%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721041006+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721041006+01'00') /Title (The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4160 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When confronted with the term 'Illustrated' in a book title, how many historians, I wonder, would not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempted to inwardly scoff and mentally store the book on the coffee table of their departmental common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room? This review begins with a warning against such sentiments. In the final pages of )] TJ ET BT 455.288 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Illustrated History of Medicine, )] TJ ET BT 189.008 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoff Watts discusses the important rise of patient self-help and support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups. He observes that:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('All decisions about health and disease were once regarded by doctors as matters for them alone. Patients had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a passive role; having been told what was the matter with them \(and sometimes not even that\) their only task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to obey whatever instructions the doctor thought fit to issue.' [p. 371])] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Introductory texts such as )] TJ ET BT 160.664 121.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 387.656 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - which is but one title in a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of historical pictorial primers produced by Cambridge University Press - are perhaps most fruitfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as the practitioners' contributions to historical self-help groups. They deserve to be taken seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for at least two reasons. First, it behoves all medical historians to ensure that newcomers to the subject - be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they potential first-year undergraduates or bypassing lay-readers - are exposed to books that not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulate their interest, but also convey the wealth and breadth of the subject matter. This should be done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 September, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roy Porter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521442114)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(27.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521442114)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Mooney)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8046 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without on the one hand alienating or on the other patronising the reader. Secondly, if written and edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well, such books should be a useful barometer to the current state of the discipline. The purposes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing \(and the criteria for reviewing\) such texts consequently differ to those of publishing monographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based upon original research. This makes them no less significant to the process of contributing to the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of historical knowledge: indeed, we would do well to bear in mind that )] TJ ET BT 404.312 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cambridge Illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 130.004 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and books of similar ilk retain the potential to motivate t he medical historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future. In assessing the success of the volume, this review will thus place emphasis upon the primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editorial concerns of writing, editing and presenting an illustrated introductory text to a complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating subject. While this approach somewhat compromises evaluation of written content, in a review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this type one is acutely aware that the right of reply lies with the editor and not with the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors. It would be grossly unfair to expect Roy Porter to defend the opinions of the other contributors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although some of the criticisms will therefore be just as important to the publisher as the editor and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book's potential audience, I have chosen to adopt this approach for )] TJ ET BT 356.780 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 447.440 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( because the editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process for a volume of this genre is surely applicable across all branches of the discipline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As well as being 'one of the most distinguished and prolific writers and researchers into the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medicine' \(and I see no reason to argue with the book-sleeve here\), Roy Porter is also perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ubiquitous in the popular media. In this respect, then, one expects him to be in a unique position to bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together other medical historians of like stature and to adeptly manipulate the textual and contextual material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at his and his colleagues' disposal for a volume intended for a largely non-specialist audience. Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Porter has certainly succeeded on the first count. I must confess, however, to being a little surprised at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of a list of contributors with at least a few biographical details. The reader only has the rather vague )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dust-jacket blurb as a guarantee that the volume is 'written by a team of world-renowned specialists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical history'. Renowned to whom? Medical historians? Most definitely. The rest of the population \(i.e. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the potential readership of this book\)? Probably not. This is perhaps a minor quibble, but alert readers surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(require and deserve )] TJ ET BT 130.976 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 155.636 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( further assurance of authority than is proffered here. The issue of referencing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliographic range falls into a similar realm of criticism. I suggested above that introductory texts should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careful neither to alienate nor to patronise the uninitiated reader. A massive number of references, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing the reader in the direction of obscure specialist texts and articles as well as more general works can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve to intimidate, while too few bibliographic notes may not satisfy the desire for closer follow-up reading. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A useful method of overcoming this problem is to have detailed notes for the more eclectic works and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate section listing more genera l texts. Overall, this volume has got the balance just about right. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Further Reading' section for general works, which is divided by chapter headings, largely rescues the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneven number of specialist notes for individual chapters \(ranging from 66 references for Edward Shorter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on 'Primary Care' to just two for John Pickstone's 'Medicine, Society and the State'\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be interesting to learn from Professor Porter - hopefully without breaking too many confidences - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the inclusion and exclusion of such details were mediated between individual authors, the editor of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume and the representatives of the publisher. The questions of choice and location of illustrations as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompaniment to the appropriate text is also an important one for this triumvirate of interests. Academics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are more than adept at working with tables, graphs and maps - not only as handy visual tools, but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally as the focal points of their analysis. One of the dilemmas of using other forms of visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation to complement text \(be they paintings, sculptures, cartoons, or even false-colour magnetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonance images \(MRI\) as on page 7\) must be how to integrate them in a meaningful way. Without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propitious harmonisation between print and picture, the latter may appear to be a needless luxury. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole, it must be emphasised that the selection, range and deployment of illustrations in this volume is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent, but I did have reservations about the unambitious way in which they were accompanied by text in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some cases. The illustrations on pages 130-31 in Edward Shorter's chapter on 'Primary Care' provide us with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two contrasting examples. An 1857 painting by Reinhard Zimmermann on page 130 shows a doctor's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smallpox vaccination clinic in Germany. The accompanying text informs us that vaccination replaced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inoculation in the nineteenth century and that the vaccination of children subsequently became compulsory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many countries. However, being personally interested in smallpox vaccination, my closer examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the painting raised some questions that were unanswered in the main text: why were the children vaccinated )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7429 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together and not seen individually by the doctor? \(was it because arm-to-arm vaccination was practised?\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the young mothers in the picture also vaccinated? \(the need for re-vaccination at puberty and in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulthood was much debated in the late nineteenth century\). I think that by more frequently raising such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues in direct relation to the illustrations, some of the pictures could have been integrated with text much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more effectively. This assumes, of course, that the illustration is appropriately placed within the written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passages in the first place: that Zimmermann's painting appears amidst Shorter's wonderfully-written section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the development of physical examination is somewhat puzzling. Not so the picture on the facing page, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing a physician \(probably Jean-Martin Charcot\) conducting a percussion examination \(tapping of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ribcage\) on a patient, in a ward of what is probably a Parisian teaching hospital. Medical students look on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absorbing Charcot's modern techniques of observation. There can be no doubt that the illustration is well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen and perfectly placed to accompany and embellish Shorter's narrative. Unfortunately, the reader is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told the date of the painting or even the artist's name \(although it must be admitted that oversights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provenance such as this are very rare\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter structure, correctly in my view, adopts a thematic rather than a restrictive chronological order. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The former draws upon the strengths of the individual authors and reduces the problem of laboriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linking subject matter between time periods that is inherent in the latter approach. This is not to say that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic structure can - or, indeed, should - deal adequately with topics in isolation and very often themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlap unhelpfully. There were two stark examples of this. First, Porter's chapter title posing the question, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('What is Disease?' actually followed Kiple's contribution on the 'History of Disease' \(Kiple's chapter, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the limitations of this type of writing, is a fine sweeping account of global historical epidemiology. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially strong on coupling 'big themes' - such as the agricultural revolution and urbanisation - with shifts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the disease panorama\). A second instance arose in the way that Shorter's account of the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical science for the 'making of the modern doctor' \(pp. 126-32\) in his 'Primary Care' chapter actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preceded Porter's chapter on 'Medical Science'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To point out these issues in fact serves to stress interconnectedness in the development of all aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease and medicine with wider social, political and economic forces. How these factors have shaped the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical landscape that we observe today is properly the paramount task in the writing of medical history. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opening quote in this review also demonstrates, Western society has become increasingly subjected to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical model of health. Until comparatively recent times, this has been augmented with a medical model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical history - the decontextualised deification both of \(in\)famous medical personae and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements or misdeeds. With an appendix containing both an index of medical personalities and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology of significant events in medicine, the book does indeed nod its head in the direction of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition. The greater body of the text quite rightly defers to it, too, but it also reflects the more recent trends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the social history of medicine by treating medicine as the product of a variety of factors. The importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war and the military upon the development of medicine is apparent in very contrasting ways. Studies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army hygiene in the eighteenth century were important for an understanding of the relationship between