%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 31 0 R 42 0 R 64 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721220856+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721220856+01'00') /Title (The Politics of Alcohol: a History of the Drink Question in England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4860 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Politics of Alcohol: a History of the Drink Question in England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Britain today, alcohol is a topic of concern to the government, media, and academics alike. The papers tell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?Binge Britain?, and academics inform us that there is a new kind of drinking and intoxication that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracts young people to our city centres. In 2003 the government made perhaps the most dramatic change to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(licensing since the First World War ? in the name of changing people?s drinking habits ? and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioned research and spent millions of pounds on public education campaigns to address what it sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the serious problem of young people?s drinking. James Nicholls? historical consideration of drinking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the politics surrounding it is therefore timely, particularly given the way in which historical precedent such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the ?Gin Craze? is itself invoked in the media to understand British drinking patterns today )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 487.304 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 487.304 186.393 m 501.296 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 501.296 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common criticism that New Labour \(and especially Tony Blair\) have no ?sense of history?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.604 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.604 172.137 m 486.596 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite being called )] TJ ET BT 134.996 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Alcohol)] TJ ET BT 245.336 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the book is not a study of high politics and policy-making. John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenaway has already provided an account of alcohol policy in Britain in this vein, running from 1830 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.016 117.369 m 75.008 117.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 75.008 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nicholls? work differs from this in two key respects. First, he covers a much broader period, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation up to the present day, with a discussion of 24-hour drinking in the light of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of the 2003 Licensing Act. Second, he makes a more determined attempt to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government debates in the wider cultural context of the time, looking at parallel discussions in the media and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in contemporary political philosophy. As a result, Nicholls pays significant attention to public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(894)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Nicholls)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719077050)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(282pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Haydock)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.3037 186.7075 501.2957 198.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.6037 172.4515 486.5957 184.3315 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.0157 117.6835 75.0077 129.5635 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7574 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates, including the course of the Temperance movement. Yet unlike Brian Harrison?s influential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Drink and the Victorians)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.680 780.819 m 170.672 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 170.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, his analytic objectives take the book beyond a focus on the Temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement alone, though partly simply as a consequence of the wide historical sweep of the work. )] TJ ET BT 507.272 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politics of Alcohol)] TJ ET BT 123.356 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( therefore addresses something of a gap in the existing literature, where there is little work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused solely on alcohol with such a broad analytical and chronological sweep.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholls? starting point is that ?ideas about drink provide an insight into the wider culture? of British society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 2?3\). Thus, the views he traces regarding alcohol and intoxication are marshalled to tell us something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how society viewed wider issues such as rationality, responsibility, godliness and pleasure. Nicholls is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn again and again to the nature of freedom and liberty \(and indeed liberal)] TJ ET BT 408.920 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ism)] TJ ET BT 425.588 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) in relation to alcohol and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state. In a sense, the book is an attempt to tell the story of the never-ending waxing and waning of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing philosophies of persuasion and coercion in effecting a solution to the underlying ?question? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is arranged into short chapters each broadly covering a short chronological period. These bite size )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chunks, along with Nicholls? easy style of writing, make the book an entertaining and engaging read. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, in this sense Nicholls is a victim of his own success, as the vignettes in each chapter often whet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appetite for a more detailed examination of the complex and intriguing issues he sketches ? a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nuanced examination which is often lacking in the existing literature, but which this work cannot fully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer due to its wide sweep.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Importantly, Nicholls succeeds in drawing out the ways in which consumption of alcohol was viewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently depending on what was drunk, by whom, and where. In discussing the differences in drinking, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholls reveals issues of class, wealth and status. The strength of his account here is its careful analysis. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observes that distinctions were not simply created through a condemnation of lower-class drinking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silence on the issue of consumption by elites. Rather, the elite was actively constructed through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formalisation of distinctions between, for example, alehouses and taverns in the 16th century. The 1552 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Licensing Act set limits on the number of taverns allowed in each city, and imposed strict approval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes for becoming a tavern keeper. Taverns were not the category of establishments associated with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower classes; they were in fact the most exclusive of the three-tiered system of licensing: alehouses, inns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and taverns. The purpose of these exacting regulations was not to limit drinking, but to protect the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of a set of elite establishments being devalued by proliferation. Conversely, in the 17th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol consumption became a phenomenon through which, according to Nicholls, the social elite could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacked by the aspirational middle classes for a lack of godliness and public morality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this way, Nicholls illustrates the importance of class without reducing the issue to a conception of the out-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of-control carnivalesque working classes in opposition to the controlled, rational middle classes ? a theme on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which there is already plenty of material.