%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 41 0 R 72 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221114704+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221114704+00'00') /Title (Joseph II: Vol. II, Against the World, 1780-1790) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4612 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Joseph II: Vol. II, Against the World, 1780-1790)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has been a long time. The first volume of Derek Beales?s biography of Joseph II took about as long to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write as the Holy Roman Emperor?s 15-year co-regency with his mother Maria Theresa, the ruler of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburg or Austrian Monarchy, in 1765?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.980 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.980 257.673 m 266.972 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 266.972 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The second volume occupied its author for more than twice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the span of Joseph?s breathless sole reign in the Monarchy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.632 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.632 243.417 m 332.624 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.624 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Much has changed since 1987. Despite being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200 pages shorter than its successor, volume I is actually the thicker of the two. It has reassuringly textured, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off-white paper, rather than the smooth but thin white pages of the second volume, and it is stitched, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than glued. The editors of the second volume have missed a few spaces and cross-references. ?That?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress...? some may sigh. Presumably Maria Theresa, but not Joseph, would sigh with them. For it must be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged that it helps the reader to have the illustrations at the relevant points in the text, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembled into groups of plates. And the illustrations are as crisply reproduced as they are well chosen. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are told by the author, who exhibits exemplary courtesy in thanking and acknowledging the assistance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions of others, of the care that has been taken to ensure that the format of the second volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matches the first as closely as possible. On the whole, this is a handsome tome. We shall see how well it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weathers the next 20 years and more, for this book will surely stand for many decades as the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative work on its endlessly fascinating subject, and a gold standard of historical biography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a pithy introduction of 12 pages, Beales starts by recapitulating the chief themes and conclusions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(899)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derek Beales)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521324885)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(753pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Butterwick)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.9797 257.9875 266.9717 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.6317 243.7315 332.6237 255.6115 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7808 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first volume, drawing attention especially to those areas in which his attention to new or neglected sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged older interpretations. These include the greater than expected role played by Joseph in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical, military, and foreign affairs. Whereas until 1780 Joseph had focused his efforts to accelerate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wholesale reform of the Monarchy principally on convincing his mother, thereafter he often saw himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as battling the entire world. From this derive the subtitles of the two volumes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beales?s sensible priority as a biographer is to distinguish Joseph?s personal contribution to the policies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions of the government carried on in his name? \(p. 8\). Without his mother to persuade, Joseph?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivations in some cases become more elusive. Beales does not take the motives expounded in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor?s vast output of laws, decrees and proclamations at face value, however characteristic of his manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of thinking. On the other hand, Joseph wrote a great deal privately, in self-justifying and often self-pitying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode, to his brother and heir Leopold, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Much light is thrown on Joseph?s conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of business and decision-making by the long and critical ?Relazione? written by Leopold following his visit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Vienna in 1784, and by the detailed diary of the minister chiefly responsible for government finance for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of the sole reign, Karl von Zinzendorf. All of the former and most of the latter remain unpublished. So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too are the copious and informative letters of one of Joseph?s closest friends \(at least he thought so\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princess Eleonore Liechtenstein, kept at Zitenice in the Czech Republic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author gains much, too, by scouring the observations of foreign diplomats in Vienna, contained in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives of the Vatican, London, Moscow, Venice, Turin, and Berlin \(the published edition of Frederick the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great?s )] TJ ET BT 73.664 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politische Correspondenz)] TJ ET BT 197.996 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stops in 1782\). The obvious omissions are the Archives du Ministre des )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Affaires Etrangres in Paris, and the in Schsiches Landes-Haupt Archiv in Dresden, but in mitigation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French foreign policy in the 1780s has been relatively well studied )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 356.972 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 356.972 485.955 m 370.964 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 370.964 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the French and Saxon despatches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were combed by Joseph?s first great biographer, Paul von Mitrofanov.