%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 33 0 R 44 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930064921+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930064921+01'00') /Title (A Companion to Russian History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4133 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Companion to Russian History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is a ?Companion? for? Abbott Gleason concludes his intelligent and wide-ranging introduction with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hope that this volume will attract ?that vaguely defined entity, the general reader?, that it will be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?stimulating supplement to college courses? which primarily draw on monographs and textbooks, and that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be useful to professors teaching general courses on Russian history and to graduate students who need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to review the field before preliminary examinations \(p. 12\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How far does this book meet those specifications. It consists of a series of essays which focus on particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes in Russian history. Each of them is written by a known specialist in the field, and each provides an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outline of its subject. Beyond that, they have little in common. Some are brilliant, wide-ranging and thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking pieces \(Christopher Ely on civil society in late Imperial Russia; Louise McReynolds on popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture; William Odom on Russia?s history and its future\). Some are conscientious summaries of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, with a personal interpretation but relatively little attention to historiography \(George Majeska on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rus? and the Byzantine Empire; Richard Hellie on slavery and serfdom; David Engerman on the Cold War; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert English on the reforms of Khrushchev and Gorbachev\). Finally some contributors give a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to interpretive issues and the way different historians have approached their subject \(Donald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ostrowski on the Mongols and Rus?; Nancy Kollmann on Muscovite political culture; Lynne Viola on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalinism in the 1930s; Robert Daniels on the fall of the Soviet Union\). All the authors, however, have in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(890)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abbott Gleason)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781405135603)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(110.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(568pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiley-Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chichester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8181 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common that they offer abundant footnotes and recommendations for further reading, which most readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will find useful if they want to follow up any of the ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A relatively short review obviously cannot provide a full account of 28 such heterogeneous essays. All I can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do here is to offer an overview of the way some of the principal interpretive issues are treated. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Companion appears at a time when, after more than a decade of upheaval, Russia appears to be returning to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar features of its past: a centralised authoritarian state aspiring to great power status, a passive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amorphous society, weak rule of law, pervasive corruption, an economy depending on the export of raw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials and energy, and a brilliant cultural and intellectual life muffled by political imperatives. Historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can see a new relevance in studying not just Stalin, but also Tsarist Russia, and even the Muscovite Grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Duchy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Odom argues for this view, starting from our disappointment that the creation of a market economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and multi-party democracy in the 1990s was not sustained. Odom rightly points out that neither market nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy were authentic, let alone secure, at that time, so our disappointment is perhaps overdone. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing on the ?institutional school? of economics of Douglass North and the historical work of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swedish economist, Stefan Hedlund )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.004 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.004 571.491 m 224.996 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 224.996 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Odom contends that Russia was locked centuries ago into a noxious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?path dependence?, in which a predatory state deprived economic actors of the secure property and reliable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contracts they needed for taking entrepreneurial decisions. At various junctures \(under Catherine the Great, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Alexander II, in the Stolypin land reforms, under Gorbachev and Yeltsin\) reforming leaders tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pull Russia off the path, but each time they were thwarted, and the ?Muscovite lock-in? was restored. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Putin?s Russia senior officials in the coercive \()] TJ ET BT 259.652 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(silovye)] TJ ET BT 292.976 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) ministries have taken control of the major energy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies, which as a result are in the grip of rent-seeking bureaucrats and are unable to innovate as they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to do if they are to remain viable in the in the global economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one of the most useful and important essays, Richard Hellie substantiates this view by outlining how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery and serfdom developed in parallel with what he calls the ?Agapetos state? \(roughly: rule by God?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen\) in both its Orthodox and Marxist variants. Slavery originally arose as a result of the frequent wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the southern steppes, in which the victors would enslave the vanquished. The latter were almost always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from an alien ethnos, as was usual with slaves. At that stage land was plentiful, so serfdom was not needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a way of fixing working hands to the soil. Then, as land became scarcer between the late 15th and mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th centuries serfdom grew up alongside slavery. The service cavalrymen who kept the frontiers secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required peasants to cultivate their land-holdings and enserfed them to prevent them absconding. Slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declined and was finally abolished in the early 18th century because slaves neither paid taxes nor did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military service, but the state needed peasants to do both. Serfdom however became more like slavery, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in a sense the two institutions merged. Although serfdom was abolished in 1861, many of its restrictions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived: peasants continued to be bound to the land commune till Stolypin abolished that bond in 1907. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet authorities however )] TJ ET BT 165.668 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto)] TJ ET BT 203.996 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( restored serfdom when they collectivised the farms in the early 1930s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and only when internal passports, needed for free movement around the country, were at last granted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collective farmers in 1957 \(or even as late as 1980, according to a recent authoritative account )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.900 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.900 245.859 m 502.892 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 502.892 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), was half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a millennium of bondage finally brought to an end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The confusion of slavery and serfdom in their relation to the state extends the widely accepted view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Pipes, that the Russian state is ?patrimonial?, that is, that its leaders do not distinguish between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and property, and hence treat their political subjects as their personal slaves.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.596 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.596 176.835 m 446.588 176.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.588 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is persuasive up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a point. But there is an alternative, or at least supplementary, view. Unlike Odom and Hellie, Nancy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shields Kollmann gives a full picture of the varied historiography of her subject, ?Muscovite political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture?. She agrees that already from the 15th century subjects had neither legal rights nor stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative institutions through which to articulate their opinions and interests. But she disputes whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tsar?s rule was ?patrimonial?, in the sense that all public goods ? population, land, natural resources ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were his unlimited property or that the entire population were his slaves. Though giving full attention to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative views, she argues that Muscovite autocracy was absolute mainly in rhetoric; in practice it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited by powerful families and court factions, by tradition, by moral obligations and by God?s law if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by human ones. \(One might add that, if the tsar was not felt to be fulfilling those obligations, pretenders )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.0037 571.8055 224.9957 583.6855 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.8997 246.1735 502.8917 258.0535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 432.5957 177.1495 446.5877 189.0295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8177 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might well appear\). For internal peace the tsar had to promote a consensus between his various elites. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the property of elites, though not freehold in the Western sense, was jealously defended, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary at law, and was normally held to imply obligations to the inferior social strata that lived on it. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws attention to recent studies by Michael Flier on the imagery and ceremony of autocracy, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tsars? pilgrimages of holy places; by Valerie Kivelson on the culture of the service gentry )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.596 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.596 738.051 m 485.588 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.588 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and by Isolde )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thyret on the way royal women used religious ideas to intercede with their lords and masters.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.944 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.944 723.795 m 497.936 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It remains true that so powerful did the state become, and such has been the passivity of society that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been little or no public space in which non-conformists could articulate their views. ?Other-thinkers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived semi-underground, in their own coteries, with their own rather hermetic discourses and practices. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nadieszka Kizenko draws attention to the current in Russian historiography which regards the church schism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 17th century and the development of the Old Belief as a reassertion of ancient Russian traditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grass roots self-governance against an increasingly encroaching state and authoritarian church. Many Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Believers abandoned their communities and fled to the peripheries of the empire, where they could defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their traditional liturgical practices against the church authorities, who were trying to impose major symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovations through the power of the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Gary Morson shows how the oppressiveness of the state in the 19th century drove thinking men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and women to fashion an ideal out of its victims, the )] TJ ET BT 288.668 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(narod)] TJ ET BT 317.336 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, mostly peasants, seeing in them a truth which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the regime, its officials and polite society were all trying to ignore or suppress. These idealisers of the )] TJ ET BT 525.272 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(narod )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the ?intelligentsia? ? a Russian concept now used all over the world. To emphasise their otherness, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligentsia systematically denied everything taught in state or church schools and along with it the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(etiquette of the )] TJ ET BT 109.004 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(beau monde)] TJ ET BT 167.324 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Women cut their hair short, wore drab, unkempt clothes, smoked cigarettes, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted their lives in dusty rooms among piles of newspapers, journals and political pamphlets. Morson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also gives full attention to the intelligentsia?s critics, notably Tolstoy, Dostoevskii, Chekhov and the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vekhi)] TJ ET BT 92.000 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Signposts\) essay collection of 1909, who argued that the intelligentsia were as narrow-minded, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philistine and intolerant as the regime which oppressed them, and that if they ever came to power they would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(install a reverse autocracy which might be even more destructive. Morson goes so far as to assert that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-intelligentsia tradition constitutes ?Russia?s greatest contribution to world thought? \(p. 273\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the great divides of Russian history has been that between Russia and the West. To be a great power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capable of standing up to the European great powers just the other side of a vulnerable frontier, Russia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites had to adopt a European culture. Gary Marker points out that in the 18th century the nobles adopted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europeanisation with enthusiasm, as a positive and civilising development, and it inclined them to support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the autocracy which sponsored it. For the clergy Europeanisation was less auspicious: their education system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was increasingly influenced by the Jesuits and was displaced from the church?s Greek roots in favour of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latinate culture and theology. Nobles and urban elites increasingly distanced themselves from the Orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church and took up Freemasonry as an outlet for their spiritual needs. Eventually this alienation from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church became alienation from the state, though this did not become fully apparent till the failed Decembrist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rising of 1825.