%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725221143+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725221143+01'00') /Title (From Slavery to Poverty: The Racial Origins of Welfare in New York, 1840-1918) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4412 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(From Slavery to Poverty: The Racial Origins of Welfare in New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(York, 1840-1918)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the height of summer in August 1996, )] TJ ET BT 234.344 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Republic)] TJ ET BT 322.340 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( featured a front cover that depicted a young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African American woman smoking a cigarette while feeding her baby. The words ?Day of Reckoning? were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emblazoned in bold letters across the image, and the exhortation by the editors to ?Sign the Welfare Bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now? was prominently placed underneath the photograph. Less than two weeks later, President Bill Clinton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed signed the Republican-sponsored Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(PRWORA\) that changed dramatically the conditions of welfare support for poor, single-parent families in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and spelled the ?end of welfare as we know it.? The legislation terminated the 61-year-old federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee of cash assistance to families with dependent children and replaced it with far less generous state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based temporary assistance programs. It included a compulsory work provision, imposed a five-year lifetime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limit on welfare, ordered significant cuts to food stamp benefits, and banned many legal immigrants from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in federal benefit programs. The act also provided financial incentives to states to reduce out-of-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wedlock pregnancies, and funds to contract out social services to religious organizations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Clinton?s view the act was a historic opportunity to ?transform our broken welfare system by promoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fundamental values of work, responsibility and family?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.312 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.312 67.473 m 334.304 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 334.304 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the eyes of many critics, however, the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare law was the culmination of a long process of reclassifying poverty from a problem of socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(905)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunja SenGupta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780814740613)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(335pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axel Schfer)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.3117 67.7875 334.3037 79.6675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7162 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic inequality and the maldistribution of income to a problem of behavioral deviance, moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficiencies and cultural pathology. In doing so, it helped further racialize a raging welfare debate in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the black ?welfare queen? had become the symbol of all that was allegedly wrong with an overgenerous and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entitlement-based system of social provision.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunja SenGupta ends her book with a reference to the racialist dimensions of PRWORA, but her story has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its beginnings in a much earlier period. Seeking to uncover the origins of the racialized welfare discourse in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern American society, she has presented a book that deepens our understanding of the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between race and social policy. Her insightful study of an array of poor relief institutions and reform efforts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in New York City from the middle of the 19th century to the First World War shows convincingly how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare agencies became crucial places where race, ethnicity, gender and class identities were culturally and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically inscribed, but also negotiated and subverted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although she does slip into jargon at times, SenGupta never loses sight of the human dimension of welfare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether she discusses those in positions of power or recipients of institutionalized care and benefits in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions such as the New York House of Refuge, the Alms House Department?s facilities on Blackwell?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Island, and the Brooklyn Howard Colored Orphan Asylum. Her book offers a comprehensive analysis based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a perceptive and perspicacious reading of a wide selection of sources, including letters, scripts for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pantomimes, statistics, census data and biographies left behind by philanthropists and managers as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inmates and clients. Her case studies are assiduously researched and exhaustively documented. Though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently reliant upon sources that reflect white Protestant middle class perspectives, the combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials allows her to unearth underclass self-portraits and experiences, and affords her insights into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?elusive consciousness and lives of working poor New Yorkers? \(p. 19\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book provides a refreshing supplement to welfare state historians and social scientists who primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine the relationship between social reform and trans-personal factors, such as professionalization, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratization, the extension of state administrative capacities, and interest-group politics, and whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract conceptualization of welfare in some ways replicate the rationalistic mechanisms of subordination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they seek to unmask. SenGupta, in contrast, continues to listen to the people on the ground. In the process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she uncovers a plethora of ways in which poor relief institutions in New York offered opportunities for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?subaltern agency?. She describes how aid recipients devised imaginative ways of ?incorporating public \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(semipublic\) resources like alms houses, orphanages, prisons, and juvenile reformatories into their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsistence strategies? \(p. 10\). In the book, Irish mothers send their children temporarily to the workhouse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish workers seek voluntary imprisonment in search of medical attention, or willingly enter the workhouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(due to the vagaries of the labor market. Not only did this conscious use of the workhouse as a public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment agency for needy citizens question the image of the able-bodied loafer, it also showed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the Irish working class defined poor relief as a right of citizenship, rather than as charity. