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Heroic Minister, 1865-1898) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4380 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Gladstone. Heroic Minister, 1865-1898)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the Gladstone Centenary Conference, held at Chester in the summer of 1998, one speaker pointed out that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at that point in time there were ten or eleven new biographies of 'WEG' under contract. If such a high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of new works is indicative of Gladstone's enduring fascination and appeal, the length and calibre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Shannon's work are veritable monuments to the exceptional quality of the scholarship inspired by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the GOM. It is fitting that the century which opened with John Morley's towering three-volume study \(1903\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should end with the publication of the second volume of this impressive piece of research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps, however, given the richness of the Gladstone archives and the statesman's historical importance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this proliferation of scholarly publications is not difficult to explain. More surprising is the extent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival of the political interest in the GOM. Such political revival had already been in the air for a few years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Shannon's book was published earlier in 1999. Possibly it began with the publication of issue No.7755 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of The Economist \(April 1992\), which had a surprising cover illustration: it represented Gladstone wearing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowery \(perhaps 'post-modern'\) waistcoat and surrounded by the microphones of journalists, obviously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eager to pick his brain on the current political situation. The title was: 'A prophet for the left.' The leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article presented the GOM not as a historical figure, but as a model for both the modern Liberal Democrats )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, especially, the Labour party. This was certainly remarkable, particularly after twelve years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative governments, who had also claimed to be intent on restoring some of the traditional values and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies associated with Gladstonian liberalism. However, what is even more remarkable is that in 1997 a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general election was won by a 'new' Labour party whose ideology seemed to have been expressly shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(89)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Shannon)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713992530)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eugenio Biagini)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7707 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along the lines suggested by The Economist five years earlier. Not only had Labour given up 'Clause IV', but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the party's rhetoric and ideological profile looked much closer to those of traditional liberalism than to any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognisable form of socialism. Significantly, New Labour was on unusually good terms with the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Democrats, and its manifesto was remarkable for a novel emphasis on constitutional, rather than social, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform. This included old liberal favourites, such as reform both of the electoral system and of the House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lords \(the focus of Gladstone's last parliamentary speech in 1894\), and even Home Rule for both Wales and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland. Not surprisingly, by 1998 comparisons between Blair and Gladstone had become commonplace, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed have been encouraged by Tony Blair himself, who seems to regard Lord Jenkins of Hillhead - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberal Democrat peer and Gladstone's best-known biographer - as one of his 'mentors'. More recently, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister's rhetoric during the intervention of the Western powers in the Balkans - aimed at stopping a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter-day version of the 'Bulgarian horrors' - contributed to the 'neo-Gladstonian' climate. The Tory press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(snapped under the weight of this strange phenomenon: a Labour PM who appropriates both free-market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics at home and a 'liberal imperialist' posture abroad, after assuming the Thatcherite mantle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('freedom fighter'. In the end the Balkans war was neither a new edition of the 'Falklands effect', nor a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Bulgarian Agitation'. However, the Conservative press has responded to the timely publication of Shannon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone as if it had been both at one and the same time. Excited commentators in The Times and The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spectator have acclaimed Shannon as one of their number and sneered at the final unmasking of the 'ghastly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old man', Gladstone, with a wink at Labour's 'ghastly young man', Blair. However, they have not been totally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fair to either Gladstone or his latest biographer. Though Shannon holds strong views on many aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone's career - views which the Victorian statesman might have regarded as less than flattering - this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography is a work of magisterial scholarship, far above the present-day party squabbles. It is a disservice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the academic community, as much as to Shannon personally, to try to drag his book into the gutter of day-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the depth of the research and originality of the interpretation Shannon's work is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable to Morley's. Though the present writer finds some of its arguments less than convincing - as we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shall see - there is no question but that this is a great achievement. Of