumans in 1228; a crusade against the ?Stedinger heretics? of Bremen in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1233; an expedition against the Frisian ?Drenther? preached by the bishop of Utrecht; a crusade against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretics in Bosnia in 1237; and a crusade against John Ashen, king of the Vlachs and Bulgars, in 1238. Rist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies the ?idea? of these ?internal? crusades, ?in other words what the popes )] TJ ET BT 412.592 87.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(believed)] TJ ET BT 452.576 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they were doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when they called for people to take up arms against heretics and enemies of the papacy? \(p. 2\). She examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papal letters \(?a unique and valuable source of evidence for understanding papal thought?\), arguing this is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(889)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebecca Rist)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781441140166)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(286pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Pegg)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8730 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fresh approach? \(p. 2\). She is at once level-headed \(focusing on texts\) and nave \(papal letters have always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been read for ways of understanding papal thought\). Rist?s emphasis upon papal letters is worthy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable, yet her unquestioning acceptance of the traditional historiography of heresy and crusading, almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of which is deeply flawed, constantly stifles her analysis, diminishing much of what she has to say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rist?s interpretation of what Innocent III believed he was doing when he called upon all Christians to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up arms in a crusade against Raimon VI and the ?Provenal heretics? is misguided. She mistakenly assumes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heretics to be cleansed from the lands of the count of Toulouse were ?Cathars.? She accepts without a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second thought the traditional and fallacious narrative of ?Catharism.? She is not alone in this error. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regrettably, far too many scholars defer to the shopworn story of an organized ?Cathar Church? of dualist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretics from the Rhine to the Garonne to the Po Rivers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.316 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.316 654.771 m 318.308 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.308 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is a tale perpetually justifying \(in the sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that scholars need not trouble themselves by looking too closely at the contingent social and metaphoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts of heresy\) the erasure of a verifiable past through an unverifiable narrative that seemingly says )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything that need be said. It closes avenues of research, never opening them. So much historical analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into heresy is little more than exegesis on this fanciful storyline. Rist?s deference to this narrative means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, for all intents and purposes, she already knows what she will find in the letters of Innocent III. This is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame as nothing in the pope?s letters, whether on the crusade against Raimon VI or not, supports the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern scholarly notion of Catharism, whereas reading them without this liability to learning \(or simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a vaguely skeptical eye\) would indeed have been a ?fresh approach? to the Albigensian Crusade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Innocent III never referred to the heretics in the lands of the count of Toulouse as ?Cathars.? This is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than just semantics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.348 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.348 500.211 m 142.340 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 142.340 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As most research into medieval heresy \(and religion\) largely adopts an intellectual-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical approach, then the meaning and use of particular words is \(or should be\) vitally important. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly was to preachers, polemicists, and historians in the 12th and 13th centuries. Somewhat bizarrely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such attention to linguistic detail disappears for many modern scholars when it comes to heresy before 1300, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so that no matter what terms were used by popes and other Latin Christian intellectuals \(Manichaeans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paterenes, Arians, ?the heretics?\), what everyone in the past was really writing and talking about were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cathars. Admittedly, some preachers named a handful of individuals accused of heresy as ?Cathars?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.576 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.576 414.675 m 532.568 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 532.568 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few polemicists tagged stylized opponents in dialogic treatises on proper Catholic behaviour and thought as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Cathars?