dirt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diseases and overcrowding \(Kiple, p. 39\). Porter observes how the First World War influenced surgery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped create a new type of specialist doctor in Britain, thus establishing a pattern that exists to this day \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(220\). Meanwhile, John Pickstone, in his chapter entitled 'Medicine, Society and the State', elects to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise that the medical theatres of the Second World War were far more 'scientific' than the trenches of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the First. The complicity of German medical academics with the racial doctrines of anti-Semitism aided the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimisation of mass murder and experiments on prisoners. Pickstone's words remind us of the chilling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of medicine to shape and define a society at any one point in historical time:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medicine was central to this monstrous [Nazi] politics, because it depends on and so helps define the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries of humanity. In the case of Nazi medicine, non-Aryan races were formally defined as subhuman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thereby as expendable.' \(p. 333\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The scientific and technical expertise that built up during the Second World War also benefited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of drug therapy and the pharmaceutical industry, Miles Weatherall commenting upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of chemical warfare research for advances in chemotherapy for cancer \(pp. 272-73\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Highlighting these examples also draws attention to the military triumphalist language adopted by medicine )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5781 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and it's historians that has been so influential in establishing and maintaining the dominance of the Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific tradition. \(Examples: 'Disease Conquers the New World', p. 30; 'The Battle Against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Inflammation"', p. 125\). But they also emphasise the intriguing ways in which the virtually endless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between medicine and the wider world can b e traced throughout this book. \(Thankfully the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of these is both characteristic and representative of much of the writing in modern medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history\). For example, in his chapter on 'Hospitals and Surgery', Roy Porter traces the pattern of hospital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision in London back to the Age of the Enlightenment \(p. 213\). The social history of mental illness has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved a highly fruitful area of research in recent years and deservedly merits a chapter in this volume. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also one topic which remains constantly at the forefront of the public consciousness. Thus, in concluding a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brief yet wide-ranging and authoritative survey of the field, Porter draws attention to the paradoxical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of under-funded central government policies for the 'resocialisation' of the mentally-ill in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Britain during the 1980s while Margaret Thatcher, the British Prime Minister at the time, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disclaiming the very existence of a 'society' at all \(p. 303\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given this heartening approach, I was expecting a rather rousing finale in Geoff Watts's chapter, 'Looking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Future', a few lines of which were quoted at the beginning of this review. Following, as he does, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pickstone's adroit contribution on 'Medicine, Society and the State', I think that Watts might have chosen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delve more substantially into the possible dynamics of the economic and political imperatives of medicine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead we are provided with a checklist to the 'Promise of Medicine' wherein to Pickstone's question, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Should we allow systems that provide the poor with separate, usually inferior services?' \(p. 340\) comes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather fatuous \(in my view\) response that 'To see medicine's most spectacular achievements you should look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the poor: to the effects of preventive and public health medicine in developing countries' \(p. 353\). In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subheading 'Benefits to the Poor' appearing in Watts's chapter was yet another opportunity to survey the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual consequences of such 'achievements' with historical hindsight. The lowering of mortality in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing countries has resulted in the associated problems of population pressure and sustainability. Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the myriad of examples charted in this book, this perhaps presents the most astounding instance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical impact upon global society. It encapsulates modern Western medicine's dilemma in coming to terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its own 'success'. If nothing else,)] TJ ET BT 214.988 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine)] TJ ET BT 444.980 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows that medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have contributed constructively on all fronts to the maintenance of this climate of uncertainty. I, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for one, hope that they will continue to do so since it is surely only with an awareness of medicine's own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical fallibility that the currently-emerging big 'achievements' - genetic research, for example - should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be allowed to prosper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 300.627 m 154.700 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 157.700 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 297.295 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 279.515 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 279.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/9)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 278.121 m 310.316 278.121 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 253.144 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/163)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/bulletin_of_the_history_of_medicine/v072/72.1br_porter.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 300.9415 154.6997 312.8215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/bulletin_of_the_history_of_medicine/v072/72.1br_porter.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 278.4355 310.3157 290.3155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/9) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000548 00000 n 0000000630 00000 n 0000004842 00000 n 0000004951 00000 n 0000005061 00000 n 0000005170 00000 n 0000008731 00000 n 0000008859 00000 n 0000008943 00000 n 0000009008 00000 n 0000017107 00000 n 0000017172 00000 n 0000024654 00000 n 0000024745 00000 n 0000030579 00000 n 0000030706 00000 n 0000030877 00000 n 0000031005 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31098 %%EOF