%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221052727+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221052727+00'00') /Title (Children in Slavery Through The Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4030 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Children in Slavery Through The Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the editors? introduction notes, this is the first of two volumes examining the subject of children in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery, in a pioneering attempt to expose at least part of an area that ?has only recently become the focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic research? \(p. 1\). Consequently, it offers comparative examples of children in slavery from the 8th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to the 20th centuries, and across broad geographical areas, from America through to Africa and China. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no doubt that most attention in the historiography has been paid to the experience and incidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adult male slaves, with some more recent discussion of women in slavery. But while it remains difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish the extent to which child slavery existed in the pre-modern world, there is evidence that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion increased significantly from the later 18th century, at least as far as this is possible to measure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and today children form a considerable proportion of those who fall under the rubric of ?modern slavery?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors quickly outline two of the key definitional problems: firstly, what is slavery; and secondly, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a child? The former, of course, has ramifications in all areas of slave studies, although some measure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consensus has emerged at least in relation to the common linguistic basis of the word ?slave? in European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. As the editors note, however, this cannot be easily extended beyond the Atlantic world where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were numerous forms of bondage that shifted and overlapped across time and space. Slaves did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(893)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gwyn Campbell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suzanne Miers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph C. Miller)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780821418765)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(234pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ohio University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Athens, OH)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judith Spicksley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only appear as chattels without basic civic rights who transmitted their status to their offspring, but also as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents within a broader range of status possibilities, some of which could lead to positions of considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth and influence. With regard to the latter problem, defining what is meant by a child has also proved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging, but largely because of arbitrary boundaries ? at least when considered comparatively ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine the point at which access to certain social institutions is granted. While in line with the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western countries, the United Nations currently defines anyone under the age of 18 as a child, differential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages exist for: entering the work force; joining the army or navy; marrying; drinking alcohol; voting; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving. Defining childhood is equally problematic in the past. Arriving at the entrept of Arguin on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West Coast of Africa in the 16th century, for example, slaves were usually divided by merchants according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to age and sex; but since precise ages could rarely be established, individuals were often distinguished by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their stage of maturation, the referent being certain physical characteristics, such as the appearance of bodily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hair. Even where ages were known, the boundary to adulthood could vary considerably. British officials in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Moluccas defined children in 1804 as all those aged ten or less; in the Mascarenes, under French control, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls and boys were generally understood to enter adulthood at the age of 15.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The organisation of the volume is thematic rather than chronological, and broken down into two sections: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section one is entitled ?The Trades in Slave Children?; and section two ?The Treatment and Uses of Slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children through the Ages?. This second section has a further subdivision into Part A, ?Children Acquired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Social, Political and Domestic Roles; and Part B, ?Children in Commercial Slaveries?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters provide at least a measure of quantification within which to set the scene. The volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opens with the pioneer study by Antonio de Almeida Mendes of the trade in child slaves in the early North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic during the 15th and 16th centuries. While the Portuguese trade in black Africans began as early as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 13th century, by the early 16th century ? the first time that complete figures for the trade between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal and Africa become available ? children and women were making up more than 70 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves that were exported from Arguin to Portugal, in order to satisfy a long-standing demand for women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and children, both black and white, in the spheres of domestic and sexual work. Mendes offers some useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(price data: adult men and women were traded at the same price; children between the ages of six and seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were worth 40 to 45 per cent of the adult price. He is also the first to suggest reasons why children were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently the victims of enslavement, offering explanations that have their echoes in all the subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters. Along with women, children were often an easy target, and frequently became the earliest victims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of feuding political factions that expanded under the influence of the Atlantic demand. In addition, slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, especially the younger ones, tended to adopt their European owners as parents; ?when educated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(converted and acculturated while very young \(they\) were more easily integrated into Portuguese society than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adults? \(p. 32\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, Richard B. Allen shifts the focus from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean, and from the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern to the modern period, looking at slave trading in Mauritius and the Mascarenes in the 18th and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th centuries. The Indian Ocean trade, in which ?millions of men, women and children are estimated to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been