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Europeanisation spread downwards in the social scale and began to affect all social classes, it made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocracy appear more and more of an anomaly. As Daniel Field points out, the reforms of Alexander II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to lay the basis for civil society, actually created new foci for opposition to autocracy. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful and wide-ranging essay, Christopher Ely argues that civil society does not always generate stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and peaceful democracy and the rule of law, nor it is always tolerant and peaceful. If it is a forum for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicting social, ethnic and religious interest groups, it may be intolerant and violent. By the turn of the 19 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 20th centuries, Russia?s cities had become turbulent melting-pots in which harshly exploited workers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic minorities with grievances \(especially but not only Jews\) and an increasingly anxious middle and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upper class contended for political influence in their different ways. Its lively and talented intellectuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to propose totalising solutions to political problems. All this meant that insoluble conflict was pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmed into the constitutional political structures created rather abruptly in 1905: a representative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative assembly, political parties and a largely free press. At the same time, this very diversity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effervescence generated one of the most remarkable periods of European cultural and intellectual history, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 471.5957 738.3655 485.5877 750.2455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.9437 724.1095 497.9357 735.9895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7582 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed in Andrew Wachtel?s essay on modernism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This turbulence lies behind the state collapse and revolution of 1917. In traditional accounts of Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, 1917 gets centre stage as a cardinal event. Here, in an interesting but not altogether successful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innovation, two authors, Melissa Stockdale and Mark von Hagen, treat it as an epiphenomenon of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. According to Stockdale, Russia?s relative economic backwardness in the long run doomed its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts in an unexpectedly long war which seriously tested all the combatant powers. In particular its under-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed rail network made it unable both to respond flexibly to the needs of the front \(including moving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(troops fast from one sector to another\) and to feed the urban population: hence the fatal food shortages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which sparked the February Revolution. The huge unequally distributed casualties, sacrifices and hardships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in the cities, and the lack of any prospect of victory had eroded the population?s will to go on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting. Moreover, by refusing to share power more widely, the government and emperor made themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?sole owner? of the defeats and difficulties, and so faced accusations of ?stupidity or treason?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime lost both credibility and legitimacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark von Hagen emphasises the long term consequences of the First World War, insisting that the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914?23 should be seen as a continuum, in which the practices of mass national war were assimilated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole populations as well as by governments. Young men became accustomed to violence as a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solving problems. Mass destruction and death became a routine part of life, and generated powerful loyalties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hatreds. Many practices taken over by the Bolsheviks ? registering, surveillance and categorising of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, mobilisation and propaganda, mass deportations, the prophylactic use of violence \(and, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might add, economic planning\) originated in the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this is valuable, and well represents recent historiography, but tells us little about the way the Bolsheviks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually seized power, used it and persuaded many of the workers, peasants and soldiers to support them. Or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they then set up their own ruling elite, and how that elite debated and later competed with each other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually murderously, over the most appropriate way to impel their country towards socialism. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more familiar stuff, no doubt, from older histories, but should a ?Companion? not give it at least some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention? Lynne Viola demonstrates what the result was: ?A weak state founded upon governance through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(force rather than through routine administrative channels, never mind laws? \(p. 373\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise McReynolds?s piece is in a category of its own, since it offers a brief account of historians? general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the subject of popular culture in the last century. Historians of Russia, she charges, were slower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than most others to learn from anthropologists, from thinkers like Gramsci, Foucault and Bourdieu and from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysts of popular culture such as Raymond Williams and E. P. Thompson. Trapped in Cold War attitudes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they remained fixated on elite culture, on its bearers in pre-revolutionary Russia and in the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underground. Russians? tendency to identify elite culture with Western culture reinforced this limited view. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet culture was written off as an artificial aesthetic serving the purposes of political propaganda. Only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 1970s and 1980s did a counter-current begin to emerge, when first Vera Dunham )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.588 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.588 262.371 m 478.580 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.580 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katerina Clark )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.996 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.996 248.115 m 121.988 248.