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.284 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.284 471.699 m 386.276 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.276 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For all the multi-volume fruits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labours of 19th-century historians, such as Alfred Ritter von Arneth, much crucial political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic correspondence ? both Austrian and of other provenance ? remains unpublished. As might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected, Beales has used a great deal of material relating to the government of the Monarchy in the Haus-, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hof- und Staatsarchiv in Vienna, but among the numerous other archival seams mined are those of Brussels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Budapest, and the abbeys of Pannonhalma in Hungary and Tongerlo in Belgium.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this said, much of this volume inevitably relies on printed primary sources and an extensive secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. The latter is especially important for questions of law reform, police, finance, the economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian relations, and the affairs of Hungary, Tirol, and Lombardy. While in such cases Beales usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributes fresh perspectives and some important correctives to received thinking, the most original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters \(of both volumes\) concern ecclesiastical and foreign affairs, as well as Joseph?s routine, travels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and methods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction concludes with a review of the more important advances in the field since the appearance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of volume I \(much of it the work of P. G. M. Dickson\). The arrangement of the 17 chapters is broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological. The first six cover the first three years of the reign; the last two and half concern the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three. Of the remainder, most are focused principally on the middle years of the decade. Six chapters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned wholly or in large part with foreign policy, including, inevitably, the last two. Two chapters cover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entire reign. Five are devoted to religious questions. The remaining six deal with other domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions: they cover, )] TJ ET BT 142.004 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 186.344 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the inauguration of Joseph?s personal rule and his relationship with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers, especially Prince Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz-Rietberg, the peasant question, the land survey and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land tax, policies to reduce provincial privileges, and law reform. Even a relatively long review such as this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must be selective in the themes discussed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the most arresting claims made by Beales is that Joseph promoted ?a new Catholicism? \(pp. 314?26\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His interference in the details of religious worship is legendary, but ?Josephism? \(of which Beales provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an excellent definition in volume I, p. 439\) encompassed greater toleration for non-Catholics, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews, a relaxation of censorship, education, including the training of clergymen, a shift of resources from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic to the parish clergy, the foundation of new bishoprics, and a reduction of the powers of the papacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the frontiers of the Monarchy. The whole of the sixth chapter is devoted to Pius VI?s famous visit to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 356.9717 486.2695 370.9637 498.1495 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.2837 472.0135 386.2757 483.8935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7860 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vienna in 1782. Here, and in the later section on the emperor?s return visit to Rome in 1783 \(pp. 353?5\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beales shows that ? unlike Kaunitz ? Joseph was prepared to allow the pope to save face, and would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise on matters of abstract principle in order to get the bulk of what he wanted. Moreover, despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his reputation, Joseph usually knew when to draw back \(at least in ecclesiastical matters\). He did not turn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over Church property to purely profane uses. It is in the context of ecclesiastical reforms that we learn most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Joseph?s characteristic method of getting his way. He was usually prepared to consult and take advice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the implementation of reforms, but not about their fundamental wisdom. However, he would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes frame the discussion by setting out extreme declarations of principle that could not be challenged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He would then act decisively in ways that often surprised his advisors. With rare exceptions ? such as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early retreat from the idea of taking all Church property into the care of a National Synod, which would pay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clergy salaries \(pp. 78?81, 328?29\) ? once a policy was announced, the only thing that could be done, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, in the words of Baron Kressel, ?to bring up one by one the difficulties that make it awkward to carry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out? \(p. 330\). More so, perhaps, than any other part of the book, the chapters on religious matters will surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain definitive for many decades to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 12 presents Joseph as Holy Roman Emperor. We discover that, despite the emperor?s irritation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imperial constitution, he did not neglect his imperial rights. Indeed, his exploitation of them was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributory factor in the formation of the )] TJ ET BT 238.316 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frstenbund)] TJ ET BT 299.648 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or League of Princes against him in 1785?6. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter ends with a valuable explanation of how Joseph?s brothers, Leopold and Max Franz, the archbishop-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elector of Cologne, were able to deploy traditional Habsburg strategies to restore the dynasty?s position in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reich)] TJ ET BT 79.004 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within a few months of Joseph?s death. Had it not been for the French Revolution, Joseph?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the Holy Roman Empire would have been slight.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 13 encompasses Joseph?s routine in Vienna, and his impact on the city and its culture. We learn, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example about Joseph?s recurrent ill health and sexual promiscuity, although Beales questions the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that the former resulted from the latter. The section dealing with music, especially with Joseph?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage of Mozart, is evidently a labour of love, and as appetizing as a silver-wrapped )] TJ ET BT 460.916 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mozartkugel)] TJ ET BT 521.576 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section is not, however, mere indulgence, either for the author or the reader. Given that Joseph is best known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today as ?Mozart?s emperor? the attention given to the composer is entirely justified. It emerges that Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was effectively his own director of the court theatre. Indeed, this was one of his principal pleasures. Joseph?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interference cannot be considered malign, when it was thanks to his personal interest that Mozart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marriage of Figaro )] TJ ET BT 131.684 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was commissioned and staged. Beales?s ability to expose shallow and wishful thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is especially apparent when he demolishes several myths surrounding Mozart, Enlightenment, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Freemasonry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He returns to these themes in chapter 15. Masonic practices and slogans, at least in the Austrian Monarchy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were far from the rationalism usually associated with the Enlightenment, and it was partly on these grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Joseph brought the movement under stricter control. Moreover, freedom of expression remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably great, despite its constriction at the end of the reign. Similarly, the detention, secretly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without trial, of persons considered dangerous to the state, has sometimes been presented as a harbinger of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sinister 20th-century practices. ?But?, concludes Beales, ?a total of seven in the two years 1788?9 is hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draconian? \(p. 554\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lengthy, thorough conclusion summarizes the main findings of the book. This, no doubt, will be all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most undergraduates will read. Particularly useful to them will be the three sections entitled, like essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions, ?Was Joseph Despotic??, ?Was Joseph Enlightened??, and ?Was Joseph Revolutionary??. As one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might expect, after the careful consideration of so much evidence, Beales often nuances existing views. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, he tempers Tim Blanning?s interpretation of Joseph as a ?modernizer?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.940 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.940 134.067 m 435.932 134.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 435.932 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At least one aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph?s personal monarchy was ?archaic? \(p. 689\): his receipt of thousands of petitions from the humblest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his subjects, both in Vienna, and during his long and frequent travels around his dominions. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the answers to the questions posed above are clear, even forthright. They are: 1\) Yes, in that he frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?did not accept the usual or customary restrictions on absolutism?, but not in the sense of ?the absolute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corruption, which, according to Lord Acton, was generated by the possession of absolute power? \(pp. 653, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(656\); 2\), yes, on the whole, provided that one refers to the usages of the later 18th century; 3\) yes, because )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.9397 134.3815 435.9317 146.2615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7789 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?his earlier legislation made huge changes, religious, legal, cultural and political, many of which survived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reaction under his successors?. Among hereditary monarchs, only Peter the Great, who ruled alone for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three times as long, achieved anything comparable \(p. 665\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not an Austrocentric book ? Beales is severe on those historians who have made wider conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Habsburg Monarchy on the basis of research applying only to the territory of the current borders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Republic of Austria. He shows how Joseph?s reforms were implemented in different ways and enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(varying degrees of success and failure in the diverse territories of the Monarchy. Nor, however, does this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume exhibit the principal counter-tendency in the historiography ? to stress the role of Hungary in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining Joseph?s failures. On the contrary, Beales argues that the challenge faced by the emperor from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Hungarian nobility was considerably less serious than the successful revolt against him in Belgium. Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coincidentally, Catholic monasteries were far more influential in the Netherlands than in Hungary, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belgian abbots were among the leaders of the rebellion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emphasis on Belgium is linked to a further point. For most of his reign Joseph managed to keep his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal and foreign policies separate; indeed, he generally gave priority to the former. Only towards the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his reign, contends Beales, did they become dangerously entangled \(p. 647\). This conclusion bears on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author?s final estimation of his subject. For Beales delivers some withering verdicts on Joseph?s conduct of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy. For example, after considering Joseph?s support of the Russian annexation of the Crimea, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to force the opening of the River Scheldt, and his failure to exchange the Belgian provinces for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bavaria, he states: ?Joseph?s diplomatic activity between 1782 and 1785 had been as contemptible in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner as its achievement? \(p. 397\). He had not secured his objectives, but had worsened his reputation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a ?Thirst for Aggrandisement? \(in the words of the British Ambassador, Sir Robert Murray Keith, p. 398\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This reputation was in fact not wholly justified. It is Kaunitz, rather than the emperor, who emerges from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book as a heedless, bellicose expansionist \(although he had the courage to tell the emperor the unpleasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth at the end of his reign\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument for the )] TJ ET BT 138.656 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Primat der Innenpolitik)] TJ ET BT 251.984 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may prove controversial. One aim ? probably the principal one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? of Joseph?s domestic reforms was to create the populous, prosperous, patriotic, and adequately educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society that could support an army capable of maintaining and enhancing Austria?s status as a great power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, among the achievements that Beales esteems highest are Joseph?s fiscal and military reforms ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major factor in the Monarchy?s survival of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars. After an unfortunate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(start, in which Joseph?s generalship was found wanting, the Austrian armies performed extremely well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the Ottoman Empire in 1789. It was revolt in Belgium that prevented victory from being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consummated. Again, it is the Belgian dimension that enables Beales to rein back the revisionists who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(optimistically assessed the situation of the Monarchy at the time of Joseph?s death, and criticized Leopold II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for making too many concessions \(pp. 639?43\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best books, even long ones, leave the reader still hungry. It must be admitted that the areas that Beales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers more economically were, on the whole, of lesser importance to Joseph himself. Nevertheless, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer would have appreciated fuller treatment of higher education, and greater attention to Joseph?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies towards the Uniate Churches of Galicia, Transcarpathia, and Transylvania. The Polish question is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not raised at all during the discussions of Joseph?s relations with Catherine the Great. There is a strong case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for believing that, in the aftermath of the War of the Bavarian Succession and at the beginning of his sole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign, Joseph played the Polish card \(via his Galician )] TJ ET BT 291.980 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sujets mixtes)] TJ ET BT 352.976 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) as one means of putting pressure on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia. Once the Russian alliance was secured, he scrupulously stayed out of Polish affairs, except to secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what he wanted regarding the Catholic Church in Galicia.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.964 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.964 148.323 m 324.956 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.956 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( No mention is made of the emperor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(admittedly brief\) meeting with the Polish king, Stanis?aw August Poniatowski, en route to his )] TJ ET BT 492.008 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rendez-vous)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the tsaritsa in 1787. Joseph?s verdict is revealing: ?the king is in his society an amiable man, but he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never leaves that air of royalty, which is a little theatrical in a Poniatowski?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.960 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.960 105.555 m 412.952 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.952 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This testifies to that mixture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of informality and snobbery in his behaviour, which is so well analysed by Beales elsewhere in the book \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20?5, 435?8, 664\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph was widely considered ?such a difficult man ? often unreasonable, arrogant, despotic, too hasty, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.9637 148.6375 324.9557 160.5175 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.9597 105.8695 412.9517 117.7495 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 10109 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes nasty? \(p. 671\). He could be particularly unpleasant to his closest family. At one point Beales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorably compares Joseph to Shakespeare?s Richard II \(p. 487\). Yet the emperor has been fortunate to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find a biographer with the qualities ? not least patience, perspicacity, common sense, and fair-mindedness ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to do him justice. Beales writes with a lapidary ease that far surpasses the all-too rapid utterings \(at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worst, ravings\) of his subject. He also, having judiciously established the terms of reference, asked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertinent questions, and sieved and weighed up the relevant evidence, argues his principal cases with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigour, clarity, and cogency that is reminiscent of Joseph at his most purposeful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beales is fair to Joseph, and appreciative of his achievements, despite being fundamentally out of sympathy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his approach to government. ?The confrontation in 1787 between what it was beginning to be possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to regard as ?the Belgian people? or ?the Belgian nation? on the one hand and its despotic ruler on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a battle between two irreconcilable approaches to government: on one side the British, Burkean pursuit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of piecemeal reform by obtaining the consent of the established authorities, preserving much of the past and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepting the survival of anomalies; on the other the imposition from above of rational, uniform solutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against the wishes of the established authorities. Within the Habsburg dynasty itself Leopold was secretly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constitutional side, and Joseph on the despotic? \(pp. 515?16\). Readers of Beales?s earlier work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic monasteries in Europe will know where his sympathies lie.