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a similar vein, SenGupta uncovers the extent to which African Americans used relief agencies as material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources for disciplining or educating truant children, obtaining medical assistance, and settling family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes in ways that shored up African American family and community structures.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, SenGupta recognizes that social policy is about norm enforcement and boundary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintenance, rather than poverty alleviation. Indeed, one of her main objectives is to uncover the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare in ?training Europeans to define their racial identities in relation to that of African-Americans? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20\) in a culture that sought to acculturate the European immigrant and colonize, segregate and exclude the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-American. In her view, the welfare discourse, being at the nexus of normative conceptions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader processes of urban and industrial transformation within liberal capitalist society, ?served as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shorthand for definitions of race and nation? \(p. 10\) which associated freedom with whiteness and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependency with blackness. Poor relief, she suggests, was an instrument of assimilating European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants into a ?herrenvolk democracy?. In this process, New York offers an apposite case study, since it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was both the largest slave state north of the Mason-Dixon line and the main recipient of European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While keenly aware of nuances, contradictions, hypocrisies and opportunities of welfare policy, the author )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7828 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees the hegemonic dimension of poor relief as part and parcel of the wide range of strategies employed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce white rule over the self-assertion of excluded groups. She links the welfare discourse to a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse in which whites used the language and principles of popular sovereignty, constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, egalitarianism, and natural rights to declare excluded groups unfit for self-government. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very same language employed to turn white Irish paupers into independent citizens was thus used to ascribe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lack moral agency, independence, reason and self-control to African Americans. Similar to Matthew Frye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobsen, SenGupta does not stop at maintaining that dominant groups simply perverted republicanism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert their own power and manage disruptions to the status quo.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 344.312 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 344.312 695.283 m 358.304 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.304 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, racial exclusion was part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deep structure of 19th-century democratic thought. The confluence of racialism and democracy, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of self-possession and republican virtue were formulated on the basis of preexisting conceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an African American ?other?, became a powerful narrative pillar upholding republican government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although her book covers three-quarters of a century, SenGupta engages most effectively with the racialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redefinition of social reform and policy in the Progressive Era. Her case studies reveal convincingly how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift from traditional charitable practices to the cost-benefit calculations of ?scientific charity? served the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying racialist aims. Statistics categorizing the Irish as ?white? in poverty policy documents legitimized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both their integration into the republican order and the further exclusion of African-Americans. Likewise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Progressive-era efforts to replace outdoor relief with institutionalization in alms houses and reformatories hit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African-Americans harder than European immigrants, since black traditions of self help were often more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliant on outdoor relief. Moreover, reformers used a rhetoric of incapacitation that couched racially-coded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provision and gender discriminations in the authoritative language of the social science professional. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Putatively scientific efforts to make relief measurable and calculable thus gave the legitimacy of objectivity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a racialized vision of the social order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SenGupta concludes that racialist concepts embedded in the modern welfare state had their origins in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of poor relief agencies. Following Jill Quadagno, she sees the politics of racism, rather than liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individualism, the weakness of the working class, or the agrarian roots of democratization, as the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impediment to the development of universal social coverage in the United States.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.968 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.968 414.675 m 437.960 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 437.960 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the racial divide embedded in the administrative organization and the normative content of social policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregated African-Americans disproportionally into the most discretionary, stingiest, and politically-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposed programs. In the segmented welfare state of the 20th century, state and locally controlled non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributory assistance programs for the poor, such as Food Stamps, the dismantled Aid to Families with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dependent Children \(AFDC\), Supplemental Security Income \(SSI\), and Medicaid offered meager support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with many arbitrary exclusions, moralistic intrusion, and stigmatizing requirements for a largely female and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minority population. Meanwhile, federal social insurance, such as Social Security and Medicare, became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?respectable? programs that served a largely male working and middle-class clientele without extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discretionary leeway.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, this broader theme of how racialized welfare practices and discourses shaped the modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare state remains truncated in the book. In one fell swoop SenGupta links 19th-century paradigms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race and relief used to ?articulate the meaning and boundaries of American Citizenship? to late 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislative changes that ?resuscitated old links between welfare and racialized citizenship? \(p. 244\). Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having so solidly tied welfare provision to racialism, SenGupta sometimes struggles to keep the subaltern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agency momentum going. On the one hand, clients and inmates fashioned their own identity out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploiting the contradictions of the dominant discourse and turned hegemonic relief institutions into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested spaces. Thus, African-American voluntary associations used the reform discourse to challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial assumptions and to offer a pluralist vision as an alternative. On the other, hand, SenGupta shows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subaltern agency remained contingent on the language and institutions constructed by the dominant culture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The guardians of the Colored Home, for example, combined an evangelical and proto-feminist vision of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transracial equality with advocacy of separatist colonization. Likewise, the emancipatory potential of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform efforts was often mitigated by the conservative content of its social ideology, which was frequently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moralistic, strictly middle-class, and designed to preserve traditional gender relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with many good books, reading SenGupta?s study generates the desire for further research, rather than )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 344.3117 695.5975 358.3037 707.4775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.9677 414.9895 437.9597 426.8695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 5583 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving the reader with a sense that important aspects were neglected. In particular, her frequent references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to institutions of poor relief as examples of private and public cooperation beg further analysis of the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hybrid nature of welfare in reinforcing or undermining racialist policies. Does the ?allocative welfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state? \(Peter Dobkin Hall\), which devolves welfare to state-supported philanthropic and private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations, preserve the normative orientation and administrative leeway required for racialism to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuate itself? Or does it help undermine the centralized and rationalized system of social security that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposes powerful structures of subordination?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SenGupta discusses her subject with great verve and acuity. One rather minor critique needs to be noted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however. Whether it owes its existence to the soundbite fervor of an editor or to the author herself, the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book is not particularly apt. This is decidedly )] TJ ET BT 284.996 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 300.332 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a book about African-Americans moving from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?slavery? to ?poverty?. Instead, the book uncovers how the cultural conceptualizations of African Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during slavery reverberate in poverty policy and institutions. It offers a broader discussion of institutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor relief and reform as places where race, ethnicity, gender and class were reinforced, negotiated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subverted in the interaction between agents of control and aid recipients. And it shows how racial images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were reproduced in the social welfare systems of a rapidly industrializing and urbanizing society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William J. Clinton, ?Statement on signing the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reconciliation Act of 1996?, )] TJ ET BT 205.664 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: William J. Clinton )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Washington, 1998\), pp. 1328?30.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.332 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.332 489.459 m 282.320 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Frye Jacobson, )] TJ ET BT 184.664 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whiteness of a Different Color: European Immigrants and the Alchemy of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race)] TJ ET BT 88.004 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 210.656 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 210.656 460.947 m 264.644 460.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jill Quadagno, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Color of Welfare: How Racism Undermined the War on Poverty)] TJ ET BT 466.976 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 432.435 m 149.000 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 407.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.2.davis.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 351.411 m 499.028 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 502.028 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oxford journals)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/5/1468.2.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 322.899 m 296.012 322.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.012 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 319.567 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 301.787 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 301.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/905)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 300.393 m 322.316 300.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 275.416 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.016 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4739)] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.616 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.2.davis.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.216 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/5/1468.2.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.3317 489.7735 282.3197 501.6535 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 210.6557 461.2615 264.6437 473.1415 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 432.7495 148.9997 444.6295 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 351.7255 499.0277 363.6055 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_interdisciplinary_history/summary/v041/41.2.davis.html) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 323.2135 296.0117 335.0935 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://ahr.oxfordjournals.org/content/114/5/1468.2.full) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 300.7075 322.3157 312.5875 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/905) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000580 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000005133 00000 n 0000005242 00000 n 0000005352 00000 n 0000005461 00000 n 0000009022 00000 n 0000009150 00000 n 0000009234 00000 n 0000009263 00000 n 0000009389 00000 n 0000009425 00000 n 0000009490 00000 n 0000016705 00000 n 0000016796 00000 n 0000024677 00000 n 0000024707 00000 n 0000024835 00000 n 0000024871 00000 n 0000024901 00000 n 0000025029 00000 n 0000025065 00000 n 0000025184 00000 n 0000030820 00000 n 0000030948 00000 n 0000031003 00000 n 0000031131 00000 n 0000031186 00000 n 0000031313 00000 n 0000031368 00000 n 0000031495 00000 n 0000031641 00000 n 0000031768 00000 n 0000031875 00000 n 0000032003 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32098 %%EOF