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Newman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781860774799)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.49)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillimore & Co)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antonia Catchpole)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Clark)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Peberdy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781860774881)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.49)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillimore & Co)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madge Dresser)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Fleming)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781860774775)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.509 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.997 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.49)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.485 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillimore & Co)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.461 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.949 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Chandler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 126.437 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781860774416)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.925 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2007)] TJ ET BT 34.016 69.413 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 55.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.49)] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.901 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5937 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In February 2005 the Heritage Lottery Fund awarded over 3 million to the Victoria County History \(VCH\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the high priest of England?s local history ? to establish an ambitious new local history project, England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Past for Everyone \(EPE\). The project had some impressive targets: it had to commission, research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce 15 new local histories, and the new histories were to come in several different formats. The books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would take the authoritative research tradition of the venerable large red VCH volumes but package it in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more accessible and contemporary format ? paperback, well illustrated and with more focussed subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas. There would also be resources for local schools in the ten areas covered, as well as online publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what might be termed a research archive for future investigators. And \(as if the aims were not high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough already\) the books were all to be written by a combination of professional or academic researchers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading teams of local volunteer researchers. And did I mention that all this was to be done in five years?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As I write this at the beginning of 2010, 13 of the 15 books have been published \(with two more appearing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the next couple of months\) and it is clear that the VCH and EPE have performed an extraordinary feat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical research and publication. The books are lovingly produced, well written and beautifully illustrated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with every volume retailing for an extremely good value 14.99.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us look now in more detail at these new EPE books. Three volumes are detailed histories of largely rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes ? a genre that is in some ways the bread and butter of English local history and an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component of the red VCH volumes ? )] TJ ET BT 219.656 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall and the Coast: Mousehole and Newlyn)] TJ ET BT 454.328 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Joanna )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mattingly, )] TJ ET BT 87.356 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Codford: Wool and War in Wiltshire)] TJ ET BT 263.696 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by John Chandler, and )] TJ ET BT 377.684 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exmoor: the Making of an English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Upland)] TJ ET BT 70.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Mary Siraut. )] TJ ET BT 151.676 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall and the Coast)] TJ ET BT 266.696 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( tells the story of the parish of Paul, almost at the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western tip of Britain, just beyond Penzance. Its two main settlements, Mousehole and Newlyn, were remote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fishing villages: isolated communities in terms of the Cornish landscape and road network but linked to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside world by that great Cornish highway, the sea. A good part of their economy was based on some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular annual visitors to their shores ? the shoals of pilchard who generally came in late summer or autumn. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Mattingly tells us fascinating detail on the working lives of the fishermen out at sea with their seine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nets and the fishwomen and girls who helped bring the catch in and who carried out most of the processing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks. In covered courtyards or in cellars below houses, the women stacked alternating layers of fish and salt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to form chest-high walls of fish, which were packed into barrels a month later. This story is based on careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of a range of sources ? a hallmark of this EPE series ? including research in the archives of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall Record Office and elsewhere, and on architectural surveys of the towns? traditional buildings. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(192pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillimore & Co)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jayne Kirk)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781860774850)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.49)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillimore & Co)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nick Holder)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8322 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book also has important contributions by Matthew Spriggs and Oliver Padel who present new research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the Cornish language, which managed to hang on in this enclosed community as late as the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall)] TJ ET BT 101.024 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( volume has some aspects in common with the )] TJ ET BT 327.344 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exmoor)] TJ ET BT 365.336 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book: for most of the past the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabitants of both areas struggled with a tough and isolated landscape but in the 20th and 21st centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(railways and cars have somehow softened that landscape, opening it up to visitors from all over England. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas fishing and sheep farming were, respectively, the principal employment sectors, both regions now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely on tourism. Mary Siraut?s book examines the long history of Exmoor \(which straddles the counties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devon and Somerset\), explaining its unusual status when it was subject to medieval forest law \(the Assize of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Forest\), with all the resulting tensions between the protection of the royal hunting areas and the common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights of tenants such as grazing, land clearance and fuel collection. Siraut is particularly good at the details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of medieval and early modern rural life, showing how tenants were not just sheep farmers but instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked with the land practising a mixed pastoral and arable economy, keeping cattle and ponies in addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sheep, and growing corn, rye and oats where the land was good enough \(in rotation with grass even on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better land\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheep also feature prominently in the )] TJ ET BT 216.656 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Codford)] TJ ET BT 256.664 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book but in this part of Wiltshire the indigenous breed was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Wiltshire Horn or ?Horned Crock?, a large sheep with attractive spiral horns but a poor fleece and low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meat quality. Why then were so many kept in this part of the Wylye valley? Put simply, they functioned as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efficient muck spreaders, their dung fertilising the arable fields before sowing and thus transferring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutrients from the grass of the higher downlands to the lower valleys. The medieval open field system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely survived in the two Codford parishes until the 19th century and the strips of the huge open fields can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore be traced on an 18th-century estate map and the enclosure maps of the 19th century, a final glimpse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that long-lived arable system before its demise. This reader is forced to admit that, on occasion, dark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts anathematical to the pure local historian entered my mind: did enough actually )] TJ ET BT 458.972 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(happen)] TJ ET BT 494.300 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in Codford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to warrant nearly 200 pages of history?! Fortunately, John Chandler?s approach remedies this by using the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local history as a springboard to wider themes, in the form of numerous ?panels? \(elsewhere often called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?text boxes?\) that examine Domesday Book \(his observation that it is essentially a spreadsheet is particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incisive\), ?floated? water meadows \(a 17th-century innovation that enhanced the quality of water meadow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pasture by controlled winter flooding\) and the military landscape of the Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are three stories of that other mainstay of English local history, the market town ? )] TJ ET BT 459.608 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burford: Buildings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and People in a Cotswold Town)] TJ ET BT 187.700 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Antonia Catchpole, David Clark and Robert Peberdy, )] TJ ET BT 465.332 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henley-on-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thames: Town, Trade and River)] TJ ET BT 189.680 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Simon Townley, and a two-volume study of Ledbury by Sylvia Pinches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ledbury: a Market Town and its Tudor Heritage )] TJ ET BT 270.680 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 288.008 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Ledbury: People and Parish before the Reformation)] TJ ET BT 541.652 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burford)] TJ ET BT 93.680 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book is perhaps the most impressive of the three. It features a superb analysis of the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the town using documentary sources, historic maps and observation ?in the field? to put forward a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of the town?s expansion. The authors \(primarily Catchpole for this chapter\) map the possible Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(burh)] TJ ET BT 56.684 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by the church and river crossing, and go on to chart in greater detail the layout of the planned medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town of )] TJ ET BT 74.012 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(c)] TJ ET BT 79.340 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1100 ? probably founded by the Norman lord, Robert fitzHamon ? with its wide market street and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its regular burgage plots each with a street frontage of 1 perches \(7.5m\). Once again in this series, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the locality is closely connected to sheep: the town?s burgesses created wealth first by selling and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exporting wool via Southampton and later by processing this wool themselves into semi-finished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcloths. One of the great strengths of this book \(and, indeed, of the whole series\) is the way that new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural analysis of the surviving buildings is woven into the narrative. The authors \(primarily David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark and his team of volunteers for this aspect of the book\) show that the town had two great periods of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building prosperity: the second half of the 15th century and the first half of the 17th century. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that two traditions of vernacular architecture co-existed quite happily: timber framing using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local oak from Wychwood Forest and masonry building in good quality limestone from the nearby quarry of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taynton. Unusually in this EPE series, the book also functions as a guidebook to the town since it has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed gazetteer of buildings, enabling one to walk down the historic streets and understand the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses and shops. One striking revelation of the book is the way that the appearance of this classic Cotswold )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8142 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market town is to a large extent a creation not of the 15th or 17th century but of the early 20th century. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors show how the Arts and Crafts movement inspired owners and local government officers to recreate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-industrial past, putting back ?correct? features such as mullioned windows and hood mouldings over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doorways, as well as ?improving? the timber-framed houses by blacking the timbers and whiting the wattle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and-daub panels. It would be an exaggeration to call the result a pastiche but it is an interesting lesson in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how heritage is created and packaged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader will not, by now, be surprised to learn in Sylvia Pinches? books on )] TJ ET BT 412.304 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ledbury)] TJ ET BT 452.300 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this Herefordshire market town also derived in good part from the local sheep. Ledbury, like Burford, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospered in the medieval and early modern period in large part thanks to the efforts of its merchant class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who purchased wool and converted it into woollen cloth. One of the strengths of these books, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the author makes extensive use of documentary sources to move beyond this accepted fact. In the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ledbury )] TJ ET BT 77.012 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume Pinches uses a 13th-century document known as the Red Book, which gives details of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bishop?s rented properties in the town, and which is laid out \(rather handily for the modern historian\) street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by street. In the second )] TJ ET BT 147.992 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ledbury )] TJ ET BT 190.988 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume Pinches uses a series of ?Easter books? kept by the parish for about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ten years either side of 1600, which list all the householders of the parish as well as others who made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(donations to the vicar at Easter. Once again, the donors are recorded by street, and this time in a sequence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is repeated each year: it is therefore possible to correlate names of the townsfolk with their status, craft )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and approximate address for a period of ten years. Using this data, Pinches shows that existing burgage plots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were subdivided at this time in order to house an expanding population. She also proves that while the cloth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade may have been the most important in terms of wealth creation, the leather trades were more significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of employment. The research that contributed to these books includes a fascinating community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeology project that saw dozens of local volunteers digging archaeological trial pits in their gardens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recording both the layers of earth and the artefacts they excavated. Both )] TJ ET BT 382.256 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ledbury )] TJ ET BT 425.252 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books feature an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strand of building analysis although this is more effectively presented in the first volume dealing with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval town than in the second book on the early modern town. The lesson of the )] TJ ET BT 439.628 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burford)] TJ ET BT 477.632 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book shows us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is important to )] TJ ET BT 137.696 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(test)] TJ ET BT 154.364 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( assumptions about the dating of vernacular buildings: I suspect that the town?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern timber-framed buildings might have a wider date-range than the late 16th- and early 17th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century date assumed by the author \(dendrochronological dating is referred to in passing in the second book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but there does not seem to have been a detailed study\). Furthermore, the author does not adequately address )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that the black and white appearance of the town today is clearly the result of Victorian and Arts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crafts ?improvements? of the timber-framed buildings: some early photographs and paintings in the books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show unimproved timber buildings covered with render or whitewash and it seems likely that the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of the town was rather more shades of cream and grey than the black-and-white picture postcard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearance of today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Townley?s book on )] TJ ET BT 166.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henley-on-Thames)] TJ ET BT 257.324 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( manages to combine some of the best features of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(town books just discussed, incorporating both good architectural analysis and a detailed investigation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary sources. The town had the good fortune to have transport links to the largest consumer market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in medieval and early modern England, London. Indeed, this transport link is celebrated in the very name of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the town. Thanks to its situation on the river Thames at the highest point at which the river was consistently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and easily navigable \(at least until improvements upstream in the 17th century\), Henley became an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans-shipment market, with its merchants receiving goods such as grain and firewood by land transport and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loading them onto the flat-bottomed medieval sailing ?shouts? and their larger 17th-century successor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as western barges. For a while the river declined in importance for the town as turnpike roads were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built but it has once again come to the fore thanks to the creation of the famous regatta in 1829, the setting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the first Oxford and Cambridge boat race. The story told in this book is enhanced by the original research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of contributors such as Robert Peberdy, who has studied the economy of the medieval town, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural historians Ruth Gibson and Geoffrey Tyack who examine three groups of the town?s buildings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(medieval, early modern and Georgian\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Architecture, landscape and people are studied in interesting ways in the three volumes dealing with historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses, their families and estates. Jayne Kirk?s book is on a Sussex house ? )] TJ ET BT 399.968 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parham: an Elizabethan House )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and its Restoration)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 8349 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and two books \(jointly authored by Philip Riden and Dudley Fowkes\) examine )] TJ ET BT 423.