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.988 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( showed that Stalin Prize novels had their roots in pre-revolutionary culture and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tastes and attitudes of the Soviet ruling class. A little later Jeffrey Brooks )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.980 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.980 233.859 m 401.972 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.972 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( revealed the existence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular Russian culture disseminated by the press and publishing houses for consumption by newly literate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasants and workers. With the end of the Soviet Union, attitudes changed, and the source base increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exponentially, so that now we have histories of gender, consumption, leisure, gossip, sport.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have already mentioned one serious lacuna in this collection. There are others. Elizabeth Wood, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, analyses the ?woman question? and feminist movements in Imperial Russia, but has little to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Soviet Union, and nothing at all about Soviet family legislation, which attempted to liberate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women but ended by subjecting them to a new form of oppression, the famous ?double burden?. This is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially intriguing and important aspect of gender studies in Russia, so it is disappointing that it is also not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken up in the other essay where it might have been relevant, that of Lynne Viola on Stalinism and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly Robert Geraci offers a lucid survey of Tsarist government policy towards ethnic minorities, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.5877 262.6855 478.5797 274.5655 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.9957 248.4295 121.9877 260.3095 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.9797 234.1735 401.9717 246.0535 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 7055 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighting its inconsistencies and the fact that it tended to become more repressive in the late 19th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 20th centuries ? a major contributory factor in the violence of the revolutions of 1905?6 and 1917?21. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But no one considers substantively the Soviet approach to the nationality question, which was complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(double-edged, not to say contradictory. In essence the Soviet regime both tried to liberate the non-Russian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalities ? through cultural and educational policies ? yet also oppressed them through the planned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy and military policies, through the tightly centralised Communist Party and through state terrorism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directed against ?bourgeois nationalism?. As Lynne Viola notes, under Stalin ?extreme centralisation and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrumental use of repression became virtually the primary method of governance? \(p. 372\). The non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian nationalities suffered under it at least as much as the Russians. Robert Daniels rightly identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national discontent as one of the major causes of the collapse of the Soviet Union, but can only detail its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very late manifestations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gleason has given his authors freedom to write in their own way, and some do so brilliantly. But inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the result is patchy. No general work can deal with everything, but some of the lacunae in this collection are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious. Apart from the ones mentioned above, there is nothing sustained on military policy or the armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces; on foreign policy, or on geopolitics and the strategic problems of empire; and there is very little on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Orthodox Church or the other major religions of the empire after the 18th century. These are not minor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaps, but issues which have helped to shape the overall course of Russian history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Its inconsistencies and lacunae render this volume unsatisfactory in some respects, but it can nevertheless be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommended as an up-to-date and well written guide to many important issues in Russian history, likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be useful to everyone from senior school pupils to scholars seeking guidance in unfamiliar fields.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stefan Hedlund, )] TJ ET BT 145.004 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russian Path Dependence)] TJ ET BT 270.980 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.304 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.304 434.691 m 406.292 434.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 421.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manfred Hildermeier, )] TJ ET BT 172.316 421.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte der Sowjetunion, 1917?1991)] TJ ET BT 366.968 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich, 1998\), p. 924.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.292 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.292 420.435 m 538.280 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Pipes, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Russia under the Old Regime)] TJ ET BT 277.664 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1974\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.972 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.972 406.179 m 425.960 406.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valerie Kivelson, )] TJ ET BT 151.664 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autocracy in the Provinces: the Muscovite Gentry and Political Culture in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seventeenth Century)] TJ ET BT 162.992 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Palo Alto, CA, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.324 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.324 377.667 m 332.312 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isolde Thyret, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Between God and Tsar: Religious Symbolism and the Royal Women of Muscovite Russia)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(De Kalb, IL, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.656 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.656 349.155 m 216.644 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vera Dunham, )] TJ ET BT 137.660 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Stalin?s Time: Middle Class Values in Soviet Fiction )] TJ ET BT 407.996 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.316 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.316 334.899 m 556.304 334.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 322.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katerina Clark, )] TJ ET BT 140.996 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Soviet Novel: History as Fiction)] TJ ET BT 319.652 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 1981\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.968 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.968 320.643 m 474.956 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Brooks, )] TJ ET BT 140.996 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(When Russia Learned to Read: Literacy and Popular Literature, 1861?1917)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Princeton, NJ, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 170.336 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 170.336 292.131 m 224.324 292.131 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 276.799 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 259.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 259.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/890)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 257.625 m 322.316 257.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4647)] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.3037 435.0055 406.2917 446.8855 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.2917 420.7495 538.2797 432.6295 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 50 0 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