course, it could be said, 'it was all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already in the Diaries', but Shannon has rendered historically intelligible an enormous amount of primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source material. On many issues his work challenges well-established stereotypes and assumptions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allegedly, Shannon's central thesis is that, to the end of his days, Gladstone was an unreconstructed Peelite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a Peelite ... in Liberal guise ... He became a Liberal ... the better to be a Peelite' \(p.xv\). In particular, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('"instrumental" view' of the Liberal party was typically Peelite \(p.5\). Likewise, many of his policies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peelite one way or the other. Thus, in 1869-71, '[t]he intensity and authenticity of Gladstone's evocation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peel as the tutelary genius of the work and purpose he was now about leave no doubt as to his sense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality and material relevance of that filiation' \(p.62\). Indeed, we are told that Gladstone 'did not need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism' \(p.xv\) to become what he was. Of course, this raises a question which Shannon does not address, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(i.e. whether Peel himself was really a Liberal in disguise, or whether Gladstone was the true - albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unacknowledged - leader of Victorian Conservatism \(a view which Disraeli and Salisbury would, no doubt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have found interesting\). Whatever the case, it is regrettable that Shannon has not argued for his Peelite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation with greater consistency. As the book moves \(amazingly smoothly\) through hundreds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundreds of pages, the readers are magisterially led - or sometimes misled - into the meanders of a high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, while the Peelite heritage becomes less and less easy to identify. The few occasional references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Robert's enduring influence are so isolated and out of context that they look like flimsy traces of a thesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author in which is only marginally interested. What is Shannon's real thesis then? One of the fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of this book is that it can be read and interpreted in different ways according to the reader's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective. In this respect, it is - one is tempted to say - a triumph of post-modern scholarship. On the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, there is here an anti-Gladstonian thrust which at times becomes unpleasantly intemperate and prevents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author from either understanding or explaining the evidence he has so skilfully unearthed. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection, Shannon's insistence on Gladstone's Peelism risks giving the unhelpful impression that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grand Old Man \(GOM\) never quite managed to outgrow his youthful self. The real question concerns rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which both Gladstone and Peel hailed from a similar, non-party specific, cultural milieu. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter included - as Boyd Hilton and David Bebbington have pointed out - Anglican constitutionalism, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7450 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant piety and the experience of governing the first industrial nation, but also the abiding influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burke, Butler, Aristotle and Plato. Though some of these aspects were examined in Shannon's first volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1982\), they continued to play such a central role in shaping Gladstone's outlook that it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful to discuss them again in the context of the GOM's later career.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this respect Shannon has missed an opportunity: despite his concentration on 'the mind' of Gladstone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scant attention is paid to the intellectual dimension of such a mind. Yet Gladstone was an intellectual in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics, if ever there was one. Occasionally, this neglect generates the discomforting suspicion that Shannon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is trying to trivialise his topic - an impression which seems to appeal to some of his Tory reviewers. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps this is merely an accidental consequence of Shannon's somewhat Cowlingesque approach. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to H.C.G. Matthews broad thematic chapters, the structure of Shannon's book is strictly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological and follows the daily minutiae of Gladstone's story so closely that sometimes little attention is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid to the broader picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Together with the intellectual dimension of Gladstone's life, Shannon neglects three other important aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his multifaceted subject: Gladstone's popular appeal, his concept of Europe and his Christian culture. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vexed question of the rise of the statesman's personal popularity from 1866-8 is not really explored, nor is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any attempt made to explain his miscalculation of the electors' mood in 1873-4 and subsequent disastrous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat. More surprisingly, the author of a celebrated work on the Bulgarian Agitation has chosen to examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the events of 1876 from an exclusively high-politics point of view. Shannon is at his best when discussing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the construction of the cabinets in 1880 and 1885. By contrast, the triumphs and commotion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Midlothian campaigns are represented only as a faint echo, as they may have been remembered in the quiet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Gladstone's study, when he jotted down his diary entries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not being interested in the popular dimension of Gladstone's politics, Shannon is similarly unresponsive to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sense of Europe. The latter has been superbly analysed by Matthew \(in particular Gladstone, vol.II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1998], pp.1-40\), but in Shannon's account is related in such a cursory and unsympathetic way that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes altogether unintelligible, like a bad caricature. Thus, commenting on the invasion of Egypt, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasts Gladstone's own attitude with the logic of imperial security which inspired most British policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers at the time. 