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbouring Derbyshire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country houses, )] TJ ET BT 112.340 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hardwick: a Great House and its Estate)] TJ ET BT 305.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 328.988 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolsover: Castle, Town and Colliery)] TJ ET BT 505.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hardwick Hall is, famously, the house built by Bess of Hardwick who prominently recorded her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architectural creation by having giant initials ?E S? set into the parapet \(for Elizabeth, dowager countess of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shrewsbury\). Riden and Fowkes? book is in fact something of a ?masculinist? rewriting of the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house, playing down the role of the legendary Bess \(and reminding us that Mary Queen of Scots never slept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there\) and instead emphasising the part played by her second son William Cavendish, who later bought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title of earl of Devonshire. The authors also note the role of Bess? second husband William Cavendish senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(father of the later earl\) who worked his way up the civil service, helping Thomas Cromwell with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissolution of the monasteries and later working directly for Henry VIII as treasurer of the Chamber, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(senior financial role. The Hardwick book does not set out to be a revolutionary new architectural study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house itself \(Mark Girouard?s work is probably definitive\) but it is a very good summary of the construction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decoration and evolution of the house. Of course, it would be more accurate to talk of plural )] TJ ET BT 478.928 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(houses)] TJ ET BT 511.592 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bess and her son first dramatically enlarged the existing hall in the 1580s before engaging Robert Smythson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to build the new Hardwick Hall a hundred yards away in the 1590s. Rather than seeing the new hall as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacement for the old one, the authors suggest that it is better to think of them as detached wings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightly different date, with the two )] TJ ET BT 206.336 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(together)] TJ ET BT 246.332 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( providing the scale and grandeur that the socially rising family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required. Significantly, this book contains new documentary analysis of the house and estate in the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, using materials such as receivers? accounts preserved in the Duke of Devonshire?s archive, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going on to examine the estate ? including the coal industry ? in the 19th and 20th centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Riden and Fowkes? other book, )] TJ ET BT 189.332 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolsover)] TJ ET BT 231.992 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, seems to tread a similar path to )] TJ ET BT 390.308 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hardwick)] TJ ET BT 437.636 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: it tells the story of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great house built by the architect Robert Smythson for the son of Bess of Hardwick. However, Bolsover )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castle is a slightly later Jacobean mansion and it was built not for Bess? ennobled son William but her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youngest son Sir Charles Cavendish. The work was carried out between the 1610s and the 1630s and passed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through two generations, with the architect John Smithson taking over from his father Robert and a young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Cavendish inheriting the property from his father Charles. The authors see the new castle as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobean vision of medieval life: vaulted ceilings and pillars, giant hooded fireplaces, battlements and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chivalric art. This new ?medieval? vision also allowed space for Classical decoration including a stunning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painted ceiling showing Christ?s ascent into heaven. With a large service wing detached from the castle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?keep?, including a spectacular ?riding house? with a viewing gallery to watch equestrian displays, the house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a ?palace for pleasure? designed as an entertainment retreat for the family and its guests \(the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family residence was six miles away at Welbeck\). This book differs from )] TJ ET BT 388.940 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hardwick )] TJ ET BT 439.268 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that it has a lot more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed discussion of ?before? and ?after? the country house. The investigation of the medieval castle is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly impressive given that virtually no trace of it survived the creation of the 17th-century house and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the authors utilise an extensive range of sources to get closer to the vanished 11th-century fortification, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to trace the history of the small and relatively unsuccessful medieval planned town and its hinterland. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final part of the book examines the short but important chapter in the area?s history ? the arrival of deep coal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mining in the 1870s, the industry?s links with the railways and the role of the \(relatively\) enlightened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalism of Emerson Bainbridge, founder of the Bolsover Colliery Company and a lessee of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cavendish?s aristocratic successors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third country house book examines Parham in Sussex. Jayne Kirk skilfully uses the evidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building itself as well as the estate?s own archive, deposited in West Sussex Record Office and catalogued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by volunteers in this EPE project. She describes the evolution of the Elizabethan house from its construction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning in 1578, for the local gentry family the Palmers. There is a good discussion of the materials used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the house: predominantly local sandstone called Amberley blue and home-grown timber from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palmers? own estate. The design of the house \(by an unknown architect-builder\) was a broadly symmetrical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two-winged ?H? form and Kirk makes the useful point that the architecture of the period was moving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the traditional medieval and Tudor fashions that had divided a house into a ?high? end for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owners and a ?low? end for the servants. The book goes on to chart internal improvements in the early 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century by the Bisshops and some more dramatic changes by the same family in the 18th century. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th century the fashion was beginning to turn towards restoration rather than improvement and so the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architect Anthony Salvin began to dismantle some of the house?s later accretions, removing sash windows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and replacing them with stone mullions. The chapter dealing with the 20th-century owners the Pearsons is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important one because it details the extensive restoration of the house by the architect Victor Heal. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably long-running association lasting from the 1920s to the 1970s, Heal and the Pearsons attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn the clock back to the late 16th century. However, in the opinion of this reviewer the focus on Victor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Heal has created a structural problem in the book. It is quite understandable that in trying to understand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan house Jayne Kirk has had to go through Heal as a ?mediator?, given his meticulous recording of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the restoration campaign. However, for the reader it can be somewhat confusing to read the account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layout and decoration of the Elizabethan house and be repeatedly told ?this is what Heal believed the house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was like; he is partly correct and partly incorrect?. The problem is exacerbated by the use of Heal?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructed plans to illustrate the Elizabethan house: firstly the plans do not seem to reproduce that well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and secondly the captions often have caveats along the lines of ?by the way, we now know that this tower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not actually been built at this time!? It seems a shame that the author did not have more confidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her own analysis of the house and feel able to put Heal?s views to one side. Some newly drawn floor plans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the house \(in addition to the plan of the lower floor\) would also have helped the reader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The later emphasis on the coal industry in the books on )] TJ ET BT 302.324 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hardwick )] TJ ET BT 352.652 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 372.980 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolsover)] TJ ET BT 415.640 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( leads us onto three books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a definite industrial focus ? )] TJ ET BT 191.996 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Medway Valley: a Kent Landscape Transformed)] TJ ET BT 445.976 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by Andrew Hann, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a two-parter on Sunderland, )] TJ ET BT 170.984 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland and its Origins: Monks to Mariners)] TJ ET BT 400.316 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Maureen Meikle and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Newman, and )] TJ ET BT 150.668 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland: Building a City)] TJ ET BT 286.340 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Gillian Cookson.. The volume on )] TJ ET BT 468.008 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Medway )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Valley)] TJ ET BT 64.676 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has, for this series, quite a tight chronological focus ? essentially the 19th century. At the beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the century the agrarian economy of the valley was predominantly based on wheat and barley lower down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the valley with sheep and woodland higher up the slopes. The century saw the rapid industrialisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area, thanks to its close water transport links to the capital \(down the river Medway, turn left for London\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the manufacture of bricks and cement to feed the insatiable London house-building industry. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time, agriculture became more horticultural, with a particular emphasis on hops. Andrew Hann )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes that Kent?s reputation as the ?garden of England? is to a large extent based on what visitors saw \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chose to remember\) from the roads and railways, and perhaps what migrant workers came here to do \(it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly a more poetic evocation of the county than the ?cement works of the Southeast?!\). Hann?s work is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly good on the social effects of industrialisation ? the economic fragility of life for many local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people as they worked seasonally in agriculture in winter, bricks in spring and summer, horticulture in late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer and autumn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two volumes on )] TJ ET BT 135.344 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland )] TJ ET BT 193.676 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at first sight)] TJ ET BT 254.012 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form a natural counterpart to )] TJ ET BT 394.976 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medway)] TJ ET BT 435.632 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: the reader naturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expects a classic story of the northern industrial revolution. In fact, the remarkable first )] TJ ET BT 455.264 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland )] TJ ET BT 513.596 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covers early English monasticism, an ordinary medieval rural economy, the ?accidental? birth of the coal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry in the 16th century and the Civil War, before getting onto the fully industrial chapter in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland?s history that is the subject of the second volume. The opening chapters of the first book are a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating account of the 7th-century monastery at Wearmouth, its well-travelled aristocratic