%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141020082647+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141020082647+01'00') /Title (Bodies of Thought: Science, Religion, and the Soul in the Early Enlightenment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4096 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Bodies of Thought: Science, Religion, and the Soul in the Early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In spite of the time period implied in her subtitle, Ann Thomson?s book covers debates about the materiality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the soul from 1650 to the early 19th century. She deals with a vast range of thinkers ? primarily in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England and France, but also in the Netherlands. Her central thesis, at least in the early chapters of the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that the English defenders of the materiality of the soul were sincere Christians who based their views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scripture, as well as science. In this respect her book is about the unintended consequences of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism she discusses in these chapters. In later chapters she explains how these ideas were received in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very different contexts, for example, mid 18th-century France, where they were used to attack religion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support atheism. In general, her book describes the increasing secular conception of human beings, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular of their souls. Its greatest strength is also its greatest weakness: Thomson eschews any kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxonomy of the ideas or periods she discusses and focuses on the debates themselves as they occur at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different times and places. She interweaves names and doctrines into her narrative in a way that conveys )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dazzling learning, but often leaves her reader lost in details.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After an introductory chapter focused mainly on historiographical issues, Thomson turns in her second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter \(??The Church in Danger?: Latitudinarians, Socinians, and Hobbists?\) to the debates about the soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England in the decade following the Glorious Revolution. Her central argument in this chapter is political. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(896)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Thomson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199236190)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(66.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John P. Wright)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8304 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She argues that moderate Whig Low Churchman, including the Latitudinarian bishops appointed by William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III, attacked the views of the materialists in order to defend themselves from High Church clergy who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threatened their power in the Church of England \(esp. pp. 30?8\). This was largely a rearguard action in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which they attempted to show that they were up to the task of defending the Church against heterodox views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in spite of their own defence of toleration. She argues that the Boyle Lectures, which were instituted in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, were ?part of the tactical war between High and Low Church, as the latitudinarian upper clergy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to distance themselves from any taint of irreligion or ?atheism?, said to be encouraged by their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(espousal of reason...? \(p. 59\). The difficulty with Thomson?s thesis is that Whigs were both defenders and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics of the view that the soul is material. A clear case in point is the debate between John Locke and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Stillingfleet in the mid 1690s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.352 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.352 666.771 m 231.344 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 231.344 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Why would Locke defend the possibility that the soul is material if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was so clear that doing so would undermine the Whig establishment in the Church of England? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stillingfleet was among the bishops appointed after 1688 who defended the claim that there was a mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contract between king and people, and that one could break one?s oath when that contract was violated ? as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened in the reign of James II. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.976 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.976 609.747 m 213.968 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.968 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Certainly he was worried about Socinianism and, as Thomson argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who attacked the doctrine of the Trinity often also denied the immateriality of the soul. But this does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not mean that his debate with Locke was motivated by worries about the attacks of High Churchmen on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new order within the Church of England ? especially as he had intellectual reasons to think that the doctrine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an immaterial soul provided the best defence for the Christian doctrine of an afterlife.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In any case this political analysis is dropped in Thomson?s third chapter, ?Animal Spirits and Living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fibres?, where she turns back the clock to earlier 17th-century debates about the materiality of the soul, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mostly in the period after the Restoration. While she discusses the increasing understanding of the physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for physiological functions traditionally ascribed to the soul or mind, she argues that ?evidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way the mind is influenced by bodily states was in itself an insufficient basis for a materialistic explanation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of humans? \(p. 67\). What was also required was a notion of ?active matter? which could not only perform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic life functions, but also serve as the basis for thought and the higher functions of the soul. She argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such a notion was supplied by Francis Glisson, a Cambridge physiologist and member of the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College of Physicians who argued that every organ of a living body functions by a ?natural perception?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Thomson, Glisson even extended his view to develop ?a monistic view of substance as energy? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 70\). The basis for a materialist conception of human beings was also developed at this time by Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physiologist and physician Thomas Willis by way of his doctrine of two material souls ? the first a vital soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the blood which he compared to a flame, and the second a sensitive soul which consisted of animal spirits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distilled in the brain ? and which he compared to light. In spite of the fact that Willis \(like Glisson\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subscribed to the doctrine of an immaterial soul to account for the higher intelligence of human beings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson argues that ?Willis?s work ... attracted the attention of those wanting to elaborate a [purely] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material account of the mind divorced from an immaterial soul?. On her view, both Willis and Glisson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed conceptions of active matter which could account for the higher functions of the mind, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispense with the need for an immaterial soul. Nevertheless, the dominant view which emerged during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period was that matter was passive ? containing neither the basis for motion nor perception in itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson discusses in particular the reactions of the Cambridge Platonists ? particularly Henry More and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ralph Cudworth ? to Glisson?s claims about matter being perceptive \(p. 77\). She argues that religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers such as Richard Baxter \(whom Thomson wrongly identifies as a Calvinist )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.976 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.976 212.835 m 441.968 212.