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.972 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.972 276.627 m 244.964 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.964 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The history of the construction of class through drinking is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about much more than the denigration of excessive working-class practices and turning a blind eye to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle- or upper-class actions, a complexity Nicholls conveys well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, he does not disregard the way in which excessive drinking was frequently construed as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem exclusive to the lower orders of society. He observes, for example, that the 1736 Gin Act stated that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action was necessary because of the prevalence of gin consumption among ?the people of lower and inferior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rank?, which led to ?the destruction of their healths, rendering them unfit for useful labour and business, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debauching their morals, and citing them to all manner of vices? \(quoted p. 38\). Notably, all these perceived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of alcohol consumption have been invoked in the past hundred years to regulate \(or de-regulate\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alcohol industry in Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholls looks at stated motivations and accounts of drinking practices with a critical \(some might say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cynical\) eye. He describes how Habermas has portrayed the coffee houses as emblematic and supporting of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sober Enlightenment rationality in contrast with the drunkenness of alehouses and taverns, before attacking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this argument. Nicholls instead sees in coffee house culture a deliberate, oppositional cultivation of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression of sobriety and rationality to acquire cultural power. Similarly, on the early temperance societies, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.6797 781.1335 170.6717 793.0135 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.9717 276.9415 244.9637 288.8215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7781 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their reluctance to condemn alcohol consumption )] TJ ET BT 298.316 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 327.308 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, preferring to condemn spirit drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically, Nicholls states: ?Abstaining from spirits, even when coupled with the promise to only use other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drinks in moderation, was without doubt an act of cultural self-assertion as much as it was an act of moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform? \(p. 98\). The idea that the discourses surrounding alcohol worked to cement forms of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction is a persuasive one; but this is not quite the same as the idea that the adherence to such discourses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a deliberate act of self-assertion. Nicholls? presentation of these ideas can be seen to suggest that class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power are formed through calculated, rational actions \(or statements\). However, one of the reasons class is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so powerful and pervasive is that, as Bourdieu argues, it works at a deeper level: we are )] TJ ET BT 457.580 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(disgusted)] TJ ET BT 502.916 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something that does not accord with our aesthetic disposition, and this disposition is so inculcated that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(often, of not always\) seems )] TJ ET BT 172.652 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(natural)] TJ ET BT 207.992 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, rather than something consciously created.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.952 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.952 666.771 m 432.944 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholls is adept at drawing attention to how drinking practices, tastes and fashions were related to politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and technology. It is worth remembering Hogarth?s ?Beer Street? as well as his ?Gin Lane?, and recalling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the association of Whigs with beer and Tories with wine. Wine was not always a respectable establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drink; indeed, it was understood by many in the 17th century to be a sign of loyalty to the Popish French. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Port was invented as a way of drinking wine without sacrificing one?s principles of politics or taste, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore was as much a drink of political necessity as one of social distinction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The combination of politics and technology is also important to Nicholls in understanding the ?Gin Craze?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He describes distillation as a ?paradigm shift? \(p. 35\), which, despite the popularity of whisk\(e\)y in Scotland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Ireland, only took hold in England with the emergence of brandy into the market in the 17th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, as with wine, brandy suffered from being manufactured in France, and the consumption of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic alternative ? Dutch ?geneva?, which became known as gin ? was therefore encouraged by William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later, the new drink of porter and the general development of the brewing industry in the late 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were results of technical changes in the brewing process that enabled beer to last for longer, and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in transport technology that allowed it to be transported more quickly. Breweries became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national companies, and this shaped the scene in which alcohol policy was made ? brewers became rich and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential in politics ? a point reflected in their prominence in Greenaway?s account of policy-making in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.340 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.340 374.163 m 111.332 374.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As well as linking developments to technology, Nicholls takes pains to point out how alcohol policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed according to economic factors. In 1724 Bernard Mandeville pointed out that while alcohol )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(specifically gin\) induced vice its manufacture created numerous respectable jobs: toolmakers, corn-reapers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maltsters and carriage-drivers, for example. Gin ? and more generally alcohol ? was, and has been since, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prism through which society?s debates surrounding the moral status of the economy are focused. In fact, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholls suggests, alcohol can be seen as something of a perfect product for selling in the ?market?, given its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?extraordinary capacity to dematerialise money? \(p. 52\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The economic value of the alcohol industry is still emphasised by the UK government. Policy documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aiming to reduce ?harms? associated with alcohol are framed by the acknowledgements of the value of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol to the UK economy. The 2004 Alcohol Strategy for England, produced to account for concern that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the implementation of the 2003 Licensing Act would lead to an increase in alcohol-related harms, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful to observe that the latest statistics available showed that the alcohol industry was worth over 30bn, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and supported a million jobs.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.684 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.684 164.835 m 187.676 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholls is at his strongest when he relates attitudes towards alcohol to the political philosophy of the time. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, even while he attacks the Habermasian ideal of communication, he is careful to show how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideal was powerful )] TJ ET BT 128.324 111.