founder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benedict Biscop, the prior and abbot Ceolfrith and of course its most famous scholar Bede. The book has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contributions by the early medieval historian Alan Thacker and the archaeologist Rosemary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cramp \(who excavated the Wearmouth site\) and presents the most up-to-date interpretation of the evolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the monastery. As one has come to expect from this series, the authors ably combine evidence culled from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents, standing buildings \(quite remarkably, part of the monastic church is preserved in the west end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(St Peter?s Monkwearmouth\) and archaeological excavation. The monastery ? probably abandoned as a result )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Viking Raids and refounded on a smaller scale in the 11th century ? ended up as a minor cell of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cathedral-priory of Durham, with the bishop as the feudal overlord of the whole region. In the 1580s, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bowes family who were both merchants and local officials \(under the bishop of Durham who remained the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manorial lord after the Reformation\) established a salt-making industry. It was this industry ? relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short-lived as it turned out ? that provided the impetus for the development of coalmining further up the river )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wear in order to provide fuel for salt evaporation. Gillian Cookson takes up the tale in the second )] TJ ET BT 505.604 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, charting the rise of the town?s shipbuilding and coal industries to their peak in the 20th century. )] TJ ET BT 539.300 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus of the book moves beyond the industries themselves and examines the efforts of the town to develop )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 8141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its infrastructure including the dramatic new iron bridge over the Wear built in 1796 and a more or less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous programme of harbour improvement works lasting nearly two centuries. Cookson takes us up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the 20th century, charting serious losses such as the closure of the last shipyard in 1988 as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gains including the opening of the Nissan car plant in 1986 and the granting of City status in 1992.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last two books reviewed here are two of the most unusual in the series but also two of the best. Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orme?s )] TJ ET BT 74.336 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall)] TJ ET BT 119.684 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( and the Cross: Christianity 500?1560)] TJ ET BT 304.700 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the only county-wide local history in the EPE )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series. It is also more of a conventional history, written by a leading medieval scholar using his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive research over many years. It is also more closely linked than the other EPE books to one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victoria County History volumes, )] TJ ET BT 200.348 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall, Volume 2, Religious History to 1559)] TJ ET BT 427.028 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which is due to appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later in 2010. )] TJ ET BT 100.676 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall and the Cross)] TJ ET BT 215.696 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is superb work, describing and analysing a millennium of Cornish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism, from its beginnings ? only really glimpsed at through the later stories of the early Cornish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saints ? through to its near extinction during the Reformation. In the first chapter Orme places a steady hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the tiller and guides the reader carefully through the muddied waters of ?Celtic Christianity?. In fact, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he shows, there probably was no such thing and the term ?Celtic? is not really that useful, except as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistic term to describe a group of languages \(with Cornish being a Brittonic Celtic language\). One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for historians is that the most useful written accounts ? the early saints? ?Lives? ? are just not that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early. Orme argues that the most important document is that of the 6th-century St Samson but even this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Life? was written nearly two centuries after his death. Later chapters of Orme?s book contain very clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and stimulating accounts of medieval religious life in the county. There is interesting analysis, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the unusual types of monastic house established in the county: there were no proper Benedictine )] TJ ET BT 511.940 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(abbeys)] TJ ET BT 545.264 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although there were a number of smaller cells and priories \(including St Michael?s Mount\), all of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependent on Benedictine houses elsewhere in England or in France. Although this reviewer would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred a little more discussion of archaeological evidence, particularly in the chapter on the early middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ages, the book is very impressive in many respects, not least of which is the author?s success in writing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book on Cornwall using documentary sources dealing with the whole diocese of Exeter. One of the strengths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book is the way that we are escorted back into a very different spiritual landscape by the narrator?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voice. At the beginning of a chapter on popular religion \(religion as experienced by the people rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administered by the clergy\), the author tells us:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everyone in England during the later Middle Ages made a journey on the day of their birth. They were taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their mother?s breast by the midwife and their family, and carried to the parish church to be named and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(baptised. Like it or not, they joined the Church at birth, and they were expected to support it [...] for the rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bristol: Ethnic Minorities and the City, 1000?2001)] TJ ET BT 279.692 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a fascinating book written by Madge Dresser and Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming, with several other contributors including many Bristolians who shared their memories and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recollections of 20th-century life in the city, and others who shared their