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 441.968 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) were far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receptive to Glisson?s claims about active matter than these philosophers who held that ascribing activity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter was the path to atheism \(pp. 75?6\). Like, Locke later, Baxter argued that one would be limiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divine power by denying that God could superadd thought and perception to matter \(pp. 55 & 76; cf. p. 95\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Thomson fails to point out that while Baxter?s argument did dispense with the need for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immaterial soul, it does not really require a notion of matter as in itself active. In fact, a consensus was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradually built up during this period among most philosophers and scientists that matter, generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived as consisting of inert atoms, is in itself inactive. What becomes philosophically interesting and up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for debate is the question what further entities one must add to the universe to account not only for thought, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but also for active properties of nature such as gravitation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson?s fourth chapter, ?Mortalists and Materialists?, deals mainly with religious debates in England in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 217.3517 667.0855 231.3437 678.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 199.9757 610.0615 213.9677 621.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 427.9757 213.1495 441.9677 225.0295 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8847 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first two decades of the 18th century. She examines a number of key defenders of materialism including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Layton, William Coward, John Toland, Henry Dodwell, and Anthony Collins. Following a suggestion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Justin Champion she states at the beginning of the chapter that her aim is to show how different accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the soul were used to justify ?a different set of political and religious institutions? \(p. 97\). However, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the republican political aims of a figure such as John Toland are not in dispute, the interpretation of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views on the nature of matter and the soul are ? as Thomson herself acknowledges. While insisting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motion is essential to matter, ?he was wary of attributing sensation to the smallest parts of matter? \(p. 120\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, while physician William Coward?s attacks on the doctrine of the immateriality of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soul are clear enough, the way in which his views contribute to political and social institutions is not. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lashes out against those he considers religious and social fanatics such as the Quakers and Muggletonians, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as the clergy of the established Church of England. He criticizes the factionalism of the latter while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking out against all ?Monopolies in Religion, as well as Trade? \(p. 108\). Thomson does carefully lay out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of Coward?s views on the materiality of the soul through his various publications ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including his references back to seventeenth-century thinkers such as Hobbes and Glisson. He ?shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hobbes? belief in the resurrection and last judgment, which removed the need for an immaterial soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing after the body?s death, partly because such notions seemed both to run counter to Scripture and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be incapable of demonstration? \(p. 110\). Like Hobbes, he supports his views by careful reference to both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Old and New Testaments. While he appeals to the physiological principles of Glisson in order to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the notion ?)] TJ ET BT 111.680 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(that all substance ... has in it a principle of self-motion)] TJ ET BT 374.696 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, he criticizes Glisson?s appeal to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between spiritual and material substance \(p. 113\). Other charming views discussed in this chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include those of Henry Dodwell, whose mortalist views were tied up with the belief that ?only baptism by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishop confers immortality? \(p. 127\), and John Asgill, who like many American fundamentalists today, held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?)] TJ ET BT 60.344 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Man may be translated from hence into that of Eternal Life, without passing through death)] TJ ET BT 496.688 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 130\). It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is heartening to learn that Asgill was banished from the Dublin Parliament shortly after publishing his view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that he was generally seen as ?Mad, an Enthusiast, an Atheist? \(p. 131\). It seems that wacky views like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the rapture)] TJ ET BT 87.680 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( were less acceptable in early 18th-century Britain than in 21st-century America.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, ?Journalism, Exile, and Clandestinity?, describes the transmission of English debates on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materiality of the soul to France by way of contributions to French-language journals by Huguenot exiles in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Netherlands and Britain itself. While it is well recognized that these writings played an important role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Enlightenment, Thomson provides a detailed account of the specific transmission of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialistic ideas of the soul. For example, she details the contributions on this topic of Royal Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member Pierre Des Maizeaux to the )] TJ ET BT 209.972 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nouvelles)] TJ ET BT 257.300 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( de la)] TJ ET BT 283.964 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Rpublique des)] TJ ET BT 360.620 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Lettres)] TJ ET BT 396.956 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 420.620 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire des)] TJ ET BT 478.952 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( ouvrages des )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(savants)] TJ ET BT 70.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and even the Jesuit journal )] TJ ET BT 206.996 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mmoires)] TJ ET BT 254.984 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( de Trvoux)] TJ ET BT 311.636 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 146?8\). She also describes the transmission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the English debates into France by Jean LeClerc through the )] TJ ET BT 339.632 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bibliothque Choisie)] TJ ET BT 440.636 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. 