'That logic had no bearing on Gladstone's actions or intentions, any more than did his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bondholding [in the Suez company]. He acted throughout for Europe, with a European frame of assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intentions' \(p.305\). Granted that 'Europe [eventually] became a fig leaf to cover the nakedness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire' \(ibid.\), what does 'Europe' actually mean in this context, and did Gladstone's successors behave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently in this respect? Neither question finds an answer in Shannon. Yet the answer is quite simple here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially if one compares Western European attitudes to the Egyptian bankruptcy with Anglo-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to both earlier and later financial crises. Financial probity was the mark of 'true independence' - it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered evidence of a country's ability and entitlement to self-government. Therefore, bankruptcy involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, even more than financial, disaster. It could \(and did\) legitimate temporary military occupation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imposition of Western controls on a country's fiscal and financial management. This happened to Egypt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also to Greece in the aftermath of the Greek-Turkish war of 1897, and it had been ventilated as a possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of the Italian financial predicament, as the post-Risorgimento governments struggled to balance the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(budget between 1870-6. That bankruptcy could legitimate joint military intervention by the western powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was taken for granted by Salisbury, as much as by Gladstone. In the 1897 Greek crisis Salisbury's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government took a line no different from that followed by Gladstone's in 1882, but he had the benefit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western European support \(largely because Greece was of marginal strategic interest, while Suez was a rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(platter for any imperialist appetite\). Likewise, if Gladstone stressed the 'temporary' nature of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation of Egypt, so did all his Tory, Liberal imperialist and Labour successors until 1953: of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formally Egypt was never a British colony, and \(again formally\), it became independent in 1922.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('With Gladstone theology was ever the prime concern' \(p.285\) writes Shannon. Yet he seems bemused, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often greatly annoyed, by the Victorian statesman's piety. For example, writing about the 1886 election he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reports the build-up of religious enthusiasm as Gladstone identified Home Rule with God's will, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonconformists as His electoral messengers. When, instead of triumphing, the Liberals were defeated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone saw the electoral result as 'the will of God for my poor country'. Shannon's mocking comment is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7587 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that '[t]he supreme moment had metamorphosed in a grotesque parody' \(p.448\). This lack of sympathy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to understand Christian providentialism in politics is quite surprising in a scholar of Shannon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standing. It is no mystery that for devout Protestants \(and for other Christians too\) God's Providence is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always sovereign: like Cromwell, Gladstone believed that when the saints triumph, it is God who triumphs; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the saints suffer, God triumphs nevertheless. Another example of Shannon's incomprehension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian spirituality is contained in the following quotation: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a speaking foray outside Birmingham Gladstone stayed with the Philip Stanhopes at Wodehouse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wombourne, 8-9 November. "I woke without a voice: and in the pouring rain, after four days of fair weather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while we needed them. How He maketh all things in measure & number. I think there have been since 1879 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not less than fifty of these fair days: and not one has failed us. And I am asked to believe there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Providence, or He is not 'Knowable'." This curious vision of the Most High attending to the state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone's vocal chords and to the microclimate of the West Midlands for the ulterior benefit of the cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Irish Home Rule is a striking specimen of the sheer cosmic faith in his assignment which sustained and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 610.