%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 33 0 R 49 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080634+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080634+01'00') /Title (City and Cosmos: the Medieval World in Urban Form) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4481 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(City and Cosmos: the Medieval World in Urban Form)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most medievalists would be able to cite an example of the close parallels in symbolic thinking about the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and world in the Middle Ages, whether along the lines of ideas of Rome as )] TJ ET BT 396.632 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(caput mundi)] TJ ET BT 456.296 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Augustine?s )] TJ ET BT 534.620 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cities)] TJ ET BT 59.348 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In )] TJ ET BT 78.344 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(City and Cosmos)] TJ ET BT 160.352 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Keith Lilley sets out to educate historians of medieval urbanism with a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed account of such medieval ideas on the city as macro- or microcosm and ends with a plea for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance of medieval Christian understandings of the city to modern inter-faith relations. On the way he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that ?[t]he cosmogenic parallels between founding a town and founding a world are ... plain, not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the process of urban formation but also in the use made of geometry to fashion built form? \(pp. 93?4\). So )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parallels evident in metaphor and moral or political treatises are here understood in terms of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential practical implications. In place of a conventional analysis of the use of architectural allegory in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature he takes such analogies out of the text and suggests that the parallels reveal the kind of thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which drove design \(eg. P. 126\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A great deal of interdisciplinary work and knowledge is brought to bear. Lilley has read very widely ? from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of ritual to manuals of geometry, debates about liturgical processions to treatises on good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government ? though he is clearly most at home in the world of medieval urban planning. After a brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to Plato?s )] TJ ET BT 145.688 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Timaeus)] TJ ET BT 186.356 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ?the foundation of medieval cosmology and microcosmicism? \(p. 7\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Calcidius? translations, and 12th-century neoplatonists, part one explores the imagined city-cosmos, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(906)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 30 April, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Lilley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781861894410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frances Andrews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8476 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning, justifiably, with Jerusalem and with maps. The symmetry of the ways in which these portray the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world and the holy city of Jerusalem \(round or square\) are outlined to demonstrate that ?they share a sacred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geometry? \(p. 35\). In particular, the circles of )] TJ ET BT 255.620 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mappamundi)] TJ ET BT 318.284 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the circular form of the city represent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?cosmological time as well as space? \(p. 36\) and are, he argues, closely related to each other.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lilley is seeking to link mental maps with the streets of actual cities and towns. This works at its best with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new towns, planned as markers of lordship or to house a burgeoning population. His discussion of the laying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of such settlements in part two \(the section closest to his own earlier work\) begins with a schematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the lengthy bureaucratic process, used as a means to argue that the central role belonged to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereign lord\(s\). This leads him to draw the parallel between this creative process and that of ?)] TJ ET BT 494.252 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 508.916 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Lord? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating the world, like a city \(p. 84\). That this was a possible way of imagining the urban world in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages seems uncontroversial, but the practical implications he draws from such a combination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacred geographies are less persuasive. As he himself points out, ?written records made at the time are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially forthcoming on who was doing what, particularly so for those stages in the process lower down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chain of command which were concerned with the designing and surveying of the new town? \(p. 85\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Planning and policy depend on continuity of authority \(an efficient bureaucracy\) and reliable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communications; both were possible in the late Middle Ages but neither was as constant as it became in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern world. Some of the literary images cited as inspiration for the appropriate form of the physical city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were probably intended in allegorical terms, often in reference to Heaven \(undoubtedly often thought of as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(city\), or to the human population or a city, rather than the nature of the street plan, though of course it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable to suppose that these ideas may have been mined for other reasons. Lilley wisely sidesteps these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems of intention/reception by turning to geometry, part of the )] TJ ET BT 356.984 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(quadrivium)] TJ ET BT 412.316 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the liberal arts, with long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and practical traditions. Here he introduces the most compelling evidence for his thesis: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professionalisation of planning. He cites, for example, contemporary manuals providing instructions for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks such as how ?to calculate the number of houses to be obtained from a known surface? \(p. 88\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of surveyors tools such as the quadrant or the )] TJ ET BT 273.308 