%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 58 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728171132+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728171132+01'00') /Title (Bringing Culture to the Masses: Control, Compromise and Participation in the GDR) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4035 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Bringing Culture to the Masses: Control, Compromise and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Participation in the GDR)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one surveys post-1989 scholarship of the GDR, one puzzle cannot but catch the eye. Totalitarianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory, nourished by the wider political climate, has been in rude health, and yet, study after study has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed its inadequacies. Meticulous archive-based research has shown that grassroots interests influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the behaviour of middle-level functionaries and even central policy makers to a considerably greater extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the totalitarianism model allows. While the ruling Communist Party \(SED\) did attempt to shape and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control important facets of the everyday lives of East German citizens, their behaviour exerted a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence upon its prescriptions, and they were able to evade or \(less frequently\) to defy them. Histories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(GDR industrial relations, for example, abound with accounts of planners and managers yielding to shop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(floor resistance, and of officials agreeing to negotiate and compromise. At times, the authorities encouraged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workers to voice their opinions and articulate their grievances ? so long as they did not express overtly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political criticisms of the regime. In the 1960s, as Jeffrey Kopstein has shown, workers? resistance was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant factor that contributed to the curtailment and ultimately the collapse of a reform programme, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?New Economic System? \(NS\). As a consequence of workers? recalcitrance, the history of labour in post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war East Germany resembled less the imposition of a master plan of sovietisation than perpetual crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(902)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Esther von Richthofen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845454586)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berghahn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gareth Dale)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8734 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the field of culture, something similar applies. Deviations from the SED?s value-system could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countered with brute intimidation but, equally, could provoke the regime into moderating its position. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of illustration, consider rock music. When in the 1950s and 1960s jazz, rock ?n? roll, beat, and jeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to gain mass appeal, campaigns were launched against them. The SED suspected these Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musical and sartorial trends of being a Trojan Horse in which those cultural ambassadors of imperialism ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elvis, the Stones, the Beatles ? had brought ?NATO? fashions, lyrics and glamour into the homes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreams of East German youth. Rock fans were branded as deviants. \(?Unkempt, dirty, long shaggy manes; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ragged trousers. They stink ten metres down wind?, railed the )] TJ ET BT 333.296 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leipziger Volkszeitung)] TJ ET BT 442.964 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.964 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.964 683.283 m 459.956 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 459.956 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) And these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responded in kind: they would ?combine their demands for rock ?n? roll with depraved ravings against our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading comrades?, one functionary complained.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.296 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.296 654.771 m 281.288 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.288 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In its battle against Western popular music the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steadily lost ground over the course of the 1960s. \(Indeed, argues Toby Thacker, it was ?fought and lost even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Wall was built?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.652 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.652 626.259 m 177.644 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 177.644 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) In retreat, the regime attempted to neutralise the challenge through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion of domestic rock bands and by setting up ?song clubs? under the auspices of the Free German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Youth \(FDJ\) and DT64, a youth radio station. Although only partially successful ? because the sounds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lyrics of approved bands were so bland, so lacking in passion and authenticity ? the earlier adamantine anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rock position did soften, and was ultimately abandoned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is culture, understood broadly, that forms the subject of Esther von Richthofen?s study. She begins by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing the SED?s approach to culture in historical context, specifically with reference to two major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences. One was ?the cultural revolution in Soviet Russia of the late 1920s and early 1930s? \(pp. 5?6\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At that juncture the previous ?liberal cultural model? of the early years of Bolshevism ?came to an end with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stalin?s cultural revolution?, which heralded ?a new phase of cultural intolerance?, a set of attitudes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SED dutifully took on board. The other consisted of \(p. 4\) a German tradition of the subjection of leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities to institutional control. It spanned at least the first half of the 20th century. Whether under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wilhelmine, Weimar or Nazi auspices, ?the ruling classes as well as the bourgeoisie feared that the workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would engage in disreputable behaviour in their free time, which could culminate in social unrest?. State )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of mass culture offered a means by which the threat could be countered. Nor was this simply a pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war phenomenon. In post-war Germany, politicians of both East and West revealed a penchant for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicising culture. Both groups \(p. 4\) showed pronounced tendencies ?of narrow-mindedness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerance?, and, more generally, ?petit bourgeois attitudes towards cultural activity?