%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150424023542+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150424023542+01'00') /Title (Poverty, Philanthropy and the State: Charities and the Working Classes in London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4507 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poverty, Philanthropy and the State: Charities and the Working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Classes in London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last 12 years have seen an unprecedented growth in the scale and scope of the voluntary sector. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten years from 1996/97 to 2006/07, its income almost doubled, from 17bn to just over 33bn.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.000 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.000 250.545 m 501.992 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, more than half ? 58 per cent ? of the 2,705 people interviewed in England for )] TJ ET BT 467.588 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Helping Out: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(National Survey of Volunteering and Charitable Giving)] TJ ET BT 301.352 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? commissioned by the Cabinet Office's third sector )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division and conducted by the National Centre for Social Research and the Institute for Volunteering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research \(IVR\) ? had both volunteered and donated to charity in the last 12 months, and 81% had given to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charity within the last four weeks.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.324 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.324 179.265 m 211.316 179.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 211.316 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As a general election approaches, all three political parties are at pains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stress the importance of the so-called ?voluntary sector? to civil society, and to the effective delivery of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare services.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unsurprisingly, the history of voluntary organisations and of charities is a growth area, and has been since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s when the welfare state itself was under ideological attack. Pat Thane, Frank Prochaska, Jane Lewis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Geoffrey Finlayson have all contributed to a growing literature of the history of the welfare state that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenged the traditional escalator, or Whiggish theory of its development. Instead, their work suggests the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for commercial companies and employers to pay greater consideration to the ?mixed? economy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisting of the state, voluntary action, and support by the family. The Voluntary Action History Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(900)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 May, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Bradley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719078750)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(221pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Blaiklock)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 487.9997 250.8595 501.9917 262.7395 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.3237 179.5795 211.3157 191.4595 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7751 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(founded in 1991\) continues to grow in strength, with its work is focused on attempting to utilise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings of historical research for the benefit of current practitioners in the voluntary sector.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 474.584 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 474.584 780.819 m 488.576 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 488.576 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers are beginning to realise the importance of the historical background and other factors in making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular voluntary bodies what they are, and in affecting the development of their methods of working. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as historians, we still need to know more about the variety of ways in which charities have worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside the state. Sometimes charities have worked as enablers of state services with voluntary input and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expertise. In other cases they have offered help for individuals needing advice and advocacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important consideration for historians of welfare has been the changing nature of the ?mixed economy?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in particular, the adaptation of charities, especially after 1945, to the enlarged role of the state. Kate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradley?s book is an interesting and thought provoking addition to this literature. The book charts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing relationship between the voluntary sector and the state in the period 1918 to 1979, and importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evolution and adaptation of one type of charity ? the university settlements ? to the growing welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state. Settlements were charities formed in deprived areas of Britain?s cities in the late 19th century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a combination of mission, training school and community centre. The settlements brought young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graduates such as William Beveridge and Clement Attlee to deprived areas of cities to undertake social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. Using the London settlements to explore the evolution of the mixed economy of welfare in the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, Bradley demonstrates effectively the ways in which people entered upon careers in the charitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sector, and details their experiences while working there. The major themes are illustrated through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the many services provided by the settlements, including boys and girls clubs, health care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(services, juvenile courts and legal advice. These activities shared the general motivation of attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide services to the neediest groups in society; acting as advocates for those who needed them; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuring the self-realisation of those men and women involved with the work of the settlement movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Bradley was heavily involved in the running and organisation of the archive of Toynbee Hall )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.268 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.268 457.443 m 513.260 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 513.260 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expertise gained from this work which has helped her produce this detailed account \(adapted from her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2006 thesis\) of the history of Settlements and their interaction with the working classes in London. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position has allowed Bradley to utilise the records of settlements, oral history testimonies, settlement worker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memoirs, newspaper articles, photographs and films, government reports and social surveys. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement is all the more impressive given the lack of records in some cases. Toynbee Hall was bombed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many of its records destroyed, including those of the warden J. J. Mallon. Similarly, in wartime, record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping was abandoned in many voluntary organisations in the interests of better serving the community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A key problem outlined by the author, and which is important for historians of welfare and of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, is how and why the settlement movement survived past 1918, when provision for welfare services )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was increasingly made through the state, through local authorities and national governments. In answering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this question, Bradley examines how the many and various settlements in London interacted with the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and communities around them, and considers how the evolution of the state and its responsibility for welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually impacted upon them. She considers the extent to which the settlement movement was able and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing to re-frame its work and to innovate. Finally, she asks how they responded to changes in the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, especially after the Second World War. A firm understanding of these historical problems is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary to a greater understanding of the history of welfare in Britain, and of civil society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradley?s thesis is simple. Settlements did not, as some have supposed, lose their purpose as the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded its services, but rather continued to act as buffers between private individuals and the worst effects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of poverty/social inequality in a dynamic and mixed economy of welfare. In doing so, by avoiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duplication of the state?s activities, and by acting where the state could or would not act, Bradley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the development of British welfare was a complex process of negotiation and mediation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not often the case in the political science literature which tends to point towards state failure as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(main motivating factor for charities to carry out work alongside the state. This literature, and the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory surrounding the provision of public goods, as Bradley points out, often fails to consider the realities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of human factors in shaping welfare provision.