family history research. Unusually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a local history this book examines a locality from a quite new perspective, describing the place as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced and shaped by outsiders and incomers. The book is thus one of EPE?s most popular histories, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the emphasis returned to the )] TJ ET BT 196.664 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(people)] TJ ET BT 228.656 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the past \(and present\), as opposed to the )] TJ ET BT 439.616 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(place)] TJ ET BT 465.608 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened. The story is told chronologically, with individual chapters or sections for many of the ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities who have settled in Bristol, beginning with an expertly written chapter on Bristol?s medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewry or Jewish quarter \(not the same as a ghetto\). In spite of the mass expulsion of 1290, Bristol Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reappear later in the story, including a small group in the 16th century, one of whom, Joachim Gaunse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught Hebrew and accompanied Sir Walter Raleigh to Virginia. Another long running thread in Bristol?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is the story of its Black communities. Bristol was, of course, heavily involved in the slave trade from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 17th to the 19th century but research for this book makes clear that the human cargo of the ?triangular? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade was remarkably invisible in this city. There were only a few freed slaves in Bristol during this time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with some Black workers and sailors, and occasional sons of African merchants who came to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bristol for work experience. Later chapters in the book draw on different sources including police records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and oral testimony to chart Black experience in the second half of the 20th century, painting a complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully nuanced picture of successes and failures, adaptation and independence. Black experience is also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 8679 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charted through poetry, including the great Linton Kwesi Johnson \(although this reviewer has always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought of Johnson as a Londoner rather than a Bristolian\). The wide coverage of the book ? it looks at many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other community groups including Irish, Welsh, Huguenot, Somali, South Asian ? is certainly one of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengths but it might also highlight a problem, that of identity. The opening and concluding chapters do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contain careful discussions of terminology and identity but the inevitable labelling and pigeon-holing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?communities? tends to create an exaggerated sense of community homogeneity. What the book perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacks is a sense of personal identity as a Venn diagram defined by overlapping concepts of ethnicity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and class, or birthplace, religion and nation \(not to mention gender and sexual orientation\). A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular strength of the book is in the concluding chapter, in which the authors take a ?long view? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city and its communities. Among many other insights, the authors define a theory of the economic strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an ethnic community: in general, the economic success of a group depends on the ?skills and capital? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including the ability to exploit international networks\) that a group can bring to the receiving economy, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they note that this success is always subject to the luck of the economic wheel of fortune \(the ethnic majority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is more likely to accept the minority when they are perceived to be economically useful\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers who have made it this far in the review will be in no doubt as to the reviewer?s high regard for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EPE series. Like the best local history, the series narrates and yet subtly alters our national history. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history has of course a long chronology and a number of the books do justice to that timespan. Local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories often try to deal with prehistory but the results generally seem a little false: ?a few bits of flint have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been found in the area and so we can say that the village/parish/area of [fill in the blank] has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuously occupied for many thousands of years?. Instead, the )] TJ ET BT 350.960 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exmoor)] TJ ET BT 388.952 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( volume in this series expertly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings prehistory into local history by weaving a narrative that reaches from the Neolithic into the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle ages, allowing for gaps in our knowledge by the judicious use of question marks. As we have seen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the volumes present new and extremely well researched accounts of aspects of medieval and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern England such as the church \()] TJ ET BT 211.976 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland, Ledbury )] TJ ET BT 316.304 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 336.632 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall and the Cross)] TJ ET BT 451.652 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) or the development )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of towns \()] TJ ET BT 82.676 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burford)] TJ ET BT 120.680 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 126.680 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolsover)] TJ ET BT 169.340 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 175.340 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henley)] TJ ET BT 209.324 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and several others\). Other books present new discoveries about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people of medieval England, including unexpected discoveries such as Icelandic child slaves \()] TJ ET BT 486.260 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bristol)] TJ ET BT 518.936 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 14th-century cleric Ralph Tremur who came to London spreading heresy ? a generation before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lollards ? and stealing communion wafers \()] TJ ET BT 245.312 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cornwall and the Cross)] TJ ET BT 360.332 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The dissolution of the monasteries in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 16th century crops up again and again as both an end and a beginning, changing England?s power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures and creating new land-owning classes \(the two)] TJ ET BT 308.288 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Cornwall )] TJ ET BT 359.636 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books, )] TJ ET BT 394.304 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parham)] TJ ET BT 432.968 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 438.968 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hardwick)] TJ ET BT 486.296 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 492.296 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolsover)] TJ ET BT 534.956 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moving forward in time, there are several good accounts of Civil War battles and skirmishes \()] TJ ET BT 485.936 356.