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energized Gladstone. \(p.478\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Gladstone confided to his diary a spiritual attitude to life in general \(and politics in particular\) which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Prime Minister would have shared with any Nonconformist pastor in the country, or indeed with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the humblest Primitive Methodist who ever attended chapel. It was a basic Christian conviction that God )] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cared for His people and was in control of all the details of life, be they more or less important in human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes. There are many other examples in the Diaries \(as well as in other autobiographical writings by less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famous Victorians\) of such a frame of mind. For example, one paradox of Gladstone's later career is that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to retire was genuine enough - on this point Shannon \(e.g. p.284\) confirms Matthew's interpretation - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and yet, for a variety of reasons, he postponed the actual decision time and time again for fifteen years. Quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apart from personal ambition and the will to power, part of the explanation must be found, again, in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious providentialism. Like many other Christians, he perceived his own existence as guided or inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from above. Unlike most other Christians he made no secret of this and left abundant written evidence about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 439.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his convictions. However, his world-view should not be imputed to him as a peculiar fault: if it was a fault, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was that of an age and indeed of a religious faith which is still with us.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for Gladstone's Irish policy, Shannon is not impressed at all. He flatly dismisses the 1881 Land Act as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more or less irrelevant, and ridicules Gladstone's strategy: 'The Three Fs sounded terrifying but in practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would make little difference. They were much more important as a political slogan than as an agrarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality. They represented the ultimate dead end of a pointless policy' \(p.274\). Indeed, we are told that even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish National party regarded the Act 'as mainly an alien irrelevance as far as land was concerned and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible danger as far as politics was concerned' \(p.276\). Yet, later we discover that '[b]etween the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1882 and late 1884 the Irish problem was relatively quiescent' \(p.357\): did this change have anything to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the effects of the Act and its successive amendments? This is the line taken by Matthew and many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, but obviously not by Shannon, though he offers no alternative explanation. Shannon's impatient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with Gladstone's attempt to solve the land problem is not only partisan: it is also incredibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglocentric, neglects the Irish dimension of United Kingdom politics, and takes no notice of the Land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League's revolutionary potential.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, Shannon is right in stressing that 'the Irish Land Bill of 1881 was indeed a landlord's bill' \(p.277\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880-1 land reform could be pursued in two different ways. One option was to strengthen the 1870 Act: this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could imply 'tenant right' and the adoption of 'The Three F's' - fixity of tenure, fair rent and freedom of sale - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as campaigned for by the Land League. The other possibility was to buy off the Anglo-Irish landlords at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public expense by means of a Treasury advance repayable by terminable annuities. This would enable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants to purchase the farms on which they worked, but would involve complex financial and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements. Furthermore, Gladstone preferred, if possible, to preserve the Anglo-Irish gentry in their role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.405 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the economic lite, something which could only be achieved if they retained ultimate control of the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.149 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([A. Warren, 'Gladstone, land and social reconstruction in Ireland, 1881-1887', Parliamentary History, vol.2 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.893 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1983\), pp.153-90]. Significantly, here he agreed with C.S. Parnell, who believed that the Ascendancy class, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.637 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to whom he belonged, would be able to rejuvenate itself and recover part of its ancient prestige if it joined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.381 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national movement and provided its leadership [L. Kennedy, 'The economic thought of the nation's lost )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7665 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader', in D.G. Boyce and A. ODay \(eds.\), Parnell in Perspective \(1991\), pp.171-200]. For all these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative and 'pro-Ascendancy' reasons, in 1881 some watered-down version of 'tenant right' was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone's preferred approach. Though the 1881 Land Bill offered less than the Land League demanded, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social terms it was still a radical proposal: it implied the establishment of a sort of condominium between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords and tenants, in the sense that the latter would share some of the rights commonly associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(property. Particularly radical was the 'fair' rent aspect of the Bill: tenants were expected to pay a rent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately regulated not by the law of supply and demand and other market considerations, but by social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns. Rents ought to be 'fair', i.e. commensurate with the tenant's ability to pay. Special Land Courts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be appointed to ensure that they would be adjusted when and where they were found to be excessive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This judicial imposition of socially acceptable rents sanctioned an unprecedented degree of state intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the labour market. Simultaneously, in order to curb the agrarian terrorism of the Irish Land League, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstone introduced a Coercion Bill. This combination of concession and repression had the desired effect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the one hand, coercion held down the Land League, whose leaders \(including Parnell\) were either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisoned or forced to emigrate; on the other, concession undermined the motivation of the rank and file. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the farmers found that the law was of more advantage to them than revolution, they began crowding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the newly established Land Courts, rather than supporting the League. By December 1881 the land agitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was decimated and Parnell was ready co-operate with the government. The change was ratified by the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called 'Kilmainham treaty', which let Parnell out of prison in exchange for his promise of support for law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order, while the Arrears Act extended the operation of the Land Act to those tenants who had contracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debts. Thus, one of the long-term effects of this blending of reform and repression was to transform a semi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary situation in Ireland into one in which grievances were voiced through legal and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(channels. By showing that violence was counterproductive, and that the law provided more effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments for protest, Gladstone laid the ground for a rebirth of Irish constitutional nationalism. In a sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was trying to transplant 'popular liberalism' into Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as we have already seen, Shannon is not interested in anything popular, whether British or Irish. Is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he then interested in the extension of the franchise and the whole question of democracy? Not really. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the 1884-5 Reform crisis has enormous evocative power and his insights into the world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster are, as usual, penetrating. Yet, the broader electoral context does not seem to command his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention. Thus, while the constitutional debates originated by the Lords' refusal to pass the 1884 Reform Bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are reviewed in detail, there is no discussion of Gladstone's view of the principles behind either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redistribution or franchise reform. Then Shannon outlines the expected outcome of 'household democracy' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland - namely, the extinction of the Liberal party and the growth of sectarianism. He concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Gladstone chose to take the view that the new labourer vote in Ireland was "quite as likely to establish a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dual current in the constituencies, as to increase the volume of that single force [nationalism] that now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carries all with it"' \(p.323\). Why did he do so? This quotation is reported more or less as wishful thinking on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the side of Gladstone. However, his miscalculation or self-deception prefigured a major problem in Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political history: the missed development of class politics and the consequent suffocation of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression of some social tensions by the successful rhetoric of 'national unity' [see Claire Fitzpatrick, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Nationalising the ideal: Labour and nationalism in Ireland 1909-1923', in Biagini \(ed.\), Citizenship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Community \(1996\), pp.276-304].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, this 'peculiarity of the Irish' was at the root of one of Gladstone's old political problems: for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to 'pacify Ireland' was a deliberate attempt to Anglicize Irish politics. His was indeed a Peelite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategy. While Peel and the free traders had succeeded in assimilating the labouring classes into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream of party politics, Gladstone tried unsuccessfully to do the same with the Irish. His strategy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved gambling on the Irish response to the Gladstonian combination of 'big Bills' and revivalistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political preaching. But something substantial had to be delivered in order to make 'big Bills' and charismatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric effective. Indeed gambling with the Irish entailed what had already been involved in 'gambling' with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the artisan reformers in Britain in 1864-7: namely, conceding them a substantial measure of equality. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reason in 1884-5 Gladstone rejected Hartington's case for the retention of a limited franchise in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and insisted that 'to refuse equality to Ireland would be a blow to the Union and to the Empire' \(p.324\). This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotation deserves more attention than Shannon is prepared to pay to it. Why were equality and the Union so )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7407 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimately linked to each other in Gladstone's view, and how do they relate to the Home Rule proposal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two years later? Readers are left to reach their own conclusions while Shannon - whose sympathies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously lie with Hartington - shifts his attention to the Gordon affair in Sudan. True, the latter was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploited by the Conservatives who, 'terrified by the county franchise and horrified at the prospect in store )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Ireland, found the Gordon issue a convenient means of getting at Gladstone by the displacement method: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could not attack Reform directly, because that would mean insulting and alienating the new voters; but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could direct their displaced energies into the government's embarrassments in the Sudan' \(p.330\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within certain