148?50\). The last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of the chapter, entitled ?Underground Passages?, includes a discussion of how the clandestine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature in France incorporated the accounts of the English debates from these Huguenot journals \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(155?74\). Thomson discusses the clandestine manuscript )] TJ ET BT 306.320 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?ame matrielle)] TJ ET BT 390.644 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which she dates from the mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1720s \(p. 156?9\), as well as published but banned works such as Voltaire?s )] TJ ET BT 398.960 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lettres anglaises )] TJ ET BT 483.632 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1734\) where, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his famous Letter 13 ?On Locke?, he praises that philosopher?s hypothesis of thinking matter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasts it with Descartes? claim that thinking substance must be immaterial \(pp. 164?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the sixth chapter, ?Mid-Eighteenth-Century Materialism?, Thomson argues that the debates about whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter can possess life, thought and activity provided the focus of discussions of human nature in a diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set of writers in both France and England. Thomson is one of the world?s leading experts on the thought of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(La Mettrie and Diderot, and she carefully describes the development of their views on materialism from one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication to the next. She argues that in spite of the implications of the title to his notorious book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Homme machine)] TJ ET BT 127.664 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, La Mettrie is not accurately characterized as a mechanist and implies that he himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted the notion of an active matter. She describes in detail how his views on the materiality of the mind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed not only from the physiological ideas of other medical writers including Boerhaave, Haller, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaub whose lectures he attended in Leiden, but also Willis, Borelli, Hequet, and others \(pp. 180?9\). In order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to prepare the reader for her account of the early writings of Diderot \(pp. 198?204\), she describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive 18th-century biological work on life and reproduction with which he was fully acquainted \(pp. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7882 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(189?98\). She explains how he struggled with the question whether sensibility and intelligence result from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the organization of matter, or are inherent in its smallest parts. In this chapter, she also discusses the view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hartley who, in developing his materialist theory of the association of ideas took up Newton?s idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that nervous energy was transferred in an animal body through vibrations of nervous aether \(pp. 204?9\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final section of the chapter deals with the deterministic conclusions about human nature which La Mettrie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Diderot drew from their materialism \(pp. 209?15\). The former ends up with the view that human beings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are ?essentially antisocial and seek happiness in a selfish manner, except for a handful of exceptional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals more or less identified with ?philosophes?? \(p. 211\). On the other hand, Diderot?s far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarian determinism describes the ?internal and external causes of human nature and human actions, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the intersection of physiology, sociology, and cosmology? \(pp. 214?5\). By the end of this chapter I found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myself wishing that Thomson?s discussions had been more narrowly focussed on the question of the activity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of matter with which it opens. For example, while she does not mention the fact, it seems puzzling that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hartley explicitly states that ?Matter is a mere passive Thing, of whose Essence it is, to be endued with a Vis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inertiae ...? \()] TJ ET BT 94.988 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Observations on Man)] TJ ET BT 198.980 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. II, Pt. 2, p. 31\). What exactly does this tell us about the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism was circumscribed in English writings, and why exactly was such a strategy not adopted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary writings in France?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her final chapter ?Epilogue: Some Consequences? Thomson discusses the continuing tradition of medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism in the later 18th and early 19th centuries in both France and Britain, and its relation to religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to political reform. Toward the beginning of the chapter she returns to the thought of Diderot, stressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his later reflections on the human nature in the )] TJ ET BT 260.312 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rve de d?Alembert)] TJ ET BT 356.948 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and their connection with the vitalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical tradition in France in the later eighteenth century. She contrasts his physiologically based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism with that of Helvtius: Diderot opposed ?Helvtius? almost exclusive emphasis on education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the external factors determining normally constituted individuals? \(p. 222\). In the second section of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, ?The Medical Tradition and Religion?, she discusses Joseph Priestley?s materialism and his view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the doctrine of an immaterial soul was directly connected with ?unchristian beliefs? \(pp. 223?4\). For a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sincere dissenter like Priestley, who was openly Unitarian, a genuine Christian believes in the materiality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the soul. But his materialism and determinism did not become a serious problem for him until after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution when he was forced to flee to America. Thomson contrasts Priestley?s difficulties in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England with the outspoken materialism of Cabanis and the other ?Idologues? in France after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution. The fact that materialism was still politically sensitive in Britain in the early 19th century is made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear in her discussion of the furore surrounding the writings of Dr. William Lawrence, whose lectures were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attended by Charles Darwin. However, as Thomson acknowledges at the end of the book, it is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connect the specific political commitments of philosophers in both France and England with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism ? apart from the general point that materialism was often related to opposition to religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dogma and institutions. She points out that while Joseph Priestley?s political views were consonant ?with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism, they were determined by the situation in Britain and America, and the fact that he was part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissenting tradition excluded from British politics and institutions encouraged a demand for their overhaul? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 233\). She points out that other British radicals ?even republicans like Richard Price, Catherine Macauley, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Thomas Paine, were far from sharing [Priestley?s] materialism and determinism? \(p. 233\). In general, ?it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is difficult to draw general conclusions about the link between belief in active matter and materialistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptions of humans on the one hand, and radical political beliefs on the other? \(p. 234\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson?s book will provide a wonderful resource for future studies of the doctrines of the soul in the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 18th centuries. However, I believe that these future studies would gain from a more balanced view ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining the development of the doctrine of an immaterial as well as a material soul. Thomson treats the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former view as ?orthodoxy? and the latter as ?heterodoxy?, but there is good reason to think that these views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matured alongside each other, and which view was ?orthodox? depended a great deal on one?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical as well as religious commitments. Immaterialism has a modern history as well as materialism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beginning with Descartes, those who defended an immaterialist conception of the soul sought to defend a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific world view from theology in a way made difficult by those, like Hobbes, who defended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism. As the history of Cartesianism shows us, it was often the immaterialist view of the soul which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was considered religiously heterodox. Furthermore, a bit more distance on debates about the nature of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 5500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soul can give us a clearer view of the political and social issues thought to be at stake. As David Hume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes clear in a dialogue he published in 1748, most of his contemporaries believed that the doctrine of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immortality of the soul ? including the claim that there were rewards and punishments in an afterlife ?was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutely necessary for social order.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.300 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.300 752.307 m 226.292 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 226.292 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Those on both sides of the debate about the materiality of the soul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were thought to undermine this belief were considered enemies of social order. It took a far sighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosopher and historian like Hume himself to recognize that the belief in immortality, howsoever it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defended or attacked, had nothing to do with questions of morality and good government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 676.035 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson discusses this debate on pp. 55?7. Its intellectual context is explained in detail by M. A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart, ?Stillingfleet and the way of ideas?, in )] TJ ET BT 293.984 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Philosophy in the Age of Locke)] TJ ET BT 483.308 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. A. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart \(Oxford, 2000\), pp. 245?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.652 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.652 615.507 m 292.640 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like Thomas Tenison and John Tillotson, Stillingfleet was appointed bishop after the revolution. See )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steve Pincus, )] TJ ET BT 131.684 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1688: The First Modern Revolution)] TJ ET BT 303.008 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven & London, 2009\), esp. pp. 405 and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(421.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 572.739 m 139.004 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baxter sought ?a middle way? in the ecclesiastical disputes of the period, and never entirely broke )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the established church. In the )] TJ ET BT 231.656 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Dictionary of National Biography)] TJ ET BT 419.000 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( entry on Baxter, N. H. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keeble writes that in doctrine he developed ?a mean between Calvinism and Arminianism which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained the decree of election but rejected predestined reprobation and a limited atonement.?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.244 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.244 515.715 m 553.904 515.715 l S BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 501.459 m 90.344 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Of the Practical Consequences of Natural Religion?, Essay 11 of )] TJ ET BT 382.952 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophical Essays concerning )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Human Understanding)] TJ ET BT 174.344 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1748\). This essay was later re-titled ?Of a Particular Providence and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a Future State?. See David Hume, )] TJ ET BT 242.984 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding)] TJ ET BT 470.972 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Tom L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beauchamp \(Oxford, 2000\), esp. 11:28, p. 129.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.648 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.648 444.435 m 344.636 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 419.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/10/26/ehr.ceq370.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 389.667 m 370.652 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.652 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 386.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 368.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 368.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/896)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 367.161 m 322.316 367.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 342.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 327.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4676)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/10/26/ehr.ceq370.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.2997 752.6215 226.2917 764.5015 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.6517 615.8215 292.6397 627.7015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 573.0535 139.0037 584.9335 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 526.2437 516.0295 553.9037 527.9095 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 501.7735 90.3437 513.6535 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.6477 444.7495 344.6357 456.6295 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 389.9815 370.6517 401.8615 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2010/10/26/ehr.ceq370.full) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 367.4755 322.3157 379.3555 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/896) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000004817 00000 n 0000004926 00000 n 0000005036 00000 n 0000005145 00000 n 0000008706 00000 n 0000008834 00000 n 0000008918 00000 n 0000009016 00000 n 0000017373 00000 n 0000017403 00000 n 0000017531 00000 n 0000017567 00000 n 0000017597 00000 n 0000017725 00000 n 0000017761 00000 n 0000017791 00000 n 0000017919 00000 n 0000017955 00000 n 0000018020 00000 n 0000026920 00000 n 0000026985 00000 n 0000034920 00000 n 0000035053 00000 n 0000040606 00000 n 0000040636 00000 n 0000040764 00000 n 0000040800 00000 n 0000040928 00000 n 0000040983 00000 n 0000041110 00000 n 0000041165 00000 n 0000041293 00000 n 0000041348 00000 n 0000041474 00000 n 0000041529 00000 n 0000041657 00000 n 0000041712 00000 n 0000041839 00000 n 0000041961 00000 n 0000042089 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42184 %%EOF