shipped \(from Africa\) by Arabs and Muslim traders?, was much older, if less well-known than its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic counterpart, and quantitative details remain unclear. Although Europeans traded slaves in the Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ocean from the 15th century, there is little evidence in the records of their activities, aside from that relating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ships bound from Madagascar, India, Southeast Asia and East Africa to the Mascarenes in the late 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. The estimation obtained from these records is that girls and boys were found to constitute anywhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 20 and 35 per cent of cargoes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Setting Fred Morton?s subsequent chapter next to that of Allen allows a fleshing out of more of the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this trade, at least as far as its East African component is concerned. Morton?s qualitative approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extends our knowledge of the trade in child slaves from East Africa in the 19th century through the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a relatively large number of child slave biographies. As on the west coast, children were clearly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand as servants, but they also served as a highly portable form of ?small capital suited for negotiating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals, settling debts, or establishing credit? as they made their journey by degrees to the coast \(p. 55\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morton reveals that children were enslaved locally by Africans, but unlike their adult counterparts, were less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to have been enslaved as a result of war. A third of children were pawned or sold by families for debt, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8090 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, with the death or absence of parents being a key factor affecting their vulnerability. On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching the coast some were put on board dhows for the Zanzibar slave market, while others were shipped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a variety of destinations including Madagascar, the Mascarenes, India or Oman. All would have suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trauma of being removed to a distant region, where many lacked knowledge of either the language or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people. But this appears to have been part of their attraction: the bulk were impressionable, easy to control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quick to learn, and soon developed an attachment to their masters that made them ideal servants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Michael La Rue?s chapter on ?Ali, the Kordofan orphan, uses the story of one particular slave child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reveal a number of features of the Egyptian slave trade in the Sudan in the early 19th century. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(includes, for example, a discussion of the measurement of slaves \(in handspans, from ankle to ear\); the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of making sure a slave was healthy; the problems of small-pox; and the use and dangers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(castration. The story also captures the mentality of abolitionist sympathisers who sought to use ?Ali to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disprove the inferiority of Africans, and the level of depravity that was associated with enslaving societies: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Buyers in Cairo showed a strong preference for young, newly-imported slaves in the belief that their morals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not yet been corrupted? \(p. 79\). It also highlights a very important aspect of the history of slavery that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often overlooked: the problem of illegality. Those researching modern forms of child slavery tend to assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that because slavery was legal in the past, all forms of slavery were legitimate.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 410.936 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 410.936 569.235 m 424.928 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 424.928 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A reading of the chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this volume confirms that this was not at all the case, and that children may have been disproportionately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of those who were illegally enslaved.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final chapter in section one, Susan Donovan takes a rather different perspective, looking at the trade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children who were already enslaved in America between 1820 and 1860. In the course of the agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution that swept through the country from 1800 to the Civil War, more than four million slaves were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relocated on a permanent or temporary basis. This ?Second Middle Passage?, which ?tipped the locus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American slaveholding from southern Virginia to the Deep South?, was especially difficult for children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the age of 15: they formed 30 per cent of those sold interstate; and many others were traded locally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 95, 89\). There were some attempts to prevent the separation of families, but young slaves were often the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first to be sold in times of financial crisis, and were considered the most suitable candidates for hiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes, their best reproductive and productive years being still in the future. Donovan?s findings confirm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of her fellow contributors. Nomads almost from birth, this repeated dislocation left children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disoriented, but also ?ripe for learning the art of submission? \(p. 97\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving into section two offers a refreshing and revealing opportunity to consider the lives of an exclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-Western collection of children in more unusual forms of bondage. The first section opens with the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kristina Richardson, and the main problematic in the Islamic sphere ? that ?there can be no single model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the study of slavery in Islamic societies? \(p. 105\). She locates her study of the singing slave girls of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Abbasid court in the broader context of elite female slavery, arguing that it should be read against both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hegelian master-slave dialectic, and the Pattersonian elaboration of it: in the world of medieval Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?domination of master over slave was not fixed and absolute? \(p. 106\). The singing slave girls or qiyan of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Abbasid court were purchased typically as children. Since Muslims could not be legally enslaved, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were usually imported from areas outside the central lands of Islam, and once acquired, were rigorously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trained in music, poetry and Arabic; consequently they were greatly appreciated in elite circles. And since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slave who bore her Muslim master a child enhanced her legal status, motherhood presented a unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for female slaves to better their social position. Nevertheless, the qiyan held a liminal position in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabic society because ?a fine line was drawn between performers and prostitutes, and one group was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the other? \(p. 109\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liminality is a key feature of all the discussions in this section of the book. In the second chapter Gulay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yilmaz describes the training of young Christian children conscripted into the Ottoman Empire through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dev?irme )] TJ ET BT 81.668 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system. The boys were usually between ten and 18 years of age, ?able-bodied, handsome, clever, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unmarried, uncircumcised, well brought up, and of ?good birth?? \(p. 9\). As in the case of the singing slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(girls, they)] TJ ET BT 85.