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(groma)] TJ ET BT 304.640 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(a Roman cross-shaped tool used for establishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right angles and plotting lines\). Where there is good written evidence ? as ever Italy figures prominently \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the work on the Florentine new towns by David Friedman\) ? it is architectural professionals or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advisors who are found at work. It is therefore no great leap to suggest that even where there is no such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written record, the forms of towns themselves, especially those based on root-two geometry, may show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architects were responsible \(p. 90\) and if not architects then surveyors, either lay practitioners using ropes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and walking the site to measure it or experts using geometrical techniques. He draws parallels with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning of cathedrals, where, he states, root-two geometry was also used \(but this sort of geometrical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is not undisputed: see for example, reactions to Marvin Trachtenberg?s )] TJ ET BT 426.608 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dominion of the Eye. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urbanism, Art, and Power in Early Modern Florence)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.996 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.996 312.627 m 307.988 312.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 307.988 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \). Even if the geometry works, the problem lies, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he acknowledges \(p. 90\), in proving that these architects and surveyors, if employed at all, had anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a contractual link with the lord\(s\) who employed them, or discussed these works in such a way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that would make the lord\(s\) the ?creator\(s\)?. Parallels from the work of art historians might here add to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of creative ties between such patrons and ?designers? or the )] TJ ET BT 365.600 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modo et forma)] TJ ET BT 435.596 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( copying processes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where what was at stake for the lord\(s\) involved was equalling or surpassing an existing project \(if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping up with the Joneses\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four tackles this issue by focusing on the already mentioned handbooks of geometry, to show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they linked the practical work of architects and surveyors with the divine work of the creator of the world \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(95\). It is in the discussions of the 12th-century Parisian canon and intellectual Hugh of St Victor?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(practica geometriae)] TJ ET BT 131.000 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the link between geometry and the cosmos/cosmography comes most evidently to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fore: geometry as planimetry, and altimetry is matched with cosmimetry, the measurement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmos/the world. These ideas were present both in widely used handbooks and more academic works, so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Lilley concludes that ?those individuals who we know were creating new towns in the Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not easily have overlooked the cosmological dimensions of geometrical knowledge which informed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their thinking and their work? \(p. 113\). Yet, as he later accepts, there were ?different kinds of surveyors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working on laying out the new towns? \(p. 125\), and not all of them could have been aware of \(or would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cared about \)these parallels. Lilley then turns to the medieval use of versions of Roman surveying manuals )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 293.9957 312.9415 307.9877 324.8215 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8630 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the )] TJ ET BT 55.676 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(corpus agrimensores)] TJ ET BT 156.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) to consider the cosmological symbolism of the principles, instruments and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices of surveyors. It would have made sense to put this earlier evidence before the discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(practica)] TJ ET BT 74.012 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( texts, though it is presumably placed here because it allows him to move straight to the Roman style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments used. He suggests for example, that the ?cosmological and Christian symbolism? of the cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped )] TJ ET BT 70.340 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(groma)] TJ ET BT 101.672 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?would surely have been apparent? \(p. 124\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part three turns to the city?cosmos binary as it was lived, exploring topographies and uses of space. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably intended to allow Lilley to encompass the more complex urban landscapes of long established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cities. Looking for analogies between city and macrocosmic order leads him to Lucian of Chester?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of his home city or Remigio de? Girolami?s description of Florence \(here, rather surprisingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted from an anthology of translated sources\). In both cases the city is imagined as a body symbolizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cosmos. This chapter thus includes a discussion of territory familiar to most medievalists and not just to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of political thought: the equation of a city?s political constitution with a ?body politic? and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connection to the spatial ?body? of the city through processions, used to legitimate political authority by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?head?. The reader is taken swiftly through treatises on government, which are linked back to classical ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the body politic. There are slightly uncomfortable switches between the more autonomous signorial or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal urban worlds of Italy and the city in the context of a kingdom such as England \(for example p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(143\), though the reading in England of texts such as the Florentine Brunetto Latini?s )] TJ ET BT 443.648 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Livre dou Tresor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps justifies the transition. The chapter ends with two sections which are a still more rapid discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which laws were used to establish social and spatial divisions in cities, as for example between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French and English in late 11th-century Hereford, or in the widespread exclusion of lepers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitutes, beyond the ?moral boundary? marking the edge of the body politic. He thus concludes that ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of the medieval city was a lived microcosm, functionally and hierarchically ordered and orchestrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a ruling body politic whose instruction ? it was believed ? came from God? \(pp. 156?7\). The discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the symbolism of marginalising in the moral topography of a city is surprisingly bereft of secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, in a field certainly not short of material. Lilley uses Bronislaw Geremek?s )] TJ ET BT 442.280 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Margins of Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Late Medieval Paris)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 147.344 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 147.344 426.675 m 161.336 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 161.336 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , but could have refined his discussion by reference to the vast literature inspired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by R.I. Moore?s classic work )] TJ ET BT 177.656 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.308 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.308 412.419 m 386.300 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 386.300 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , or Ruth Mazo Karras, )] TJ ET BT 502.940 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(women: prostitution and sexuality in Medieval England)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.340 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.340 398.163 m 318.332 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.332 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , or indeed, case-studies of particular contexts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as ? to take just one ? David C. Mengel, ?From Venice to Jerusalem and Beyond: Mil? of Krom???e )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Topography of Prostitution in Fourteenth-Century Prague?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.320 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.320 369.651 m 371.312 369.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter turns to the performance of the embodied city in ritual displays, focusing in particular on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals staged for the feast of Corpus Christi. Lilley disarms potential critics, who might underscore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential for conflict over the nature of the body, by arguing that ritual performances present an idealised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and symbolic unification of the urban body \(the point is most fully explicated in the notes on p. 226\). He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also suggests, rather surprisingly, that the ?routes and locales of medieval civic rituals? have not been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied and that the ?performed geographies of processions and their meaning have been ... overlooked? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(164\) Yet here, for the first time, there is a strong sense of the historiographical context, provided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to debates about the common or divergent origins of processions and mystery plays and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterning of routes onto the city landscape. He focuses on famous ritual processions, including those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruges or Wrzburg, and equally well-known plays such as those performed in the cities of Beverley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York. He argues, in the case of York, for example, that the reason the particular routes were chosen ?must lie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the desire to keep the two routes as one ? the civic pageant and the religious procession?, avoiding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most direct route in the interests of reconstructing ?the shaft? \(the body\) and ?arms? of Christ?s cross \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(174\). As he would perhaps admit, it might also be that the participants simply wished to process past the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minster, the largest and most significant building in the city, where relics were on view and indulgences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obtainable, as a way to underline the grandeur of the occasion. Whatever the possible symbolic reading, dull )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatism may also have played a now obscure role.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument for the practical implications of the analogy between city and cosmos is made by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulation of approaches ? from maps, through surveying, to political and moral treatises - some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, as has been suggested here, are more effective than others. The examples range across Latin Europe )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 147.3437 426.9895 161.3357 438.8695 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.3077 412.7335 386.2997 424.6135 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.3397 398.4775 318.3317 410.3575 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.3197 369.9655 371.3117 381.8455 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8089 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Wales and Winchelsea to Italy, Poland and beyond. There are some wonderful illustrations and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are an important part of the argument. It is a pity therefore that they are often remote from the pertinent text. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes this is down to the inevitable grouping of colour plates in one section, or because a figure is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to more than once, but not always. There are also occasional signs that production was rushed: Hugh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of St Victor?s work is called )] TJ ET BT 173.996 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Practical Geometry)] TJ ET BT 268.976 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on pages 95, 121, 124 and )] TJ ET BT 400.628 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(practica geometriae)] TJ ET BT 497.612 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on pages 96 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 115. Matthew Paris? famous image of king Offa directing the builders of St Albans abbey is included to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underline the point that kings and lords were conceived as directors of works, but is here unhelpfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labelled simply as ?thirteenth-century miniature? \(it is identified in the back of the volume photo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledgements as ?Trinity College Dublin MS 177 f 59v? but again without naming Matthew Paris\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The judgements about what to leave out are at times unsettling: a lack of contextual detail, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already evident in the introduction, has the potential to become frustrating. References to ?the Trier and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambrai manuscripts of the ninth century? \(p. 16\) or to authors such as Hyginus \(p. 119\), without further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gloss, are examples of a tendency which will leave the reader unfamiliar with particular sources wondering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about chronology and context \(which Trier and Cambrai manuscripts? Are they the only ones? Does he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know about the others...?