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This last point echoes the Leipzig philosopher Ernst Bloch?s apercu, that the SED sought to impose ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictatorship of petit-bourgeois taste in the name of the proletariat?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.632 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.632 331.395 m 368.624 331.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.624 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Like their conservative counterparts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the West, SED functionaries distrusted rock ?n? roll for its hedonism, sexuality, aggression, excess and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellious flair. Like their ?brothers? to the East, they embraced a conservative aesthetic in their domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment, surrounding themselves with chintz curtains, thick pile carpets and polka-dotted tea cups. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was a Victorian flavour to the pious and patronising manner in which they would preach to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population: on the virtues of pursuing a career, founding a family, and working diligently and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncomplainingly for the good of the country. If in the 1950s there was fervour in the sermonising, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s that had faded ? but the pieties remained, contributing to that stolid, stiff and stuffy quality that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised official East German culture in its final decade. Stefan Wolle?s term ?Socialist Biedermeier? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captures the tone very well.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.316 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.316 203.091 m 180.308 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 180.308 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( SED leader Eric Honecker excelled at pedagogical preaching. He would, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, admonish his flock that ?Our German Democratic Republic is a clean state, in which there are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unshakeable standards of ethics and morality, of propriety and decorum?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.276 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.276 174.579 m 400.268 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.268 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cleanliness and propriety were, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise, at the heart of what Minister of Culture, Kurt Hager, defined as ?working culture? \(p. 178\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order for a workplace to be a ?cultured environment?, he lectured, there had to be ?order and cleanliness at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the workplace, in the factory grounds, at the construction site ? Where they are not being strived for, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be no mention of socialist culture. It is a question of a worker?s honour to produce punctually, with high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality, and in a tidy workplace?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether within and without the workplace, the focus of von Richthofen?s study is on leisure-time pursuits. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By controlling the leisure sphere, the SED \(p.2 15\) hoped to reach ?people?s hearts and minds and secure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their support? for its rule. The intention was to provide a limited and specific range of cultural pursuits that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.9637 683.5975 459.9557 695.4775 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.2957 655.0855 281.2877 666.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6517 626.5735 177.6437 638.4535 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6317 331.7095 368.6237 343.5895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.3157 203.4055 180.3077 215.2855 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.2757 174.8935 400.2677 186.7735 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7291 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised to instil citizens ?with intellectual qualities, to increase their productivity at work by providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recreation and relaxation?, and to counter ?potentially damaging Western cultural influences? by ensuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they only engaged with SED-approved practices. ?Cultural mass work? thus formed a central pillar of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SED policy, and sustained efforts were made to establish ?wide-ranging state-organised cultural structures? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first phase of its rule, the SED?s focus in the mass-cultural arena was upon promoting highbrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities. Art and literature were regarded as means by which popular consciousness could be moulded. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the late 1950s and 1960s ?the understanding of what constituted cultural activies was broadened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerably? \(p. 7\). It now came to include ?a variety of lowbrow activities, as well as hobby activities?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the pedagogic emphasis declined. Von Richthofen surveys a range of ?lowbrow activities?, including for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example the collection of ?the packaging around differently sized containers for igniting material? ? i.e. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matchboxes. \(Evidently, allowing citizens? nerdier tendencies to thrive was not seen by the SED as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential threat.