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as an idea)] TJ ET BT 177.656 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, rather than an objective description of reality. Lockean distinctions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rationality and irrationality were crucial to political and philosophical debates of the day, and thus framed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions of alcohol ? as indeed they do today. As Nicholls puts it: ?If drunkenness was a voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reordering of the self, then which part of an individual?s humanity was curtailed when a person apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost the capacity to choose whether to drink or not?? \(pp. 63?4\). In this in-depth \(if somewhat inconclusive\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.9517 667.0855 432.9437 678.9655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 97.3397 374.4775 111.3317 386.3575 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.6837 165.1495 187.6757 177.0295 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8870 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of drunkenness, rationality, self and addiction, Nicholls goes further than many sociologists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social psychologists, who tend to recycle the adage that addiction is a modern concept born of 19th- and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th-century psychology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This theme of the unavoidable tensions surrounding alcohol in terms of individual responsibility, rationality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and liberalism runs right through the book. While Fielding agonised over a ?new kind of drunkenness?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Defoe set up a defence of the distillers on the basis of the principles of free trade and individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility. The same dialectic animates contemporary debates surrounding alcohol. As Nicholls himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, prohibition has been demonstrated to be at best ineffectual, but many would argue that the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal system in place in Britain is equally unworkable given the time, money and lives that are lost in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face of alcohol consumption. The lesson that Nicholls offers us from history, then, is that there are no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete solutions to the problem of drinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would have liked to know more about those who were actually drinking, and their motivations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions of the public discourses Nicholls so fluently discusses. However, Nicholls makes no claim to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing a social history of alcohol; this is a book about changing attempt over time to govern and regulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol consumption, and how these attempts made sense as part of broader ideologies. As I suggested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above, this is certainly where the work is strongest, outing particularly persuasive links between class and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses surrounding drink.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The expansive historical sweep of Nicholls? book draws out an important theme that is often lost in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary debate surrounding alcohol: the current political approach represents a ?sea-change? from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term historical tendency \(p. 226\). The economy in alcohol has long been viewed as something to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled; at most the brewers were to be left to their own devices. Now, this alcoholic economy is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to be actively cultivated and supported. The ?sea-change? might therefore be seen as part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader trend towards )] TJ ET BT 142.316 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(neo)] TJ ET BT 159.644 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-liberalism in politics, though that would be a claim for a different book to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address. Nicholls is right to state that )] TJ ET BT 214.676 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time for Reform)] TJ ET BT 294.008 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? the White Paper that morphed into the Licensing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act 2003 ? was ?written as if history was a mere diversion? \(p. 228\). One might hope that this book will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help to change such attitudes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.171 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See )] TJ ET BT 84.344 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunday Express)] TJ ET BT 160.664 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?Time to get tough and end a binge-drinking epidemic?, 22 March 2009 < )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/90532/Time-to-get-tough-and-end-a-binge-drinking-epidemic)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 322.899 m 542.288 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 545.288 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 64.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 31 December 2009].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.060 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.060 308.643 m 275.048 308.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. Helena Kennedy, cited in Huw Richards, ?How will history judge Prime Minister Tony Blair??, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET BT 182.012 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 4 March 2005 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=194553§ioncode=26)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 265.875 m 482.852 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.852 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 499.844 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4 January 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.332 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.332 251.619 m 198.320 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Greenaway, )] TJ ET BT 150.320 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Drink and British Politics since 1830: a Study in Policy-Making)] TJ ET BT 458.636 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 223.107 m 149.000 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Harrison, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Drink and The Victorians: The Temperance Question in England 1815?1872)] TJ ET BT 511.316 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keele, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.996 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.996 194.595 m 182.984 194.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 181.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. Mikhail Bakhtin, )] TJ ET BT 171.356 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rabelais and His World)] TJ ET BT 287.024 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, translated by Helene Iswolsky \(Bloomington and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indianapolis, 1984\); Peter Stallybrass and Allon White, )] TJ ET BT 332.996 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics and Poetics of Transgression)] TJ ET BT 534.008 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ithaca, NY, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 157.652 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 157.652 151.827 m 211.640 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Bourdieu, )] TJ ET BT 146.336 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of )] TJ ET BT 390.332 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taste, translated by Richard Nice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 123.315 m 196.328 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a single case of how this occurred in Liverpool, see Christopher Routledge, )] TJ ET BT 448.292 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cain?s: The Story of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool in a Pint)] TJ ET BT 155.024 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Liverpool, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.344 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.344 94.803 m 300.332 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cabinet Office, )] TJ ET BT 140.996 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alcohol Harm Reduction Strategy for England)] TJ ET BT 364.652 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.976 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.976 80.547 m 499.964 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 55.685 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 41.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 323.2135 542.2877 335.0935 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/90532/Time-to-get-tough-and-end-a-binge-drinking-epidemic) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 221.0597 308.9575 275.0477 320.8375 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 266.1895 482.8517 278.0695 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storyCode=194553§ioncode=26) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.3317 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