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a particularly well-organised work. After providing a brief history of the Victorian settlements, she )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 474.5837 781.1335 488.5757 793.0135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.2677 457.7575 513.2597 469.6375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 5241 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moves on to consider what life was like for those working in them, both as leaders and as workers. At this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, the author skilfully weaves in a discussion of gender. Bradley's research tells us much about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing role of women in the settlements. The settlements provided an ideal alternative for families unable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or unwilling to support young women financially. It was simultaneously a way for women to earn some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money, it relieved pressure on the home and helped them to gain independence. While there was still a glass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceiling in place when it came to management positions, working in the settlements was one way in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women entered the social work profession. The profile of women increased during the Second World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the settlements, and continued to grow after 1945, accompanied by the expansion of social work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training and funding for university courses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main research problems are subsequently explored through chapters that consider the different aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the work of the settlements in health, developing good citizens, rehabilitation of offenders, legal aid, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holidays for deprived children and finally, combating the effects of immigration. Bradley's research uses a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of London settlements: Toynbee Hall, Mansfield House, Canning Town Women's Settlement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Hall Settlement, Blackfriars Settlement, Bernhard Baron Settlement, the Fern Street Settlement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford House, Mary Ward Settlement and Cambridge House. This in turn reflects the vast range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences at play within the settlement movement. There were single-sex and mixed settlements, Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements, educational and even a scouting settlement. By examining more than one charity, Bradley is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to offer an in-depth study of networks, parallels and contrasts existing between charities. This is a major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength. These sometimes had a transnational element. In the 1920s, Egerton St John Catchpool, then sub-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warden of Toynbee Hall, was inspired by visits to Hull House Settlement in Chicago, to work on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme of classes at Pentonville prison.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a chapter considering health, Bradley shows that the settlement?s work was not undertaken in a vacuum, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather within the growing relationships between charity workers and local government administration. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1939, there was a withdrawal of certain settlement activities, health care for women in light of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansions of local authorities However, both the Canning Town Women?s Settlement Hospital and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South West Ham Health Society provided a consistent approach to providing for the medical needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and children. Women were key to providing medical services to the neediest groups in the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community, and their work provided them with opportunities for building up networks with other charities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and establishing their presence in local government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, the book stresses the importance for its success of the relationship of a settlement to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community which it served. It was more important to reflect the needs of the community rather than to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superimpose the wishes of its leaders on the local people. The history of the Council of Citizens of Tower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamlets and of the young Bangladeshi community in the 1970s, aptly illustrates the fact that the settlements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not just impose themselves upon communities ?they had to learn what it was people wanted, and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to provide a means of doing or enabling this. The notion of leadership, which drove many of the London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements, was not often related to the success of any particular initiative or service.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 6677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bradley?s book makes a valuable contribution to a growing literature on the history of British civil society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and citizenship. The gradual extension of the franchise in local and national elections to working-class men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and women from the 1860s onwards was accompanied by the apparent need to prepare and educate the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voters for their responsibilities. Education for citizenship involved making the individual aware of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights, duties and responsibilities as citizens. The importance of the discourse of citizenship to the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the settlements is stressed throughout the chapters on youth clubs, and on the law. Many of the projects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the settlements, for example those which sought the rehabilitation of ex-offenders and of young people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though clubs, shared the same broader goal of reengaging those at risk of exclusion within the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community. This was equally applicable in the case of legal aid and advocacy services which were supplied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to help citizens check the abuses or mistakes of the welfare state. The notion of citizenship had an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in the opinions of those working for or connected with the settlements. Perhaps unsurprisingly T. H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marshall?s views on citizenship and social class were highly influential. The view of citizenship, as Bradley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, was based on the paradox that the ordinary working class person had the right to participate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life, but that he or she did not have the skill or ability to do so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To conclude, Bradley?s excellent book raises many questions worthy of future research, particularly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of professionalization and the significance that this has had for voluntary organisations. There is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope for considering the shifting attitudes of the central government and local authorities towards voluntary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations, and how this has influenced the welfare mix. Her book provides a significant addition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of welfare in 20th-century Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review without further comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 424.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 424.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET BT 131.684 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 17 February 2010)] TJ ET BT 226.004 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.772 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/joepublic/2010/feb/17/future-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.772 422.691 m 544.412 422.691 l S BT 64.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluntary-sector-role)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 408.435 m 165.320 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 168.320 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 182.312 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 17 February 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.368 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.368 408.435 m 384.356 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 395.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian, 5 September 2007)] TJ ET BT 226.652 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2007/sep/05/voluntarysector.socialtrends)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 379.923 m 430.652 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.652 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 447.644 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(>[accessed 17 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(February 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.332 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.332 365.667 m 195.320 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 352.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(<)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.784 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.vahs.org.uk/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.784 351.411 m 187.784 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 190.784 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 204.776 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 19 February 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 355.832 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 355.832 351.411 m 409.820 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 338.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Bradley, )] TJ ET BT 133.664 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and Philanthropy in East London, 1918?1959: The University Settlements and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 324.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Urban Working Class)] TJ ET BT 187.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Phd Dissertation, University of London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.668 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.668 322.899 m 474.656 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 279.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 261.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 261.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/900)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 259.881 m 322.316 259.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 234.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4690)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/joepublic/2010/feb/17/future-voluntary-sector-role)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.704 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2007/sep/05/voluntarysector.socialtrends)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.vahs.org.uk/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 162.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R 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