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did the engagement by individuals in leisure pursuits such as matchbox collecting signify a rejection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life in favour of the private niche? This sort of conclusion is favoured by totalitarianism theory, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(von Richthofen repudiates it. She maintains that choice was not restricted to that of withdrawing into niches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the one hand, and bowing one?s head obediently to the dictatorship, accepting its manipulation of one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desires, on the other. Those who posit this dichotomy ignore the simple fact that ?organised cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in the GDR satisfied people?s personal interests? \(p. 96\). And while the SED aspired to deploy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cultural mass work? to oversee citizens? free time, it could never fully succeed. Cultural life in the GDR, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she insists \(p. 13\) ?was not a homogeneous, state-controlled affair?. Ordinary citizens were able to exert a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable influence upon policy, especially during the 1960s and 1970s, during which decades the SED )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was obliged to moderate its attempts to fit popular cultural practices into its ideological mould, and instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adapted its aspirations to popular culture. A case in point is rock music \(mentioned above, and in von )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richthofen, p. 103\). Another is the celebration of carnival \(p. 183\). Whereas in the 1950s, carnival was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as a degenerate remnant of Germany?s bourgeois past, by the 1970s a turnaround had occurred. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then the state, recognising the popularity of carnival, had set up carnival clubs in order to channel revellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into circles organised by itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordinary people, von Richthofen shows, were able to play the system. When they engaged in state-organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural activities the chief motivation was their own ?personal cultural inclination? \(p. 105\). Keen to realise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their desires, they were prepared to integrate into regime structures, and this included negotiating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperating with lower- and middle-level functionaries. But \(p. 147\) this was not necessarily a sign of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty to the regime; it could betoken nothing more than the pursuit of a personal agenda. They would pay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lip service to the ruling ideology while pursuing their private agendas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The processes by which individuals and groups made their interests felt are the focus of some of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting passages in )] TJ ET BT 145.004 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bringing Culture to the Masses.)] TJ ET BT 298.676 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For example, in the 1970s workplace ?brigades? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were obliged to commit to ?cultural plans?. A typical strategy \(p. 129\) was to favour ?lowbrow? activities ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as trips to the countryside with colleagues and family members, sporting weekends, festive events with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(music and alcohol, or card-playing ? but to include highbrow activity, such as a trip to the theatre, in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(win official approval of the plan. In some cases, where functionaries let them down, workers were confident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to register vociferous and robust complaints \(e.g. p. 132\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Playing a role in all of these stories were lower- and/or middle-level functionaries. They are the central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors in von Richthofen?s book. She does not see their role as particularly crucial in the early 1950s, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repressive techniques of rule loomed particularly large, to which citizens responded with withdrawal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration. In the subsequent 20 years, however, relations between rulers and ruled became more complex, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiated and flexible, with dialogue and communication between ordinary people and middle-level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural functionaries gaining in importance \(p. 17\). The role of the functionaries was to ensure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in cultural activity was enabled for culturally active people, but simultaneously that cultural life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(functioned without presenting a serious challenge to the supremacy of the SED. Many showed an ability to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8383 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise, to adapt their tactics in order to enable cultural policy to engage more closely with the interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of citizens. Not all of them, by any means, functioned as obedient cogs within the state machine, and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were quite stroppy towards their superordinates. They were not, von Richthofen insists, ?simply regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(puppets? \(p. 72\), and many of them ?tried to circumvent the ?political-ideological? content of the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities they organised? \(p. 77\) in order to avoid alienating people. \(Others were only reluctantly prepared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to tolerate concessions to the populace ? as for example one SED regional official who complained about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working with the FDJ, an organisation which seemed only to be concerned with organising dance events \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(138\).\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of the documentary evidence that von Richthofen has marshalled is relevant and interesting. But, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to me, she has been too indulgent towards her materials. There is an abundance of trivial detail; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories that occupy much space while shedding little light. By way of illustration, consider the tale of a Karl-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx-Stadt stamp collector, who requested assistance from the state in retrieving some money that he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rashly lent to a fellow philatelist. The point of the story is that the functionaries involved were less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overjoyed at receiving this request. Is this even noteworthy, let alone remarkable? Functionaries expressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impatience at a trivial request? Does this tell us anything at all about the GDR?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there is worse. The platitudinous nature of some of the empirical evidence is coupled with a banality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. For example, following a discussion of a workers? cultural plan, in which they insisted that time be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allocated to card games \(skat\), the author concludes that, ?In terms of its celebration of playing skat and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialising, this highlights the fact that there was some continuity between the middle and the later period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the GDR? \(p. 198\). Elsewhere we learn that the ?Biermann affair? of 1976 \(in which the dissident chanteur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolf Biermann was expatriated\) ?showed that the broadening of the cultural structures [of the 1960s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s] had not brought with it unending levels of tolerance? \(p. 184\). \(Really?!