%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916190252+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916190252+01'00') /Title (Embracing Defeat. Japan in the Wake of World War Two) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4489 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Embracing Defeat. Japan in the Wake of World War Two)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td 0.914 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japan's experience of defeat and occupation at the end of the Second World War has most commonly been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td 0.429 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined from the point of view of the conquerors. It has rarely been tackled as a Japanese experience. But, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td 0.808 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this massively researched and beautifully illustrated book, John Dower attempts to understand the hopes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td 0.922 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(visions and dreams \(as well as the hopelessness and exhaustion\) of the defeated Japanese as they sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td 2.607 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(remake their identity and values in the aftermath of war. He probes a kaleidoscopic array of Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td 1.692 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses and their contradictions: guilt and giddy liberation, selective forgetting, iconoclasm, new hopes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td 1.062 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and old disillusions. And he places them against the background of an American Occupation which was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(once high-minded and visionary, arrogant and imperialist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td 0.792 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dower tackles this theme through twin narratives. The first is a dense socio-cultural history, focused on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td 0.196 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(first two years of the Occupation. The second is a detailed reconstruction of the initial phase of constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td 0.490 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and political 'reform from above', paying particular attention to the rehabilitation of the emperor, the genesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the new constitution, and the Tokyo war crimes trials.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td 1.572 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Other authors might have treated these themes quite separately, but Dower intertwines them. This creates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td 0.488 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain structural problems for the book. But, more importantly, it highlights how certain issues were central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td 0.704 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(to both spheres. Debates on the allocation of responsibility for the past, and the nature of current and future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td 0.267 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese identity, were central to both arenas. And both had to be fought out and resolved in the context of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td 1.330 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifting and ambiguous context of Occupation realpolitik. Dower handles these complex themes skillfully. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td 3.079 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, as a narrator, he holds a vast canvas together. Secondly as an observer, he maintains a deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td 0.000 Tw /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(90)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 February, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Dower)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713993723)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(676pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Tolliday)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7134 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 3.088 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy for his subjects while still preserving an appropriately sharp and critical moral sense as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(navigates some muddy waters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 0.957 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dower's 'cultural history' begins with the anguish of physically and materially 'shattered lives' at war's end. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 3.999 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The shock, devastation, exhaustion and despair are unremittingly chronicled. The depth of loss and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 1.347 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusion which the Japanese people experienced is vividly conveyed, notably in Dower's accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(huge scale of social displacement and missing persons, and the long-drawn out period of 'food-wretchedness'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td 1.801 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Against this background of economic and social misery, however, Dower is also concerned to locate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td 0.919 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformative effects of defeat. Even in the pits of despair, people were reshaping their future identity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovering new aspirations. Dower tackles this at three levels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td 2.904 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Firstly, he investigates the 'subcultures of defeat'. The world of prostitution under the Occupation, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td 2.246 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(example was simultaneously an arena of sexual exploitation and a channel for the growth of interracial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td 0.538 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(affection and the undermining of old racial stereotypes. It was a symbol of national shame and a conduit for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td 0.383 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(new American values of luxury, hedonism, and materialism that were eagerly embraced. Likewise, the black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td 1.647 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets were both explosions of entrepreneurial energy and a site for violent criminal gangs. And a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td 1.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban demimonde channeled nihilism and hardship into lifestyles of deliberate decadence and a flourishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td 1.112 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(milieu of pulp literatures which posed forceful challenges to traditional social and sexual roles. Dower has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(dug deeply to reveal 'the bittersweet ambiance of life on the margins in a defeated land'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td 0.583 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, Dower explores 'bridges of language', the shifting imagery and idiom of a nation in transition. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td 1.068 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that some of the language of the old regime was simply emptied of its old content and refilled with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td 0.220 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(new meanings like so many suitcases. But the plasticity of language also created ambiguities. Mostly, Dower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td 0.333 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses that linguistic bridges were transformative and forward looking, ways of escaping from the past. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td 0.906 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(darker colours could linger on. Words and phrases necessarily carried past resonances too, and possibilities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of moving on coexisted with temptations of crossing back.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td 7.605 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, Dower considers the 'virtuoso turnabout' of the Japanese intelligentsia in embracing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td 2.334 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(democratization. Before and during the war, the Japanese state had bullied or seduced intellectuals into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td 1.947 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(support or conformity with a remarkable degree of success. Almost no significant intellectual opposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td 1.269 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained. The sudden conversion of the intelligentsia after the war could, therefore, be seen as hypocrisy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td 0.964 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, Dower draws a more complex picture. On the one hand there were continuities with the past: the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td 0.440 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas drew on earlier currents of thought that had flourished in the 1920s. On the other hand, there were real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td 0.504 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaks. Repentance and remorse have to be taken seriously. It may, for instance, have driven the remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td 3.938 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of Japan's teachers from the 'drill sergeants of emperor system orthodoxy' to fervent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td 2.080 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(guardians of the new democracy. But it may also help to explain the rather uncritical embrace of fairly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(wooden sorts of Marxism in certain sectors of university life which emerged from this time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td 0.849 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of this is stimulating and finely done. But some gaps and difficulties remain. Firstly, Dower's picture is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td 2.916 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably too narrowly focused on life in the cities, and in particular Tokyo. The countryside and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td 0.215 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasantry are almost wholly absent from this picture and, most likely, a quite different story would require to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td 0.459 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(be told there. Similarly, the world of industrial workers is somewhat lightly touched on. Dower's is a picture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td 1.646 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of urban culture, entered from the margins. As such it is deeply suggestive, but much uncharted territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains to be explored.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td 2.665 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, Dower is most sensitive to the new, and to breaks with the past. The continuities are often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td 2.269 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(underplayed, and the weight of the past still sitting on the shoulders of those reme traditional Japanese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td 0.771 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(family, enable young industrial workers to delay marriage, and feed into crime control systems. It was seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td 0.628 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a 'breakwater' against lust, disorder and disease. As such it was assimilated to an almost asexual tradition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td 3.785 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of family piety and national loyalty. Licensed prostitutes were seen as filial daughters who became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td 1.599 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitutes for 'legitimate' reasons to support their families and fulfil national needs. During the War, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(system flowed seamlessly into the 'comfort women' system for servicing the Japanese soldiery.4)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6620 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td 0.615 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast, throughout the interwar period, the independent prostitute was repressed and criminalised. From )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td 0.873 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 1920s, independent prostitution became the prime target of both the Home Ministry and the police, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 0.753 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the abolitionist movement. The independent prostitute was seen as a symbol of modernist and romantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 1.715 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations between the sexes, pursuing individual gain or pleasure. Intense suppression was targeted at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 2.274 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(cafes and dance-halls of the Ginza, directly at the 'waitresses' and by association with the 'modern girl' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(moga\) society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td 2.541 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Recreation and Amusement Association was therefore an attempt to carry forward a long-standing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td 1.023 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(system into a new context. Its collapse and the emergence of the independent panpan therefore marked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td 2.548 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(collapse of a deeply-rooted tradition of social management, and the explosive assertion of an intensely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td 2.419 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppressed current of 'deviant' behaviour. In consequence, in the case of prostitution, the 'subculture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td 3.429 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat' probably carried even deeper and more charged significance than Dower allows. While many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td 0.759 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories have demonstrated the remarkable continuities of Japanese bureaucratic administration through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occupation, here at least was one quite decisive reversal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td 1.003 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are other areas too where Dower does not seem to have paid adequate attention to the pre-history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td 0.424 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'moments' that he focuses on. For example, Dower describes the flourishing 'blue-sky' black markets that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td 0.667 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourished in the postwar crisis. But the sense that one carries away from the account is that this exercise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td 1.003 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapacious free marketeering was a new and shocking phenomenon for the Japanese. In some senses it was. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td 2.577 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this ignores the history of wartime black markets. Despite the fact that Japanese governments had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td 1.622 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to set up the most minute and totalitarian system of food-control during the war, the rigidities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td 2.224 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreality, and bureaucratic incapacity of the system meant that the Japanese war economy had come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td 0.865 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(depend massively on de facto tolerated black markets in the later years of the war. These markets provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td 1.119 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(far higher percentages of overall individual consumption than in any other major combatant nation.5 What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 2.868 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the links between wartime and postwar black markets? What were the continuities in crime and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td 1.504 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic tolerance? Were the postwar blue-sky markets as much of a shock to the Japanese people as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dower suggests?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td 1.129 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(More generally, Dower's focus on new and emergent ideas and patterns of thought means that he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td 2.998 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(spend much time pursuing the hidden undercurrents of the old. Thus, ultranationalist ideas and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td 1.824 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought had not disappeared altogether, and were soon to re-emerge, often in powerful ways, but Dower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td 0.191 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not discuss them. It is probably too much to ask that Dower give detailed attention to these currents too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td 1.511 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(but again, a wider contextualization of changing ideas against these continuities would serve to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(more balanced picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td 1.305 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dower's parallel 'political history' concentrates on the first two years of Occupation and does not stray far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td 1.207 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the 'reverse course' that followed. Dower powerfully captures the early period of MacArthur's regime. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td 2.944 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacArthur ran a neo-colonial state, coloured with supremacism and paternalism, yet also significantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td 0.395 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(loaded with idealism and a spirit of democratic reform. It propagated freedom of speech while f the defeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td 3.407 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confederacy, subjected to Yankee interlopers and groping for a new identity \(pp. 527-8\). As Dower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td 1.098 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarises it, no-one grieved over the defeat, but neither did they face its responsibility head on. In these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td 0.926 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial early years, Japan had been sold short by the politicians in the process of remaking its identity, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td 3.333 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was to reverberate in the coming 'soft counterrevolution' in Japanese society that was shortly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompany the 'reverse course'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td 1.031 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dower's fine book significantly broadens the scope of studies of Occupied Japan and the impact of war on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese society, and it will deservedly attract a wide audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(------------------------------------)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NOTES:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.205 Td 1.375 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(1. Quoted in Ben-Ami Shillony, Politics and culture in wartime Japan \(Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981\) p. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3117 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(115)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td 3.103 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(2. This text has been published. Watanabe Kiyoshi, Kudakareta Kami \(Shattered God\) [Tokyo, Asahi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sansho, 1983\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3. Sheldon Garon, Molding Japanese Minds. The state in everyday life \(Princeton UP, 1997\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td 1.745 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(4. Dower also suggests that the wartime 'comfort women' were exclusively non-Japanese women, mainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td 1.813 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Koreans. \(pp. 124, 465, 470\) In fact, thousands of Japanese licensed prostitutes were also shipped off to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td 2.992 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(serve the army overseas. See, George Hicks, The Comfort Women. Japan's brutal regime of enforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution in the Second World War \(New York, Norton, 1994\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td 1.237 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(5. T. R. Havens, Valley of darkness: the Japanese people and World War Two \(NY. Norton, 1978\); Anke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td 0.787 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scherer, 'Drawbacks to controls on food distribution: food shortages, the black market and economic crime' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Erich Pauer ed., Japan's War Economy \(Routledge, 1999\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td 0.355 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(6. Stephen S. Large, Emperor Hirohito and Showa Japan. A political biography \(Routledge, 1992\); Ben-Ami )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shillony, Politics and culture in wartime Japan \(Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td 3.408 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(7. David Bergamini, Japan's Imperial Conspiracy \(London, Heineman, 1971\); Edward Behr, Hirohito. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Behind the myth \(New York, Vintage Books, 1990\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.629 Td 0.261 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(8. T. Fujitani, Splendid monarchy. Power and pageantry in modern Japan \(Berkeley, University of California )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1998\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 431.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Due to outstanding work commitments the author has not yet been able to respond to this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 391.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 386.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 368.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 368.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/90)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 367.449 m 316.316 367.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 342.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/643)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 367.7635 316.3157 379.6435 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/90) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000005178 00000 n 0000005287 00000 n 0000005397 00000 n 0000005506 00000 n 0000009067 00000 n 0000009195 00000 n 0000009279 00000 n 0000009344 00000 n 0000016531 00000 n 0000016596 00000 n 0000023269 00000 n 0000023353 00000 n 0000026523 00000 n 0000026651 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26745 %%EOF