%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 36 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818064911+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818064911+01'00') /Title (Replenishing the Earth. The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World, 1783-1939) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3223 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Replenishing the Earth. The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Anglo-World, 1783-1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Breakfasting in bed, Maynard Keynes recalled the immense scope of the )] TJ ET BT 385.268 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(laissez-faire)] TJ ET BT 443.936 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( world of the Pax )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britannica at its zenith in the summer of 1914. ?The inhabitant of London could order by telephone, sipping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his tea ? the various products of the whole earth, in such quantities as he might see fit, and reasonably expect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their early delivery at his doorstep; he could ... adventure his wealth in the natural resources and new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises of any quarter of the world, and share, without exertion or even trouble, in their prospective fruits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and advantages?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.988 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.988 193.521 m 129.980 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.980 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And so he continued: the wide world responded, almost frictionlessly, to the needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London at the centre of a web of commerce and influence, without apparent limit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(895)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 March, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Belich)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-0199297276)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(592pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Richards)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.9877 193.8355 129.9797 205.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In August 1914 the world was on the brink of disaster and Keynes spelled out its subsequent economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaos. It seemed to terminate the unprecedented cumulative expansion of trade and economic progress set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going 15 decades before. Since the 1780s a larger proportion of the entire planet had been galvanised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces and agents emanating out of Europe, in the service of England in particular. The recumbent Keynes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated this astonishing change but also marked its growing fragility and the problems it now faced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustaining ?the economic progress of man?. Keynes himself believed that the continued growth and welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Europe was contingent on further territorial expansion: by the 1920s he was decidedly pessimistic about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the larger project.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The dynamism and instability of the extended 19th century remains a great historical ?mystery?, as James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belich occasionally concedes in his captivating new survey \(pp. 2, 133, 339\). It was, he says, essentially an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American phenomenon, a diasporic expansion that transformed the world system. Dynamic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrinsically volatile forces were set loose in three continents which were largely re-constituted into ?New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lands?, connected together in a dominant ?Anglo-World?. The Anglophone elements ?diverged? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretched ahead of their rivals; the British and the Americans, despite latent animosities, became ?an organic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unity? \(p. 51\) which drove change across the globe. The originating agencies were hordes of settlers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially those leaving the British Isles after about 1820, the human propellants of revolutionary change. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a narrative bulging with superlatives, Belich wants to re-write the way we think about empire, about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress, and about the mechanics of economic and political change in this world. It is an uncommonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious and argumentative enterprise, a book of magnificent scale and range of scholarship. It is also self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously iconoclastic, full of assertion and splendid insights. The reader is driven along by an author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urgent to persuade, always cajoling backsliders into line. In essence he attempts to explain why the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the most ?eruptive? of people in the 19th century, why they were different, and with what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belich launches his grand excursion with the extremely rapid growth of two cities in the mid/late 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, namely Chicago and Melbourne. They stand as exemplars of the ?explosive? growth typical in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first stages of settlement in Anglo-American ?New Lands?. Their growth was frenetic, frenzied and reckless. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This kind of ?eruptive? increase, he asserts, was unfailingly replicated across the ?Anglo-World? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by headlong and highly unstable expansion which always reached breaking point ? followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by collapse and then \(mostly\) revival in a new, but different, phase of ?re-growth?. Belich searches for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary powerful enough to capture this protean energy, and invents terms which sometimes stretch to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hyperbolic excess. His favourite adjective is ?explosive? to describe the great ?divergence? by which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-world outpaced the rest of humanity after 1820. This was ?the progress industry? \(p. 414\), a culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?boom mentalities?, of a collective hysteria of expansion \(p. 202\), a ?full frothing boom frenzy? \(p. 558\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In justification he supplies a massive compendium of examples of sudden growth \(and sudden collapse\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from across the 19th century ?Anglo-World?, from Kansas to Kanmantoo, from Alaska to Auckland. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plunders a vast literature to illustrate the careering progress of their expansion, their dynamic, and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuations and disasters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Belich?s scenario all the expansions and the collapses \(and their recoveries\) were wild and spectacular. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He concentrates on the )] TJ ET BT 146.648 206.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sturm und drang)] TJ ET BT 226.652 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the 19th-century expansionism of colonial and frontier life. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative is designed to accentuate the drama and is replete with strong metaphorical imagery and rhetorical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect. It makes for lively reading, with rarely a dull moment. The drama, he claims, is not adequately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captured in existing historical accounts \(p. 183\). This is indeed large-scale historical speculation by a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(styled ?generalist? \(p. 289\), fearlessly hounding errant specialists \(economists in particular\). Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative international history is the sort of territory traversed by the likes of William H. McNeill, E. L. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones, Braudel, John Darwin, and Geoffrey Blainey. Belich works on a similarly wide canvass, employing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grand synthesis to investigate the differential performance of certain nations which expanded into the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worlds. He wants to know how the world worked: he seeks its structures and mechanisms rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surface phenomena \(although he deals with plenty of these too\). His ambition is exhilarating and he sets off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculations and hypotheses that would require dozens of doctoral theses to test.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 6360 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The Anglo-Explosion? of English-speaking peoples was expressed most vividly in the eruption of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mushroom cities in a world dominated by ?Anglo-America? which persisted deep into the 20th century. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was more significant than imperialism itself: ?It did reach further and last longer than empire? \(p 23\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglos emerged decisively ahead of their rivals from whom they ?diverged? after 1783. Exactly why they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded is the first big historical question set by Belich and he places the thrusting energy of settlers at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the main account. The sheer velocity, scale, turbulence and, sometimes, the violence of the settlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabled them to push relentlessly into new territories \(occupied or not\) in the Americas, Australasia, Africa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and later into Siberia. Frenzies of expansion are at the core of his account \(p. 558\) and settlers went forth on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a scale that they swamped local indigenes and snapped all resistance. Europeans were foremost, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British most of all. Moreover there was a great discontinuity in the chronicle ? this is the ?Settler Transition? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after 1815?20 when emigration reached ?mass? proportions, became hugely more attractive and saleable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millions of people, some of them carrying decent amounts of capital. Though essentially volatile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Settlerism? became a new historical variable in its own right. The settlers were the motor-force, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for their own successes and failures, as well as the ?vectors? of wider influences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partly the ?transition? is to be explained by better technologies of ?mass transfer?, but Belich claims also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a new ?collective psychology? of migration had swept over the ?Old Lands?, urging people outwards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with extraordinary efficiency. It was a spreading attitudinal change which overcame ?the almighty wrench? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of emigration \(p. 133\), ?a tidal shift?\(p. 148\) in the attractiveness of emigration. This alteration in the inner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentality of millions of prospective migrants is, perhaps, the most intriguing and mystifying of all Belich?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sorties into broad historical explanation. Moreover, in the act and experience of transit, the migrants were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves transmogrified into even more potent agents of change \(pp. 510?1\). It was a change ?inside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?s heads? which then became a ?shared ideology of a vast mass of people?, a new ?discourse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration? which he re-brands as ?Settlerism? \(pp. 159?61\). And it was promoted by a flood of bolstering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda which he quotes unstintingly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Replenishing the Earth )] TJ ET BT 147.680 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is especially convincing regarding the ?jerkiness? of the expansion, the spasmodic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upheavals of settler energy which were directed and re-directed across the Anglo-world at different times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in characteristic spurts lasting 15?20 years. Belich argues that the success of British colonialism derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the manner in which it incorporated disparate elements, such as the Scots, the Irish and Germans, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully than its rivals. He talks loosely of the virtues of ?hybridity? and the ?leavening? of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(host \(pp. 42, 59\). It created diversities and cultural mixes beneficial to the broad enterprise of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?AngloWworld?. Most of all it generated a ?boom mentality? \(p. 200\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belich advances a theory of how settler economies grow, collapse and regenerate, a process set going by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frenzied initial inflows. This is not easily summarised since he is attempting to explain widely separated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement surges, the system itself, in its totality. He identifies ?settlerism? as a spontaneous, erratic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpredictable yet repeated impulse manifested across the migrant worlds. He divides the colonising world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Old and New lands, which allows him to re-categorise earlier colonies \(such as New England\) as ?Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lands? and new territories such as the Old West, Manitoba and New Zealand as ?New Lands? with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated experience of frenzy and fall. They shift and change and make up expanding spheres with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstituted interconnections across continents and oceans \(pp. 82?3\). Of these surges, Belich scoffs at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations employing market mechanisms. He repeatedly mocks the notion that settlers were responding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to price stimuli: it is a common historical ?fallacy? to think that they were searching for export staples \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(277\). He insists that the timing is all wrong and that other engines of advance were at work.