\) And in the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion the reader learns that ?As a result of the prevalent [)] TJ ET BT 334.268 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sic)] TJ ET BT 347.600 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] position of functionaries, it is not useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to divide the GDR into ?state? and ?society? and to characterise these as dichotomous entities that existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either in isolation or in juxtaposition with one another? \(p. 216\). At other times the author is prone to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggeration, as in the assertion that in East Germany ?a great deal of freedom was infused into young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people?s cultural lives? \(p. 160\). These instances of flat-footed, clunky, or ill-considered analysis are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptions; there are too many of them, and they detract from a book that in other respects reads well, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could become a standard reference for scholars researching the ?mass-cultural? policy of the SED.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Per Ketman, )] TJ ET BT 127.004 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anders Reisen DDR)] TJ ET BT 223.652 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hamburg, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 312.968 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 312.968 306.387 m 366.956 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Fulbrook, )] TJ ET BT 143.012 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anatomy of a Dictatorship: Inside the GDR, 1949?1989)] TJ ET BT 412.328 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1995\), p. 164. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.976 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.976 292.131 m 557.636 292.131 l S BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 277.875 m 90.344 277.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toby Thacker, ?The fifth column: dance music in the early GDR? in )] TJ ET BT 396.284 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Workers and Peasants State: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Communism and Society in East Germany, 1945?71)] TJ ET BT 314.996 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Patrick Major and Jonathan Osmond )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2002\), pp. 227?43.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.316 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.316 235.107 m 274.304 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erich Loest, )] TJ ET BT 125.672 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Durch die Erde ein Riss : ein Lebenslauf)] TJ ET BT 321.320 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hamburg, 1981\), p. 265.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.636 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.636 220.851 m 503.624 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stefan Wolle, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die heile Welt der Diktatur)] TJ ET BT 264.320 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berlin, 1998\), p. 230.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 374.312 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.312 206.595 m 428.300 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heinz Brandt, )] TJ ET BT 134.336 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Search for a Third Way)] TJ ET BT 268.664 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Munich, 1970\), p. 269.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.988 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.988 192.339 m 442.976 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 167.477 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/516/1286.short)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 137.571 m 322.340 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 325.340 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 109.059 m 240.992 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 105.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 87.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 87.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/902)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 86.553 m 322.316 86.553 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.576 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 312.9677 306.7015 366.9557 318.5815 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.9757 292.4455 557.6357 304.3255 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 278.1895 90.3437 290.0695 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.3157 235.4215 274.3037 247.3015 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.6357 221.1655 503.6237 233.0455 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 374.3117 206.9095 428.2997 218.7895 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.9877 192.6535 442.9757 204.5335 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 137.8855 322.3397 149.7655 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/516/1286.short) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 109.3735 240.9917 121.2535 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=25805) >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 86.8675 322.3157 98.7475 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/902) >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 59 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 357 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4698)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://ehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/CXXV/516/1286.short)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=25805)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 60 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000590 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000004759 00000 n 0000004868 00000 n 0000004978 00000 n 0000005087 00000 n 0000008648 00000 n 0000008776 00000 n 0000008860 00000 n 0000008979 00000 n 0000017766 00000 n 0000017796 00000 n 0000017924 00000 n 0000017960 00000 n 0000017990 00000 n 0000018118 00000 n 0000018154 00000 n 0000018184 00000 n 0000018312 00000 n 0000018348 00000 n 0000018378 00000 n 0000018506 00000 n 0000018542 00000 n 0000018572 00000 n 0000018700 00000 n 0000018736 00000 n 0000018766 00000 n 0000018894 00000 n 0000018930 00000 n 0000018995 00000 n 0000026339 00000 n 0000026486 00000 n 0000034922 00000 n 0000035050 00000 n 0000035105 00000 n 0000035233 00000 n 0000035288 00000 n 0000035414 00000 n 0000035469 00000 n 0000035597 00000 n 0000035652 00000 n 0000035780 00000 n 0000035835 00000 n 0000035963 00000 n 0000036018 00000 n 0000036146 00000 n 0000036182 00000 n 0000036309 00000 n 0000036418 00000 n 0000036545 00000 n 0000036646 00000 n 0000036772 00000 n 0000036867 00000 n 0000036932 00000 n trailer << /Size 60 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37341 %%EOF