%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818092024+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818092024+01'00') /Title (After the Bomb: Civil Defence and Nuclear War in Britain, 1945-68) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4219 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(After the Bomb: Civil Defence and Nuclear War in Britain, 1945-68)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Bomb: Civil Defence and Nuclear War in Britain, 1945?68)] TJ ET BT 362.996 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides a fascinating historical study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of post-war and Cold War policy on civil defence in the United Kingdom. In particular, it looks at how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successive UK administrations sought to ensure both continuity of government in the event of a nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strike and the survival of the British public, through such measures as the planned evacuation of major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population centres, the proposed building of shelters and public education programmes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In compiling the book, Matthew Grant has drawn largely on material that has come into the public domain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only recently, as a result of the implementation of the Freedom of Information Act 2000. This ability to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn on documents such as the 1955 Strath Report, which assessed the country's ability to survive a nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack but was not made available to the public until 2002, provides a deeper insight than has previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been possible into the political decisions made during a very sensitive period of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the availability of such material has enabled Grant to provide facts and statistics that illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic as well as moral considerations that led to some planning assumptions being implemented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while others were largely ignored ? a valuable comparison of which today's emergency planners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resilience practitioners should be mindful. To give just one example, he shows that building shelters for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 11 million 'key workers' required to keep Britain running in the event of a nuclear strike would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cost 32 million more than the entire NHS budget for the same period. In this context, it becomes clear why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(898)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Grant)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230205420)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(52.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jennifer Cole)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7006 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such plans had little chance of being put into practice even though they contained some excellent ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which might, under different circumstances, have created a real legacy for civil protection in the UK. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tripartite approach of static civilian units, mobile civilian and mobile military volunteers, for example, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been moved to wherever the need was greatest, would have benefited the UK during any civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergency, not just nuclear defence planning. The programme was never adequately implemented and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of its benefits long outlived the policies that spawned them nonetheless: the 'Green Goddess' military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fire engines used in the 2002 fire fighters strike for example were the Auxiliary Fire Service vehicles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s civil defence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 23 years covered by the book take us from the end of the Second World War, through the drafting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assent of the civil defence Act 1948, the Hall Report of 1953 \(which set out what Britain might look like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following a nuclear war\), the Strath Report of 1955, the Home Defence Reviews of 1960 and 1965?6 and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual decision to all but suspend civil defence in 1968. While Grant focuses primarily on policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation and the economic and political drivers of civil defence policy during this period, he puts them into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of contemporary events such as the Cuban missile crisis and the Suez Crisis as well as exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the general and pervasive threat from the Soviet Union. He considers not only the impact of such events on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil defence policy \(pointing out for example that the Korean War resulted in a considerable jump in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruitment ? the real and present danger providing a more persuasive incitement to sign up than any of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous publicity campaigns\) but also their impact on UK nuclear policy more widely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He includes brief comparisons with the situation in the United States, and also takes time to contrast the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential devastation of atomic warfare with the level of damage caused to British cities, and the all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important morale of the British public, during the Blitz.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quite rightly, much consideration is given to the political stand-off between civil defence policy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political activists of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament \(CND\), whose supporters saw civil defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities as nothing more than a cheap trick to convince the public that nuclear war could be survived. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Without such reassurance that the nuclear war could be survived, the mere existence of nuclear weapons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been much less palatable. Grant's research makes it clear that CND were not entirely \(if in fact at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all\) wrong in their assumptions that civil defence was simply a smokescreen to bluff the public into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passively accepting the nuclear arms race. Successive governments saw it not so much as a real attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure survival as a political necessity to prevent the public from thinking atomic war equalled certain death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately failing because politicians knew that no preparations, no matter how costly, would make much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difference in the face of an actual attack.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, as the book makes clear, was the dilemma lying at the heart of all post-war civil defence planning. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simple terms, the civil defence Act of 1948 should have done little more than ensure the mechanisms for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of the home front in Britain ? namely the Air Raid Wardens, Auxiliary Fire Service and similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home front volunteer groups that had been raised immediately before and during the Second World War ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained in place so that they could be quickly called into service again if and when the situation required it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, such organisations provided scant protection against atomic bombs of the type dropped on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hiroshima and Nagasaki, let alone from the potentially even more destructive thermonuclear and hydrogen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombs developed during the 1950s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Grant makes clear, the devastation likely to be caused by these latter weapons in particular was so great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was hard to envisage what, if any, effect hardy bands of patriotic civilian volunteers could possibly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have: the idea of a plucky Brit with a first aid kit and a shovel already belonged to a bygone age. Virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instantaneously, thermonuclear bombs would cause more casualties than both world wars combined and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave up to 21 million Britons dead. It is in making such points that the book benefits most from access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recently released archives, as Grant is able to pepper the text with figures and statistics that paint a bleak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of what the aftermath of a nuclear strike would have looked like.