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7576 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belich is not the first writer to chronicle the runaway course of capitalist economies through their cycles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth and purgation. But he writes with lan and provides small mountains of contemporary description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the excesses of speculation and the pain of the busts. Surprisingly he makes little reference to the best known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(financial madnesses, the South Sea Bubble of 1720 and the Great Crash of 1929. Staple exports, he repeats, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not the driving force in ?settler booms? ? growth created exports rather than the other way around \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(415\). There is evidently a chicken-and-egg problem in this exposition, but Belich asserts that ?explosive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonization was driven as much by dreams as by reason? \(p. 288\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In place of the market, Belich believes that the settlers generated their own growth during the bursts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion in the ?Anglo-New Lands?. The key activity in these ?exploding? societies was trade between, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and among, the settlers, who were ?supplying the local market in the service of growth itself? \(p. 277\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Echoing the ideas of Jane Jacobs, he tells us that the settlers ?were their own best customers?; cities such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seattle ?simply spent themselves into existence?, he contends \(p. 398\). This was self-generating expansion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth causing growth, and before the onset of any export-led development \(p. 87\). It produced what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls ?a precocious -industrial flowering? \(p. 90\). The problem is that the idea of ?growth leading to growth? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smacks of tautology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These ?Anglo-Booms?\(p. 86\) of frantic development were typically about two decades in duration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belich produces a welter of staggering growth rates, best exemplified in the American ?New Lands? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West. He invokes a recurring ?boom mentality? which induced economic expansion as revolutionary as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?industrial revolution? \(p. 119\). It produced ?history?s most rapid form of societal reproduction?, driven by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconstrained speculation, egged on by boosterism and wild investment which was associated with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrent patterns of social behaviour \(including enhanced crime rates and heavier drinking\). It worked in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spasms and was its own engine, not simply a response to export opportunities. And thus Belich decries all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories related to export-oriented growth \(associated with, for instance, the ideas of D. C. North and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staple economists\). Wool in eastern Australia, cotton in the American South, cattle in the West, gold in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many places\(p. 393\) ? all these were decidedly )] TJ ET BT 261.620 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 276.956 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the primary determinants of growth. Rather they were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(products of ?settlerism? which somehow induced its own expansion \(see p. 306\). Staples did not start booms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and did not stop them either \(p. 338\). He reverses the common causal sequence \(p. 415\). Economic theory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he declares, is simply not up to the task of explaining the sudden and erratic character of settlement booms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Belich?s account, settler surges and growth somehow spirited themselves into life. The Old Northwest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the highest growth rates in human history \(p. 229\), but it was its own engine. And the juggernaut of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?settlerism? swept away all resistance in its path, most notably any indigenes in the way. But after the boom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came the inescapable bust ? and there is plenty of evidence of such collapses across the colonising world. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?escape? from these collapses almost always took the form of an export-led recovery and a reintegration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the global trading system. This became, for instance, the role of beef production for New York and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, wool for their textile industries, New Zealand dairy produce for the late Victorians. In the process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of recovery the ?New Lands? found themselves re-engaged with the Old World. The ?rescue package? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entailed a reconstruction of the connections with centres of the ?Old Lands? and by implication, a renewal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous economic dependency. )] TJ ET BT 191.312 220.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Voil)] TJ ET BT 217.316 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Belich presents ?Re-colonisation? which sounds suspiciously like a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relabelling of ?recovery?, a tendency for settlements to become informally reintegrated with the old centres, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back into the ?imperial? fold. The Dominions somehow replace the United States as the destination for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo expansion from 1900 onwards. Moreover ?Re-colonisation? encompassed territories beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-World, including Uruguay and Argentina. Towards the end of his account Belich roves the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world to identify further zones also ?re-colonised?, including French Algeria, Manchuria, and Brazil ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories which become ?adopted Dominions? receiving foreign investment, and tied to London and New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York by trade \(as though a form of tribute to the old centres\) and absorbed within the idea of ?Greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britainism?, as well as ?Greater America? too.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In essence Belich?s project is a colourful and challenging version of economic history, )] TJ ET BT 453.272 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sans)] TJ ET BT 474.608 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( graphs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulae, but packed with miscellaneous statistics and descriptions of booms, busts and recoveries which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the heart of his global system. This is scarcely new territory: it has engaged generations of economists and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7541 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, most of all analysts of business- and long-cycles, notably Kondratieff, Schumpeter and Kuznets, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as migration historians such as J. G. Williamson, and Brinley Thomas; and there are echoes of W. W. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rostow in Belich?s version of the story. Belich indeed employs the idea of ?take-off? in several places \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(99, 268\) but rejects the notion of leading sectors at all times. Belich chafes against the received views which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely on market forces for their basic explanation \(p. 364\). He is openly combative throughout and will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserve a reaction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His dismissal of leading-sector theory is provocative. He does not allow enough for the common fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial colonisation is necessarily speculative, exploratory and reconnoitring. The first steps in settlement, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition, required investment in basic infrastructure, ports, services, imported machinery in advance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marketable production. Such set-up requirements were bound to produce import levels greater than exports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the start \(pp.520-2\). Many proto-settlements failed where subsistence was difficult and export sectors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unforthcoming. First settlements were usually devoted to establishing the foundations of a productive export-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking society. They were not normally transplanted peasant societies; they always had aspirations well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond subsistence; they were outliers of the capitalist societies which they had left; they sought a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive division of labour, and they reconnoitred export possibilities from the start. The immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs of pioneers created a local division of labour and were almost inevitably attended by inflation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt. But this does not detract from the reality that settlers generally look beyond simple subsistence towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger commercial trading possibilities as a pathway to the sort of wealth upon which their emigration was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly predicated. Staple industries required backward and forward linkages which were part of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of influence. Sometimes, of course, the entire enterprise failed, but there were dozens of success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories which, in the great trading world of the early 19th century, created demonstration effects for endless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further rounds of migration. Moreover it is not surprising that economies recovered from depression by way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of export markets as their main saviour, as the engine of renewed growth. Economies generally adjusted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovered after busts by lowered costs and renewed competitive edge in local and export markets. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed was the conventional trading context for the bouts of growth which produced Keynes? happy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breakfast tables, before and after 1914.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belich protests that he has no wish to force the entire Anglo-world within a Procrustean bed \(p. 551\). Indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he provides immense variety in his account which is full of rich and arcane detail. It is a highly original and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiosyncratic panorama and its best achievement is its juxtaposing of the disparate elements in the settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system so that we see the simultaneity and comparability of expansion and contraction, for example, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Australia and Ohio in the 1830s, in Otago and California in the 1860s, West Australia and Oregon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, and so on. The range of his speculations is breath-taking ? thus he talks about bankruptcies stretching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Old West to New Zealand, from Kansas to Melbourne, all in the compass of a couple of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragraphs. He constructs the beginnings of a new coherent narrative of the entire world of settlement. Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of all he gives proper emphasis to emigration as a business enterprise, huge in scale and highly volatile, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisively responsive to the new opportunities and, possibly, a changing psychology of migration. He makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vital point that the permanency of new settlement depended crucially on the female proportion within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incoming population \(pp. 30?2, 60\); this also related to the youthfulness of the migrating populations, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a teenage phenomenon in the 19th century: thus only 5 per cent of Illinois? population in 1830 was over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of 40 \(p. 203\). He is bracingly sceptical of conventional measures of growth, sharply dismissive of )] TJ ET BT 530.600 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(capita)] TJ ET BT 64.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( statistics as seriously misleading. Belich is also stimulating on technical detail ? for instance, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in handling in the grain trade from sacks to elevators; and the intricacies of the beef and pork )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplies for big cities. The whole account radiates an unstoppable curiosity with fascinating juxtapositions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Belich?s comparison of the numbers involved in the gold rushes with those absorbed in the armies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the superpowers \(p. 306\). He loves shifting the perspective, searching for answers to rarely asked big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Replenishing the Earth )] TJ ET BT 147.680 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exudes confidence but the author openly concedes that there are central mysteries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scattered throughout his long account. Often the key causal sequences are wrapped in metaphor: we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered ?vectors of mass transfer?; there is much ?cloning? at work; there are ?spasms of globalisation?, high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?combustibility? and ?moments of ignition?; ?gold-tipped ice-bergs?, exports as ?life-rafts?, ?dehydrated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7824 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technologies?, a ?five million ton bridge? of trade, and many more Belichisms which enliven the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatics. Settlement is the key to his schema and he argues that emigration lost its fears in a psychological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition after the French Wars. But the originating impulses remain obscure and Belich decries standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments and even the notion that land hunger and the quest for independence were critical. Another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian of seminal ideas, Bernard Bailyn, also wrote in rich metaphors to capture the drama of equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(momentous shifts in the Atlantic World, a little earlier than Belich?s ?divergence?. Bailyn invoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural, tectonic movements across the oceanic system which somehow caused populations to move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercontinentally between the parts of the Atlantic. This was ?the centrifugal )] TJ ET BT 407.948 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vlkerwanderungen?)] TJ ET BT 511.268 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed the Western Hemisphere at the end of the 18th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.272 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.272 681.027 m 374.264 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 374.264 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Belich is operating on a similar scale.