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were given careful training, and could rise to positions of significant power. But the legality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dev?irme )] TJ ET BT 81.668 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system has been subject to considerable scholarly scrutiny, and the designation of a )] TJ ET BT 484.940 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dev?irme)] TJ ET BT 529.592 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kul)] TJ ET BT 48.680 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than an )] TJ ET BT 120.656 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(abd)] TJ ET BT 138.656 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(a definition used explicity to describe a purchased slave\) which gave him privileges )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 410.9357 569.5495 424.9277 581.4295 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8000 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that distinguished them from other subjects of the Sultan, refers us back to the difficulty historians have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contend with in defining a slave.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the liminality of the )] TJ ET BT 143.012 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dev?irme )] TJ ET BT 190.664 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolved around issues of legal and social status, that of the palace eunuchs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in China, as outlined in the next chapter by Bok-Rae Kim, was most notably sexual, and engineered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily for that reason ? the protection of the imperial harem. Again there were considerable advantages to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be gained, and such were the opportunities for the sexually impotent in ancient and medieval China that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some individuals were prepared to undertake self-castration in order to further their positions, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely high death rates for surgical castration of between 20 and 50 per cent. Of all the chapters in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, Bok-Rae Kim?s discussion of palace eunuchs is perhaps least tailored to the title of the book, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless proves especially revealing about the treatment of children: of eunuchs deliberately castrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the purposes of social or political advancement, most underwent the process at the hands of their parents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would tie off the genitals of a newborn son with a silk thread, leaving them to wither and eventually fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away. Children were then central to the making of eunuchs in this system, and peculiarly vulnerable to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents? demands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The attitudes of parents, along with the simple fact of their presence ? or lack of it ? had implications for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children in other areas of Chinese life. In the last chapter of this section, Pauline Pui-Ting Poon examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-being of )] TJ ET BT 101.336 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mui tsai)] TJ ET BT 139.676 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, purchased domestic servants in early twentieth century Hong Kong, of whom there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were nearly 6, 000 under the age of 14 in 1921. Those most vulnerable were frequently under the age of 15, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and were characteristically homeless and orphaned. Conceived as a charitable practice, the buying and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selling of children in general, and of girls in particular, had been a feature of Chinese life for many centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both as a means to alleviate poverty, and to save the lives of unwanted female children. The system of )] TJ ET BT 526.928 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mui )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tsai)] TJ ET BT 51.356 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which has many similarities with the modern )] TJ ET BT 276.344 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(restavc )] TJ ET BT 319.328 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system in Haiti, was nevertheless open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable abuse, from the initial abduction, to the gross cruelty some suffered at the hands of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masters, to the resale of girls either as )] TJ ET BT 218.312 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mui tsai)] TJ ET BT 256.652 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or as prostitutes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 338.648 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 338.648 443.187 m 352.640 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final section, ?Children in Commercial Slaveries?, the book returns to its former Atlantic focus. Here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre H. Boule looks at a very different form of cruelty, the young black slaves who became the playthings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the aristocracy in late 18th-century France. The presence of slave children was often a direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contravention of French law, since only plantation owners were allowed to bring slaves to France, and only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then in order to train or religiously educate them. Yet there were ?little black domestics? at the court at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Versailles, and satirists mocked the fashion for black slave children who provided a substitute for exotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pets. Of the non-white population who were brought to France, half of the males had been brought before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of 15 and the same proportion of the girls before 18; there was also a considerable non-white native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population, often with a white mother and a freed black father. The main occupation for all non-whites in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France was domestic service, including nearly 40 per cent of those below the age of 13, although some were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticed or educated for a trade or profession. In the reversal of the normal model of master-slave sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation, however, male slaves, much more so than female, tended to be freed on attaining adulthood. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boule suggests this reflects the perceived sexual danger presented by favoured boys to their mistresses as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they grew to maturity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two chapters focus on opposing aspects of parental loss. The first of these, Kenneth Morgan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essay on the subject of infant mortality in the British Caribbean, makes for sobering reading as it reveals that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 25 and 50 per cent of all slave children died before the age of five. In a sensitive reassessment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the causes of this mortality, Morgan argues that there was rarely any mono-causal explanation; the agency of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave mothers was not the main cause of infant mortality, but rather one factor in a combination that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included the effects of disease, malnutrition, and poor hygiene on a child that was often already weakened by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the condition of its mother. The final chapter is set in the Chesapeake, as Calvin Schermerhorn outlines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate of those orphans who were left behind in the great migration of the ante-bellum period. Here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic as well as sexual exploitation of children without parental protection is revealed, but also the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological strategies that children developed in order to cope with the most dehumanising aspects of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enslavement. Indeed Schermerhorn?s chapter, in revealing the incredible resilience of many children in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face of repeated separations, provides a welcome conclusion to a volume that is too often characterised by )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 338.6477 443.5015 352.6397 455.3815 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 6867 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of suffering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviewing of a collection of essays is always difficult because of the limited time that can be allotted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual contributions; the aim of the reviewer was simply to provide a flavour of the excellent and varied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material that is on offer. The aims of its editors ? to uncover the reasons for the purchase of slave children; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to illustrate their experiences ? are amply fulfilled. In the process many of the common denominators in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enslavement process are also revealed. Children appear as the victims of war, raiding or kidnap, often in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter case through deceit; as commodities sold by parents and relations; and as victims of various forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of familial debt. They were easy to enslave because of their heightened vulnerability, especially when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had lost their parents, and were in demand because of perceptions about their greater malleability. The fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were easier to acclimatise, train and regulate, however, meant they were also easier to abuse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether such abuse was of a physical, sexual or psychological nature. What is particularly illuminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about these essays is their potential to inform the study of children in contemporary forms of slavery, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here too, poverty is a central feature, deceit is widespread, and children are perceived as more submissive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and easier to control.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.660 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.660 597.747 m 148.652 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume testifies not only to the variety of work now being undertaken in the field of child slavery, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also to its conceptual, methodological and evidential problems. Definitions are a major tipping point; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material is sketchy; and in addition, as the editors are keen to point out, ?whole regions, and whole sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the economy in which children were, and still are, enslaved, remain to be explored? \(p. 1\). But the value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book, to use the prevailing idiom, is that it opens a conversation about childhood enslavement that will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely lead on to further discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 466.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 436.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gary Craig, editorial introduction to ?Child slavery worldwide?, )] TJ ET BT 375.980 436.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children and Society)] TJ ET BT 477.308 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22, 3 \(2008\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(147.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 420.435 m 139.004 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 407.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example Jean-Robert Cadet, )] TJ ET BT 239.972 407.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Restavec: from Haitian Slave Child to Middle-Class American)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Austin, TX, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.008 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.008 391.923 m 212.996 391.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 379.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Serdar M. Degirmencioglu, Hakan Acar and Yuksel Baykara Acar, ?Extreme forms of child labour in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turkey?, )] TJ ET BT 110.000 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children and Society)] TJ ET BT 211.328 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22, 3 \(2008\), 196; Jonathan Blagborough, ?Child domestic labour: a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern form of slavery?, )] TJ ET BT 188.984 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Children and Society)] TJ ET BT 290.312 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 22, 3 \(2008\), 184?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.632 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.632 349.155 m 447.620 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors will respond to this review in due course.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 268.131 m 154.700 268.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse2)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 239.619 m 154.700 239.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 241.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 211.107 m 240.992 211.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 207.775 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 189.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 189.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/893)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 188.601 m 322.316 188.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.624 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.224 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4663)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 120.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/africa_the_journal_of_the_international_african_institute/v080/80.3.rossi.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/journal_of_the_history_of_youth_and_childhood/v003/3.3.vasconcellos.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 77.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=32154)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.6597 598.0615 148.6517 609.9415 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 420.7495 139.0037 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