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the midst of all this, it is not surprising that civil defence policy makers struggled to decide to what extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were planning the survival of Britain as opposed to the survival of Britons. Was their main aim to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6962 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensure continuity of government, so that the economic and political state of Britain might survive to rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the nuclear ashes or was it primarily about ensuring that the public could be evacuated from target )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas, or sheltered within them, and that survivors would have sufficient access to food, shelter and medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Policy and strategy was always impossibly split between the two, leading to a situation which Grant sums up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the end of chapter five as resulting in: '[N]o agreement over what civil defence was actually for' \(p. 122\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, more harshly, in his overall conclusion on as 'a rational and understandable sham ? in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government's overall defence policy, a necessary facade' \(p. 198\). Successive UK Cold War governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were dependent on civil defence policy assuring the general public that nuclear war was survivable in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to ensure that the same public accepted the UK's participation in a nuclear arms race. No-one, however, truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed in it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is an historical work that draws a line under the proceedings with the decision, in 1968, to put the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil defence Corps and the Auxiliary Fire Service on a care and maintenance only basis, essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sounding its death knell. Grant does not attempt to use the past as a tool with which to analyse the political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions of today but his work is extremely valuable to current resilient practitioners, offering an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to learn lessons from the past and thereby to guard against repeating them. He provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating history of civil defence policy not only for students of cold war politics, but also for current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergency planners, especially in the insights he gives into the relationship between planning, planning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions, and the planners' and the public's ability to believe that those plans might actually work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally, the study offers lessons for those concerned with protection of Critical National Infrastructure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly on the thorny topic of redundancy versus efficiency. Grant explores, for example, the decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberately disperse the UK's reliance on just a few ports across a larger number of locations, to prevent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(port activity from being crippled in a single strike, and also to locate some of the hardest working ports away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from major urban centres. Considerations for oil distribution and communications utilities also echo the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues facing critical infrastructure protection today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another interesting thread running through the study is the relationship of civil defence to both military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning and international security. The decision to place civil defence under the Home Office rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ministry of Defence, where it sat during the War years, is perhaps a bigger mistake than could ever have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been foreseen at the time. In doing so, civil defence activities became entwined more with the spy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counter-spy connotations of the Cold War's international politics than with the more straightforward home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front defence role it might have had as an adjunct to the Territorial Army. As a result, preparations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(budgets lagged behind military ones, ultimately damaging preparations, training and resources. As an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extension to defence rather than something separate from it, civil defence might have been much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this regard, however, it is somewhat disappointing that Grant devotes little more than a sentence to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil Defence Corps' considerable contribution to emergency response during the 1950s and 1960s, and does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not explore the impact this had on both policy decisions and public perception of the organisation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of well-trained and exercised volunteers to events such as the severe flooding at Linton and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lynmouth in 1952, the East Coast floods of 1953, train crashes at Sutton Coldfield in 1955 and Lewisham in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1957, and the mudslide at Aberfan in 1966 cannot be underestimated. It would have been interesting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speculate on why such events were not used to improve support for the organisation, as this perhaps marks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the biggest failing of the period: by not recognising and supporting the value of the civil defence volunteers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hazards other than nuclear obliteration, the UK lost a foothold in the very type of community resilience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Civil Contingencies Secretariat seeks to champion today. The organisation could have provided much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed additional capacity to deal with many of the threats and hazards on the National Risk Register, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flooding and severe snow to the recent foot-and-mouth epidemics and pandemic flu.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grant does on the other hand spend time analysing why volunteers signed up for civil defence activities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more readily in some areas than others, offering glimpses into the mindsets of both the volunteers and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4585 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucracies needed to back them up. He shows, for instance, that civil defence recruitment was highest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coventry, at its peak reaching 95 per cent of the set target whereas other cities, such as Sheffield, barely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed 30 per cent. The difference, he speculates, was most likely due to the memory of wartime need: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily-bombed Coventry knew the benefit of such volunteers much more than other cities. Yet even this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not save policies built on unstable foundations, nor prevent Coventry's local authority from stating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil defence expenditure was a waste of time and money against the damage a hydrogen bomb would cause.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such historical facts could have benefited from a little more reflection and analysis of the impact they had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only at the time, but on civil defence and civil contingency policy today. In particular, more could have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been made of the relationship between the government and the public and to what extent the two were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to trust one another. In particular, the book shows how information not shared gave fuel to the anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuclear protestors who eventually destroyed and undermined civil defence. Nuclear policy at this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolved around military and economic survival, not about saving the lives of the population, and it didn't )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take long for the general public, nor the local authorities whose budgets were strained by civil defence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spending, to see through the smoke.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the period is a fascinating one and there is far more to report, analyse and speculate upon than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could ever be fitted into a single book, particularly one that spans only 198 pages. With 30 pages of notes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and references, ten of bibliography and a further ten of references, )] TJ ET BT 354.896 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(After the Bomb)] TJ ET BT 427.556 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at least ensures that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested students and analysts know where else to turn. The length cannot hide that this is an academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research project repackaged as a book, but that is far from a criticism and it will make a valuable addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the library of any civil defence historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank the reviewer for her positive, intelligent and thoughtful comments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVII/524/246.full)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 419.187 m 317.000 419.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 320.000 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals 2)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/3/429.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 390.675 m 280.352 390.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.352 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 387.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 369.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 369.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/898)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 368.169 m 322.316 368.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 343.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4684)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVII/524/246.full)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/3/429.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 419.5015 316.9997 431.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXVII/524/246.full) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 390.9895 280.3517 402.8695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://tcbh.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/3/429.full) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 368.4835 322.3157 380.3635 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/898) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000004921 00000 n 0000005030 00000 n 0000005140 00000 n 0000005249 00000 n 0000008810 00000 n 0000008938 00000 n 0000009022 00000 n 0000009087 00000 n 0000016146 00000 n 0000016211 00000 n 0000023226 00000 n 0000023324 00000 n 0000027962 00000 n 0000028089 00000 n 0000028198 00000 n 0000028325 00000 n 0000028429 00000 n 0000028557 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28652 %%EOF