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surprisingly Malthus features little in either Bailyn or Belich ? yet behind all the revolutionary demography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the ?New Lands? was the population revolution in the ?Old Lands?, most of all in the British Isles. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical moment of the migrant ?transition? identified by Belich coincided with the fastest phase of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population growth in modern European history. It was also in these years that spectacular, indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?explosive?, urban growth overwhelmed newly industrialising Britain. It is impossible to believe that what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened in the metropole was not generating expansion on the edges of Belich?s ?New Lands?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between the homeland and mass emigration are still unresolved. It is most likely that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(germinal roots of these massive shifts of humanity will be found, not so much in the spread and convergence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the outward migrants, but at the very sources of these people, often in the back lanes and villages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, people following barely understood impulses which caused them to become the motor force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driving the ?settler transition?. This may well be the critical )] TJ ET BT 323.648 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(desideratum)] TJ ET BT 382.976 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Belich?s global speculations ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is, a return to the soil, and to the reproductive behaviour, of the pre-industrial people, especially in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Isles. We know much more about the mechanisms of transfer and their consequences than about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(root causes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belich?s method scours the literatures and reconceptualises the narrative of western expansions, within and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the Anglo-Worlds, repeatedly applying new labels to well known phenomena. The account is replete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with vivid and telling components of the boom story and the collapses ? such as the mad destruction of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bison, the assault on timber forests, the fate of the ostrich, and all here in intoxicating detail. Most of all he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heaps up evidence across more than a century of extreme expansionary and contracting economic behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has the advantage of bringing authentic drama and excitement to the story. It inevitably detracts from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gradual, tedious, cumulative and often laborious business of conquering the land and creating the cities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quiet life beyond the booms where generations of occupiers indeed ?replenished the earth? and made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation of the new worlds. Belich is wonderfully sceptical of most other efforts to explain the velocity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and turbulence of the 19th century expansion. His own method is essentially descriptive, piling up data, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leavened by high octane metaphors and clotted superlatives, and occasionally falling back on historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?magic? \(e.g. p. 202\). His own explanations, almost certainly, will not satisfy the white-coated economists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who will find most of his hypotheses unverifiable at their required level of rigour. But he places the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration of millions of people at the centre of the question of how the modern world has been made, and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these people we need to know much more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Replenishing the Earth )] TJ ET BT 147.680 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possesses grandeur of vision. It is written with great gusto in a vigorous quest for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations of vital phenomena. It is exhilarating and provocative reading and grapples with central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical questions at a structural level which leaves this reader cheering its sheer bravado.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Keynes, ?The economic consequences of the peace?, in )] TJ ET BT 360.596 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collected Writings of John Maynard )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Keynes)] TJ ET BT 98.672 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Vol. 2, London, 1971\), pp. 6?7.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.324 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.324 109.059 m 311.312 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Bailyn, )] TJ ET BT 143.672 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Peopling of British North America)] TJ ET BT 330.680 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 1986\), p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.988 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.988 94.803 m 502.976 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 69.941 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 41.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 40.035 m 270.668 40.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 41.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 360.2717 681.3415 374.2637 693.2215 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.3237 109.3735 311.3117 121.2535 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.9877 95.1175 502.9757 106.9975 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 40.3495 270.6677 52.2295 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=407876) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 1143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.3.coclanis.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 513.020 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 516.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/895)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 322.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4672)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=407876)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.3.coclanis.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 781.1335 513.0197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.3.coclanis.html) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 322.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/895) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000613 00000 n 0000000702 00000 n 0000003977 00000 n 0000004086 00000 n 0000004196 00000 n 0000004305 00000 n 0000007866 00000 n 0000007994 00000 n 0000008078 00000 n 0000008107 00000 n 0000008235 00000 n 0000008271 00000 n 0000008336 00000 n 0000015643 00000 n 0000015708 00000 n 0000022121 00000 n 0000022186 00000 n 0000029815 00000 n 0000029880 00000 n 0000037474 00000 n 0000037579 00000 n 0000045456 00000 n 0000045486 00000 n 0000045614 00000 n 0000045650 00000 n 0000045778 00000 n 0000045833 00000 n 0000045960 00000 n 0000046015 00000 n 0000046140 00000 n 0000046256 00000 n 0000046347 00000 n 0000047543 00000 n 0000047670 00000 n 0000047819 00000 n 0000047947 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 48042 %%EOF