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 84.332 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 84.332 386.163 m 98.324 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.324 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even Innocent III in letters to the archbishop of Split described a group of schismatic Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Bosnia as ?Cathars?. Crucially, his letters about the heretics to be expunged by holy war did not. Instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these heretics when not just ?the heretics? were quite specifically ?the Provenal heretics?. This term derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from )] TJ ET BT 60.344 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provincia)] TJ ET BT 107.672 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? meaning ?province? rather than ?Provence? ? and was the papal name for the region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the Garonne and Rhne Rivers. Rist never mentions )] TJ ET BT 329.972 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provincia)] TJ ET BT 377.300 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 410.960 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provinciales heretici)] TJ ET BT 511.280 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly unaware of the meaning attached to them. By contrast, she lists with exemplary precision when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pope likened heretics to little foxes, tares in the field, serpents in the streets, the black horse of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apocalypse, and the suffocating roots and shoots of a fetid tree \(pp. 55?6\). She is especially good at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasizing the metaphors of disease and sickness that Innocent III used more and more feverishly in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters before 1208 \(pp. 56?7\). Unfortunately, Rist assumes these analogies and metaphors denote Catharism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which obviates any analytic depth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Innocent III used leprous, cancerous, and pestilential metaphors regarding heretics in )] TJ ET BT 476.576 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provincia)] TJ ET BT 523.904 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more than just artful turns of phrase for use by preachers \(which seems to be Rist?s assumption; for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, p. 143\), they were quite exact and methodical ways of thinking about the heretical threat to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians and Christendom. These metaphors simultaneously evoked the spatial specificity of heresy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing within the lands of the count of Toulouse, the temporal continuity of heresy within the Church, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the insidious way in which heresy secretly poisoned careless Christians, so that they \(and their neighbours\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were unaware of their own pestilence. Intertwined with these metaphors \(quite literarily\) were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subterranean roots of a growing poisonous plant originating in Toulouse. These metaphors were not about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dualism, an institutional heretical ?Church?, or influences from far and away \(as in Byzantine Bogomils\). A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millennial shrillness infused this imagery, stressing over and over again that heresy was the great and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imminent threat to Christendom. What made this threat so apocalyptic was that all Christians \(including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popes\) would eventually be corrupted by heresy unless it was exterminated. A crusade was the only way of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.3157 655.0855 318.3077 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.3477 500.5255 142.3397 512.4055 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.5757 414.9895 532.5677 426.8695 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 84.3317 386.4775 98.3237 398.3575 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8022 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cleansing Christendom \(and so the world\) of this plague. Unquestionably, Innocent III believed the crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the heretics in the lands of the count of Toulouse would be over quickly and that heresy would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eradicated once and for all. As with all millennial visions in practice, the world was not remade anew, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pope?s realization that heresy was still thriving despite the great summer expedition of 1209, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessitated rethinking and reevaluation of the meaning and purpose of the crusade against the )] TJ ET BT 491.252 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provinciales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(heretici)] TJ ET BT 70.676 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Rist astutely detects this shift and change in the letters of Innocent III, yet she constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermines her acumen because of two inhibiting historiographic conventions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rist?s misreading of R. I. Moore?s famous )] TJ ET BT 242.996 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society)] TJ ET BT 434.648 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is revealing. According )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to her summary of his argument, already existing heretics and other minority groups \(Jews, lepers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homosexuals\) were persecuted from the 12th century onwards, so ?that majority society, and in particular a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate and therefore elite social group, could assert and consolidate its own power by defining itself against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Other?? \(p. 3\). What this interpretation fails to grasp, she argues, was ?the papacy?s genuine fear about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the effect the spread of heresy in Europe in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries would have on Christianity? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\). Moore?s argument does nothing of the sort \(even in Rist?s slightly parodic prcis\). Many things are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debatable in his theory, but this is not one of them. At a basic level all Moore is saying is that Latin Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals shaped the ?reality? of what they so genuinely feared. At an even more fundamental level all he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is saying is that medieval society at a particular time and place, and the individuals who constituted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific society, played some role in the formation of their own identities and in the identities of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals. This neither suggests falsehood, fantasy, or Machiavellian deviousness on the part of Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian intellectuals \(as if they were engaging in some sort of nudge-nudge-wink-wink conspiracy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scriptorium\). There were no pre-existing heretics in the twelfth century until the thinking of Latin Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals made them exist. Neither does it deny the ?reality? of the men, women, and children accused of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy, even if there is little or no correspondence between what they experienced in their day-to-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence and what they were accused of thinking and doing. A number of historians \(often inspired by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moore\) have recently elaborated upon these two ?realities.? The implication for Rist is that when Moore and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other scholars argue for contingency, specificity, and the social construction \(however defined\) of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and identities, they deny the authenticity and legitimacy of those beliefs and identities\(p. 222\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.296 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.296 412.419 m 536.288 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Such assumptions, for instance, are quite pervasive in religious studies, Afro-American Studies, and Gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies.\) Paradoxically, it is the modern fabrication of Catharism that constitutes ?what really happened? for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rist ? and yet this is to confuse the ?realism? of good fiction for the truth of good history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other historiographic convention constraining Rist is the way in which modern historians of the crusades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classify and codify crusading. She clearly approaches the study of the crusades against heretics from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?pluralist? perspective \(deriving from Giles Constable?s well-known taxonomy of the four ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have studied the crusades\). This view is not concerned with where a crusade was going, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?traditionalists? who argue that what makes a crusade is a Levantine destination, rather it focuses upon how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was initiated and organized, so extending the history of the crusades not only geographically but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronologically. Most Anglo-American historians of the crusades define themselves as pluralists \(when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel the need for such self-definition\). This is so obviously the only way to study the crusades, it is hard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine anyone opposing it \(but a long German tradition does\). The only trouble with the pluralist approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and so the pluralist paradox\) is that crusading to the eastern Mediterranean remains the paradigm, so that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holy war like the Albigensian Crusade is implicitly treated as a lesser version \(or even a perversion\) of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(real thing. Of course, whether a historian is a pluralist, traditionalist, fish, or fowl, he or she takes it for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granted that the Albigensian Crusade was a war against the Cathars. Yet if the Albigensian Crusade is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally misunderstood, then Latin Christianity is fundamentally misunderstood, then what it meant to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be ?signed with the cross? and to go on crusading is fundamentally misunderstood. It is an irony that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusader studies, so popular with readers and students, so important to our understanding of the past, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost no impact on the broader research of medieval historians. And vice versa. In many ways it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popularity of studying the crusades, and the misguided notion that they now have some relevance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining religious violence in the 21st century, that has lulled scholars who write about them into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual complacency.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.656 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.656 72.531 m 170.648 72.531 l S endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.2957 412.7335 536.2877 424.6135 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.6557 72.8455 170.6477 84.7255 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7462 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is so important about Rist?s work is her desire to reinvigorate the field. She smartly emphasizes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Innocent III proclaimed a crusade against the heretics in the lands of the count of Toulouse he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestionably believed that heresy was the greatest threat to Christendom and that a holy war was the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to eradicate this danger. Almost immediately she regrets being so emphatic. ?It is ? unclear from his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence as a whole whether Innocent believed heretics were more or less dangerous to the Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than ?external? Muslim enemies, whether he considered a crusade against heretics as important as against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-believers and indeed whether he held a considered position on the issue at all? \(p. 57\). This ambivalence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is unnecessary. While it is true that Innocent III partially suspended the crusading privileges of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albigensian Crusade in 1213 so as not to distract from the preaching of the Fifth Crusade, or that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed the dean of Speyer around the same time that crusading to Jerusalem was of ?greater merit? than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading against heretics, this neither lessens the pope?s conviction that heresy was the most serious threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Christendom nor does it suggest equivocation on what was and was not the proper function \(and foe\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading \(cf. p. 69\). The truly significant lesson to be drawn from Rist \(even if she is reticent to vividly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draw it herself\) is that the Albigensian Crusade was the decisive summation and transformation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement that began with the First Crusade in 1095. All crusades after the Albigensian Crusade, no matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where they went or who they were against, were linked to the problem of heresy, just as Latin Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of Islam came to be shaped \(even when it was insightful\) by mendicant polemics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitions into heresy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The war on ?pestilential heretics? and the war on ?idolatrous Saracens? were intimately entwined for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Innocent III. As the Holy Land would never be recovered if heresy were allowed to destroy Christendom, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem must be reclaimed for Christ if Christians were ever to be strong enough to finally defeat the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heretics. The failure or success of one campaign was related to the failure or success of the other. Rist?