limits, their ploy worked. At the ensuing general election in 1885, the Liberals failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieve that overall majority for which their leader was hoping. Why? Shannon argues that 'the Liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure in 1885 is simply the effect of the maturing of fundamental social and demographic trends which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been apparent to perceptive Liberals in 1868 and 1874. Analysis of the vote in the great conurbations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1880 revealed that it was there that the Conservative vote was expanding fastest. The effect of Redistribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to optimize the urban and suburban vote, which accelerated this expansion' \(p.390\). The trouble with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this argument is that it explains either too much or too little: for the Liberals did win other elections after that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1885, and indeed their greatest triumph was to be achieved on a largely Gladstonian platform at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election of 1906. On the other hand, it explains too little: for even at the 1885 election the Liberals emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the strongest party in Parliament and in Britain, well ahead of the Tories. Their problem was, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not so much the English conurbations as Parnell's Irish party, which had achieved an astonishing success in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and had managed to weaken the Liberals also in Britain. Here the Irish vote went to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservatives or \(as in Liverpool\) to the Irish National party itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both the strengths and the shortcomings of Shannon's interpretation are highlighted by his analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Rule crisis. Here he becomes really partisan and heavy-handed \(pp.376-96\). There is little attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either to understand or to account for Gladstone's behaviour in terms of Peelite political strategy or Burkean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political philosophy. Though he admits that there was no sudden conversion on the part of Gladstone, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had considered the option of Home Rule as early as 1874 \(p.137\), Shannon looks at the unfolding of events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1885-6 more or less as Lord Hartington or Queen Victoria would have done, with similar indignation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fuelled by a narrowly insular, Anglocentric outlook. Ireland is treated as a mere 'object' of high-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duels between contestants for the leadership of the Liberal party. There is neither to understand, nor even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in, either the point of view of the Irish nationalists or of their 'high-politics' spokesmen, Parnell and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the National party. While Gladstone's references to constitutional experiments in Norway and Austria-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hungary are dismissed as 'exotic', Canada and the British North America Act - the real precedents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional models for Gladstone - are hardly mentioned. Ulster and its problems receive only cursory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention. Allegedly, Gladstone was maniacally devoted to a figment of his own imagination: in Shannon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book there is no sense of the urgency and complexity of the Irish crisis as a United Kingdom problem, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most long-standing and as yet unsolved question in the history of the British Isles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, Shannon's denunciation of Gladstone's 1885-6 Irish 'obsession' is inconsistent with the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of his analysis: the struggle for the Liberal party leadership. Perhaps the latter was the main goal in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(game in which Ireland itself was merely a pawn: this is of course a line of interpretation with which readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Cooke and Vincent's Governing Passion \(1974\) will be familiar. Though Shannon's account is more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forceful and precise, his unrestrained polemical fervour merely reiterates late-Victorian anti-Gladstonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda without casting any new light on the questions under discussion. However, if indeed we were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admit that power was the real issue at stake, then Gladstone, far from being a misguided visionary, was right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in choosing Home Rule as his battle cry. For he did achieve what he is alleged to have desired, and much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more: he remained in control of the party almost until the end of his life, his competitors were driven out and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gladstonianism became the trademark of 'real' Liberalism for another twenty or thirty years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, this is a complex biography. Extremely rich in detail and based on magisterial command of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archival material, it will be invaluable as a reference work. As an interpretation of the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the Gladstone's career, it is both fascinating and controversial: indeed it is already a classic - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a classic of Tory historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 651 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/89)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 316.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/641)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 316.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/89) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000561 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000005075 00000 n 0000005184 00000 n 0000005294 00000 n 0000005403 00000 n 0000008964 00000 n 0000009092 00000 n 0000009176 00000 n 0000009241 00000 n 0000017001 00000 n 0000017066 00000 n 0000024569 00000 n 0000024634 00000 n 0000032274 00000 n 0000032339 00000 n 0000040057 00000 n 0000040122 00000 n 0000047582 00000 n 0000047666 00000 n 0000048369 00000 n 0000048497 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48591 %%EOF