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 360.656 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 360.656 569.235 m 374.648 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first volume, Beales practised what he had earlier preached in his ground-breaking article on ?The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(False Joseph II?: the careful interpretation of sources, and their full documentation in footnotes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.604 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.604 528.723 m 507.596 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 507.596 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eloquently put the case for biography in his inaugural lecture )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.300 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.300 514.467 m 349.292 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.292 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, at a time when professional historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to sneer at the art, he delivered a model of historical biography. Such was its brilliance, such was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acclaim, that few second volumes can have been as eagerly anticipated. Were expectations raised so high ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for so long ? as to make disappointment inevitable? No. Derek Beales has delivered again. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Magnificently.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derek Beales, )] TJ ET BT 134.324 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joseph II: Vol. I, In the Shadow of Maria Theresa, 1741?1780)] TJ ET BT 433.964 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.284 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.284 391.923 m 558.944 391.923 l S BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 377.667 m 90.344 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Less than ten years: 29 November 1780?20 February 1790.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 348.296 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 348.296 363.411 m 402.284 363.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 350.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. Orville T. Murphy, )] TJ ET BT 181.340 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes)] TJ ET BT 365.648 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Albany, NY, 1982\); id., )] TJ ET BT 489.968 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diplomatic Retreat of France and Public Opinion on the Eve of the French Revolution, 1783?1789 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Washington DC, 1998\); Munro Price, )] TJ ET BT 252.332 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Preserving the Monarchy: The Comte de Vergennes, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1774?1787 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 215.336 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 215.336 306.387 m 269.324 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul von Mitrofanov, )] TJ ET BT 170.012 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joseph II. Seine Politische und Kulturelle Ttigkeit)] TJ ET BT 415.664 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, translated from the Russian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edition of 1907 by V. von Demelic, \(2 vols., Vienna, 1910\). The strengths and flaws of this work are )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed by Beales in )] TJ ET BT 175.340 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joseph II)] TJ ET BT 219.656 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 2, pp. 9?11.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.320 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.320 263.619 m 360.308 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T. C. W. Blanning, )] TJ ET BT 158.684 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joseph II)] TJ ET BT 203.000 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harlow, 1994\), passim.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 322.316 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 322.316 249.363 m 376.304 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ewa Zieli?ska, ?Rzeczpospolita wobec zbli?enia rosyjsko-austriackiego na pocz?tku lat )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(osiemdzisi?tych XVIII w. Sprawy Barona Karla Juliusa i Biskupa Kajetana So?tyka? [The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth and the Russo-Austrian rapprochement in the early 1780s. The questions of Baron )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Julius and Bishop Kajetan So?tyk], doctoral thesis \(Historical Institute, Polish Academy of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sciences, Warsaw, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 188.312 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 188.312 178.083 m 242.300 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph II to Kaunitz, Kherson, 15 May 1787, in )] TJ ET BT 295.988 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Joseph II, Leopold II und Kaunitz. Ich Briefwechsel)] TJ ET BT 544.292 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. Adolf Beer \(Vienna, 1873\), pp. 259?60. I am indebted to Derek Beales for a photocopy. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Translation according to Adam Zamoyski, )] TJ ET BT 270.656 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Last King of Poland)] TJ ET BT 388.676 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\), p. 298.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 506.000 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 506.000 135.315 m 559.988 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derek Beales, )] TJ ET BT 134.324 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prosperity and Plunder: European Catholic Monasteries in the Age of Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1650?1815 )] TJ ET BT 121.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2003\),)] TJ ET BT 218.336 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 313?4. 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