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the Albigensian Crusade and Honorius III even comes close to explicitly making this point, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although, as before, she steps back from the implications of her analysis \(pp. 81?117, esp. pp. 97?104\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is why Rist?s binary schema of defining crusades as either ?internal? or ?external? is anachronistic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradicts much of what she seeming wants to argue. It is merely another way of categorizing what was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?real? crusade and what was not. When popes and preachers can proclaim that crusaders ?walked where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ walked? when these warriors marched along the Garonne River, when crusaders through imitating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ no longer needed to set foot in the Holy Land to be in the Holy Land, then calling the Albigensian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade an ?internal? crusade is to excise historical nuance for sake of pigeonholing order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rist mostly uses her notion of ?internal? crusading when she discusses the crusades against heretics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promulgated by Gregory IX. Unfortunately, the depth of thought she gives to the Albigensian Crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recedes when she writes about the Cumans, the Stedinger heretics, the Drenther, the Bosnian heretics, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Ashen. The lack of sources and papal letters concerning these crusades and campaigns does not help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as she honestly admits\). Nevertheless, these pages seem more like an appendix to the longer discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Albigensian Crusade. She adroitly examines the metaphors of disease, purging, and cleansing utilized by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gregory IX \(pp. 142?3\), although she does not appreciate that while this imagery was similar to that used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Innocent III \(and sometimes even word for word\) what it now signified about heresy was quite different. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Around 1230 these metaphors, for instance, suggest that heretics were now thought to possess institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures, to be in communication with heretics from far and away, and that ?purging this heretical filth? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to be accomplished through forms of sacred violence other than crusading ? quite specifically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitions into heretical depravity. Rist is good on highlighting the relationship between crusading and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisition for Gregory IX \(pp. 136?7\). Her final chapter on the popes and ?political crusades? reads rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like an addendum as well. This arises because she initially returns to the papacy of Innocent III and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusade against Markward of Anweiler in 1198. These pages are fascinating and should have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporated into the earlier chapters on the Albigensian Crusade as they reveal subtlety in Rist?s ideas on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship of politics and religion \(esp. 171?8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cursory thought of these final chapters, together with too many blemishes of style and errors of editing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also demonstrate a disturbing phenomenon that is markedly unfair to smart and promising historians like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rist. Many European scholars politely disdain the ?publish or peril? imperative dictating the existence of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8249 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars in the academic system of United States before tenure. However, there is at least within the system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an acceptance that first books should be published by good presses and that some institutional effort and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support will be made so that junior scholars will have the opportunity to revise and rewrite their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissertations. There is much that is wrong in the American system but rushing the dissertation into print )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without revision has at least in the last decade or so finally been widely acknowledged as the hindrance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship and careers it always clearly was. Ironically, the British system seems to have picked up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst aspect of the American model. Quantity seems to be overwhelming quality; hasty publication more a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign of \(bureaucratic\) merit then slightly slower but more reflective and better edited prose. \(As to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of whether there is such a thing as a ?publishing crisis? ? more truthfully, there is a ?dissertation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis?. Too many dissertations are written in such an unreadable way, according to a mythical model that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has only existed since the 1970s, that rewriting them takes almost as long writing them in the first place. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sensible response is to take seriously the idea that the dissertation is really the first draft of a book and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so write it accordingly.\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, though, the focus and strength of this book is Rist?s examination of papal letters related to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albigensian Crusade. She knows these letters intimately, how they were composed, copied, distributed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read. She interprets them with great skill and proficiency. She has written a history of ideas that will surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoke debate and reflection on the meaning and definition of crusading and heresy. This is no small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Peter Biller, ?Christians and heretics?, in )] TJ ET BT 350.300 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianity in Western Europe, c. 1100?c. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1500)] TJ ET BT 88.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Miri Rubin \(Cambridge, 2009\), pp. 170?86, and Caterina Bruschi, )] TJ ET BT 431.984 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wandering Heretics )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Languedoc)] TJ ET BT 129.680 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.000 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.000 446.691 m 280.988 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. Carol Lansing, ?Popular belief and heresy?. in )] TJ ET BT 307.640 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to the Medieval World)] TJ ET BT 484.628 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Carol )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lansing and Edward D. English \(Oxford, 2009\), p. 287, where she makes the confusing assertion that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while ?Cathar? was rarely used in the 12th and 13th centuries, scholars should keep using the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically inappropriate term as it is ?less value-laden? \(with truth?\) than historically specific )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terminology.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 125.684 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 125.684 375.411 m 179.672 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Uwe Brunn?s superb, )] TJ ET BT 190.988 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Des contestataires aux cathares. Discours de rforme et propagande )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(antihrtique dans les pays du Rhin et de la Meuse avant l?Inquisition)] TJ ET BT 402.332 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.324 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.324 346.899 m 524.312 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Hilbert Chiu?s dazzling, )] TJ ET BT 204.332 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Intellectual Origins of Medieval Dualism)] TJ ET BT 423.320 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(MA Thesis, University of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sydney, 2009\). This thesis is one of the most important studies of medieval heresy written in the last )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 100.328 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 100.328 304.131 m 154.316 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 291.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biller, ?Christians and heretics?, pp. 184?6, and Bruschi, )] TJ ET BT 340.316 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wandering)] TJ ET BT 417.644 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heretics of Languedoc)] TJ ET BT 526.964 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65?6, 193?4, take a similar view \(albeit more thoughtful and nuanced\) to Rist regarding the essential )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?authenticity? of medieval heretics. This essentialism about heresy \(and so religion\) is widespread. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Thomas Bisson, )] TJ ET BT 231.332 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crisis of Twelfth Century: Power, Lordship, and the Origins of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(European Government)] TJ ET BT 173.660 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2009\), p. 422, where he perplexingly writes, ?And causes like )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy could not arise from partisan agreements, could not be invented; they could only be captured as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their social logic took hold in provincial consensus and social change?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.972 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.972 204.339 m 458.960 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On this intellectual complacency in crusader studies, see R. I. Moore, ?Letters?, )] TJ ET BT 450.272 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TLS)] TJ ET BT 469.616 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, July 10 2009, p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6, and Bernard Hamilton?s reply, ?Letters?, )] TJ ET BT 276.968 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(TLS)] TJ ET BT 296.312 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, July 17 2009, p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.316 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.316 175.827 m 445.304 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 105.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 87.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 87.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/889)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 86.553 m 322.316 86.553 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.576 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.9997 447.0055 280.9877 458.8855 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 125.6837 375.7255 179.6717 387.6055 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.3237 347.2135 524.3117 359.0935 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 100.3277 304.4455 154.3157 316.3255 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 404.9717 204.6535 458.9597 216.5335 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.3157 176.1415 445.3037 188.0215 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 86.8675 322.3157 98.7475 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/889) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4644)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 56 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000005193 00000 n 0000005302 00000 n 0000005412 00000 n 0000005521 00000 n 0000009082 00000 n 0000009210 00000 n 0000009294 00000 n 0000009399 00000 n 0000018182 00000 n 0000018212 00000 n 0000018340 00000 n 0000018376 00000 n 0000018406 00000 n 0000018534 00000 n 0000018570 00000 n 0000018600 00000 n 0000018728 00000 n 0000018764 00000 n 0000018794 00000 n 0000018920 00000 n 0000018956 00000 n 0000019047 00000 n 0000027122 00000 n 0000027152 00000 n 0000027280 00000 n 0000027316 00000 n 0000027346 00000 n 0000027472 00000 n 0000027508 00000 n 0000027573 00000 n 0000035088 00000 n 0000035214 00000 n 0000043516 00000 n 0000043644 00000 n 0000043699 00000 n 0000043827 00000 n 0000043882 00000 n 0000044010 00000 n 0000044065 00000 n 0000044193 00000 n 0000044248 00000 n 0000044376 00000 n 0000044431 00000 n 0000044559 00000 n 0000044614 00000 n 0000044740 00000 n 0000044835 00000 n 0000044900 00000 n trailer << /Size 56 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 45186 %%EOF