\). The whole piece also has awkward in-text cross-referencing, which could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriately have been relegated to the footnotes, or sometimes have been avoided altogether by reordering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sequence of the discussion \(putting the )] TJ ET BT 240.992 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(corpus agrimensores)] TJ ET BT 341.984 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( texts before the discussion of treatises on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geometry, putting all the discussion of processions in one place\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cosmological thinking is only one way of intellectualising townscapes. The inheritance of Rome was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another \(cities claiming to be the ?second Rome? abound\). It is often tempting to dislodge such arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about symbolic thinking by reference to pragmatism, though the result may be unnecessarily destructive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem here is that the parallels he proposes are possible, but not necessary. As he observes, ?most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban mapping was undertaken after the fact? \(p. 89\). Greater acknowledgment of the potential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternatives, as of the limitations of the symbolic city-cosmos link would have made the central argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his concluding pages, Lilley refers briefly to ways of thinking about the city in non-Christian cultures, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of which helped shape Christian ideas of the city \(Judaism, Islam\). As he says, ?these influences on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the city was understood in the Latin West deserve closer scrutiny? \(p. 186\). This is not because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?still have a strong resonance even a millenium later? \(p. 187\). It is, after all, only about 700 years since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of his examples. Nor is it because they have the potential to provide a common ground between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abrahamic and other religions. Rather, they are worth studying, like much of the material here, because they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would provide a fuller picture of thinking about the city and the cosmos in the medieval Latin west.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marvin Trachtenberg, )] TJ ET BT 172.316 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dominion of the Eye. Urbanism, Art, and Power in Early Modern Florence)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 237.363 m 212.324 237.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 224.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronislaw Geremek, )] TJ ET BT 166.328 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Margins of Society in Late Medieval Paris)] TJ ET BT 391.316 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.636 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.636 223.107 m 542.624 223.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 210.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. I. Moore, )] TJ ET BT 126.008 210.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Formation of a Persecuting Society)] TJ ET BT 317.660 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1987\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 396.308 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 396.308 208.851 m 450.296 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Mazo Karras, )] TJ ET BT 158.660 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Common Women: Prostitution and Sexuality in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 476.972 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 180.339 m 118.004 180.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David C. Mengel, ?From Venice to Jerusalem and beyond: Mil? of Krom???e and the topography of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prostitution in fourteenth-century Prague?, )] TJ ET BT 271.652 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Speculum)] TJ ET BT 318.308 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 79 \(2004\), 407?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.628 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.628 151.827 m 469.616 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 126.965 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(h-net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 97.059 m 240.992 97.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 98.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 93.727 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 75.947 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 75.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/906)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 74.553 m 322.316 74.553 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 49.576 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.3357 237.6775 212.3237 249.5575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 488.6357 223.4215 542.6237 235.3015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 396.3077 209.1655 450.2957 221.0455 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 180.6535 118.0037 192.5335 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.6277 152.1415 469.6157 164.0215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 97.3735 240.9917 109.2535 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=25839) >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 74.8675 322.3157 86.7475 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/906) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 50 0 R >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Length 251 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4742)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=25839)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005174 00000 n 0000005283 00000 n 0000005393 00000 n 0000005502 00000 n 0000009063 00000 n 0000009191 00000 n 0000009275 00000 n 0000009359 00000 n 0000017888 00000 n 0000017918 00000 n 0000018046 00000 n 0000018082 00000 n 0000018187 00000 n 0000026870 00000 n 0000026900 00000 n 0000027028 00000 n 0000027064 00000 n 0000027094 00000 n 0000027222 00000 n 0000027258 00000 n 0000027288 00000 n 0000027416 00000 n 0000027452 00000 n 0000027482 00000 n 0000027610 00000 n 0000027646 00000 n 0000027772 00000 n 0000035914 00000 n 0000036042 00000 n 0000036097 00000 n 0000036225 00000 n 0000036280 00000 n 0000036408 00000 n 0000036463 00000 n 0000036590 00000 n 0000036645 00000 n 0000036773 00000 n 0000036828 00000 n 0000036954 00000 n 0000037055 00000 n 0000037181 00000 n 0000037276 00000 n 0000037341 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37644 %%EOF