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland)] TJ ET BT 541.268 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular but also )] TJ ET BT 123.668 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ledbury)] TJ ET BT 163.664 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 186.992 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burford)] TJ ET BT 224.996 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). There is also a strong sense in most of these EPE volumes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity of England?s long rural past: the landowners and the labourers, and of course the sheep and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open fields. We get a sense of the North?South divide in the different experiences of the industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, with the former defined perhaps by coal \()] TJ ET BT 288.296 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunderland)] TJ ET BT 343.628 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 349.628 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bolsover)] TJ ET BT 392.288 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 415.616 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hardwick)] TJ ET BT 462.944 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by agricultural improvements \()] TJ ET BT 221.984 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exmoor )] TJ ET BT 262.976 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 283.304 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Codford)] TJ ET BT 323.312 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) and the pull of London as a centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption and construction \()] TJ ET BT 185.672 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Henley )] TJ ET BT 222.656 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 242.984 271.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medway)] TJ ET BT 283.640 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Many of the books give a sense of the profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes of the 20th century, including the effects of two world wars \()] TJ ET BT 368.276 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Codford and Sunderland)] TJ ET BT 487.616 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in population \()] TJ ET BT 104.684 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bristol)] TJ ET BT 137.360 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) or the creation of ?heritage? \()] TJ ET BT 285.968 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burford)] TJ ET BT 323.972 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 347.300 242.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parham)] TJ ET BT 385.964 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Several books close with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent accounts of the present and pose stimulating questions for the future: just what are towns and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, the countryside for now we no longer seem to manufacture very much, or need many people to look )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the sheep or go out fishing?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 3367 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One final characteristic of these books deserves to be noted and celebrated: they look superb! Virtually every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book has a series of specially commissioned plans and maps that really help the reader make sense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text \(dare I say that this is often a weakness of local history and, indeed, national history books\). The quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the photography and the reprographics is consistently high throughout the series \(again, all too often, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many fine books are let down in this regard\). I would like to conclude by congratulating the many authors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributors and volunteers of this superb series, not forgetting the invisible collaborators behind the scenes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(editors, proof-readers, designers, cartographers, photographers and EPE office staff\) who have produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works of such quality. England?s Past for Everyone is a worthy addition to the VCH stable and a noble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor to previous generations of leading local historians such as Leland, Dugdale and Hoskins.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 625.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 607.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 607.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/904)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 606.009 m 322.316 606.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 581.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4721)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4722)] TJ ET BT 34.016 537.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4723)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4724)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.032 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4725)] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4726)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4735)] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4727)] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4728)] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.032 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4730)] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4731)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4732)] TJ ET BT 34.016 393.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4733)] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4734)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.032 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4729)] TJ ET BT 34.016 350.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 606.3235 322.3157 618.2035 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/904) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000399 00000 n 0000000436 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000003535 00000 n 0000003644 00000 n 0000003754 00000 n 0000003863 00000 n 0000007424 00000 n 0000007552 00000 n 0000007636 00000 n 0000007701 00000 n 0000010804 00000 n 0000010869 00000 n 0000013968 00000 n 0000014033 00000 n 0000017147 00000 n 0000017212 00000 n 0000023202 00000 n 0000023267 00000 n 0000031642 00000 n 0000031707 00000 n 0000039902 00000 n 0000039967 00000 n 0000048369 00000 n 0000048434 00000 n 0000057121 00000 n 0000057186 00000 n 0000065380 00000 n 0000065445 00000 n 0000074177 00000 n 0000074261 00000 n 0000077681 00000 n 0000077809 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 77904 %%EOF