%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818084339+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818084339+01'00') /Title (Up-Helly-Aa: Custom, Culture and Community in Shetland) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4816 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Up-Helly-Aa: Custom, Culture and Community in Shetland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td 2.860 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Callum Browns excellent book on the historical origins and contemporary significance of Up-helly-aa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td 2.579 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetlands winter fire festival, has recently won The Frank Watson Prize awarded by the University of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td 0.683 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guelph, Canada, for being the best book of its year on Scottish history and no comment here will detract in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td 3.256 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(any way from that impressive achievement; superlatives come to the reviewers mind throughout. )] TJ ET BT 544.272 301.835 Td 3.256 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(UP-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td 1.487 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(HELLY-AA: Custom, Culture and Community in Shetland )] TJ ET BT 325.104 287.579 Td 1.487 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a book which will appeal to a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td 2.378 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers but, although presenting his work in such a way as to guarantee popularity, particularly among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td 0.414 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetlanders at home and abroad, the writer makes no sacrifices in terms of academic rigour. Sources cited at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td 1.740 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the book \(pp. 201-209\) demonstrate that, in addition to reading very widely on the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td 0.973 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendar customs, Brown worked closely with knowledgeable people in the Shetland community and made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td 2.244 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough use of primary sources housed in the Shetland Archives in Lerwick, guided, as he generously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td 0.979 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises, by the local archivist, Brian Smith, who has always had a great interest in Up-helly-aa. Brown, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td 1.472 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes the subject beyond the merely local, however, and uses the topic of Up-helly-aa to guide his reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td 0.188 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards a wider understanding of calendar customs and their significance. At times, he seems to be historian, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropologist and sociologist rolled into one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td 0.754 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown is, however, principally a historian and it is the role of the historian to interpret and translate for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td 1.400 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-historians among us and he does that admirably. In fact, even the Shetlanders among Browns readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td 2.852 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and I speak as one of them\) will find, after reading the book, that their understanding of their local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td 1.998 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(community and of the place of Up-helly-aa in Shetlands social and historical scheme of things is vastly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td 1.568 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhanced. It is the kind of book which often provokes surprised recognition of the validity of the writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td 2.148 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(point about something which has been so much part of ones existence that it has been neglected at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td 0.000 Tw /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(91)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 January, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Callum Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(219pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doreen Waugh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 1.398 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(cogitative level. Other points made by Brown may have been made before but are sharply articulated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td 0.150 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought to the readers attention afresh, as in the Preface to the book where the author states: But tradition is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td 2.628 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(slippery eel of a concept, for it is an innately contemporary thing. Tradition is only tradition if it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonance in the present day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 0.902 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(How true and what good justification for opening the book with a chapter entitled The festival of Up-helly-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 2.078 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(aa in the 1990s and having as its penultimate chapter a wider look at the Twentieth-century festival. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td 0.714 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(between these two studies of the contemporary festival\(s\), there are four further chapters with the headings: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td 1.607 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Understanding custom; Misrule without custom: Lerwick 1625-1800; Mischief and misrule at Yule, 1800-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td 0.336 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(72; The birth of Up-helly-aa, 1873-1906. The deliberate verbal links, here underlined, between the first three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td 0.913 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these chapter headings direct the reader towards an understanding that the symbolic birth of Up-helly-aa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td 1.490 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(which took place in the late 19th century, could only have happened after the lengthy period of gestation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td 0.354 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in the preceding chapters, although it should be remembered that the newly born infant is never an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td 1.334 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(exact replica of its cultural antecedents. In the final, summative chapter of the book, Brown returns to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurrent theme, placed in central position in the final chapter heading: Community, custom and history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 0.539 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument in each of these chapters is backed up by usefully detailed notes and references which, to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 0.354 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewers satisfaction, appear at the end of each chapter rather than as footnotes or endnotes to the book as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td 0.580 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole. Before turning to the content of the chapters, readers should turn to the start of the book where there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td 1.080 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(is both a clear map of Shetland on which the various locations where Up-helly-aa festivals now take place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td 2.499 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(are shown and, also greatly to this reviewers satisfaction, a small inset showing locations of other fire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td 2.267 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(festivals and placing Shetland in its true geographical position in the North Atlantic; a small point, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td 0.271 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant as far as Shetland readers are concerned. \(The typographical convenience of placing Shetland in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td 0.776 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(box in the Moray Firth rankles with Shetlanders and one can imagine that people living on the Moray Firth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td 1.402 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(littoral may feel the same.\) Also at the start of the book is some information on the Julian and Gregorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td 0.979 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(calendars which is essential to an understanding of Shetlands winter festivals in a wider sense, speaking as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td 1.976 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(someone who had the childhood advantage of celebrating Christmas twice in Sand, Shetland, in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td 1.076 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s: New Christmas \(December 25th\) and Old Christmas \(January 5th\). Brown suggests that celebration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td 1.578 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Old Christmas had died out by the 1930s and that would certainly have been true of Lerwick, but old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(customs lingered in some families on the west side of Shetland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td 0.667 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(One comment which jarred slightly on first reading was made in the opening sentences of Chapter 1, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown is setting the Up-helly-aa scene as follows:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td 1.062 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(A night-time army of a thousand men march in lavish costumes of masquerade with huge flaming torches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td 1.882 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(singing praise to medieval Norse heroes as they draw a Viking ship to its ceremonial funeral pyre. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td 1.402 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(pageant takes place in the 1990s in a highly sophisticated modern society, but it is a moving tableau of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(world we have lost.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He returns to the same point on p. 16, where he phrases it thus:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td 0.708 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Lerwick Up-helly-aa, the Kirkwall Ba game, and the summer Common Ridings of the Border towns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td 1.316 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland join a rich variety of similar events in England and Wales as icons of a world we have lost. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(those not within these communities, responses and reactions may be extremely varied.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td 2.001 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was only on reading the last sentence in the second extract above that I realised that the we of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td 0.811 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements does not include Shetlanders for whom Up-helly-aa does not symbolise a world we have lost, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(spite of the apparent contradiction inherent in the antiquarian Norse pageantry of the Jarls squad.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td 2.867 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remainder of the book leads the general reader towards the intuitively understood position of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td 0.432 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetland reader and Brown weaves his argument throughout the text, arriving, at the end of the first chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td 3.624 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the conclusion that to describe Up-helly-aa as a winter fire festival is to diminish its year-round )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td 0.939 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolism. Indeed, to describe Up-helly-aa as a calendar custom lends it an inappropriate air, because it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td 0.332 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(not merely an event but a permanent community institution in some very modern ways \(p. 17\). At the end of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7866 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td 0.398 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book, Browns conclusion is that It \(the calendar custom\) is not a window onto the past, but a window on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td 0.999 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the present which hides within it the kernel of the community \(p.198\), which is exactly what I would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td 2.227 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(said to counter his two opening statements underlined above, but would not have had Browns depth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge on the subject to substantiate the argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 1.355 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(In describing the permanence of the institution as part of the Shetland yearly calendar, Brown is certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct because, as he points out, preparations for the nens conclusion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td 0.566 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown scrutinises the work of folklorists such as Jessie Saxby in Shetland and rightly advises caution in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td 0.500 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of her material. The historian clearly distrusts the late 19th century folklorist who does not give fact and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td 1.416 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure of the collecting situation, which makes the material collected less useful to the historian, but even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td 0.508 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxby and F. Marion McNeill, who used her work as a basis for her own commentary, as Brown points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td 1.277 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(make clear that the actual activities of boat-burning and the songs that were sung were recent creations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td 0.726 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lerwicks Up-helly-aa \(pp. 37-38\). This cautious approach to the work of the folklorist is made all the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 0.915 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing because it is combined with a similarly cautious approach to the methodology used in the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 2.692 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of some historians who have examined calendar customs and Up-helly-aa in particular. I would praise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 0.424 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Browns sensible conclusion that Continuities and discontinuities in the evolution of rituals emerge best from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 0.765 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(in-depth study on )] TJ ET BT 123.310 558.629 Td 0.765 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(individual)] TJ ET BT 171.982 558.629 Td 0.765 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( customs and its corollary that by far the best research on Up-helly-aa has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td 0.938 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Brian Smith \(p.44\), the local archivist, but would also say that Brown, the academic historian, in taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td 2.036 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward into this book the scholarly work of the local historian and by using the skills of the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td 0.592 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, has added a further dimension which is why this is such a successful study. If co-operation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature could happen more frequently many superb community studies would emerge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td 2.312 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The approach of the social anthropologist is also considered by Brown, with particular reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td 2.950 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic anthropological approach of Anthony Cohen whose 1987 study of Whalsay in Shetland is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 1.928 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterly work. The argument that the importance of symbolic expression of community increases as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td 1.716 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual geo-social boundaries of the community are undermined, blurred or otherwise weakened \(p. 53\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td 3.499 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant in the context of Shetlands recent oil developments. Up-helly-aa is, undoubtedly, a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td 2.497 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic expression, but the teasing out of what it symbolises is a complex matter, ably addressed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td 1.166 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown. He gives sympathetic consideration to the idea propounded by Bronwen Cohen and Peter Worsley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td 0.939 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Up-helly-aa, with its racially-based Norse romanticism, promotes Shetland nationalism and encourages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td 1.174 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shetlanders to feel that they are different from the outside world, but ultimately dismisses it, too, as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(only part of the story and, from this reviewers perspective, a very unconvincing part.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td 0.349 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is in the third chapter that attention is focused on Lerwicks past, as part of the process of understanding its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td 1.511 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(present. Borrowing no doubt from Jakobsen, Brown gives the accurate etymology )] TJ ET BT 446.917 306.533 Td 1.511 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Leir-vk)] TJ ET BT 484.909 306.533 Td 1.511 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(albeit without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td 0.965 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the acute accent!\))] TJ ET BT 120.569 292.277 Td 0.965 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 127.534 292.277 Td 0.965 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Norn mud bay as his subtitle, but makes no further comment, which seems a little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td 0.686 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(odd from the perspective of an onomastician who would have liked to read more about why Brown thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td 0.861 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(it important enough to cite an etymology as a chapter sub-heading but then failed to justify its prominence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td 1.769 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(The inhabitants of Lerwick, after all, were probably operating in a Scots-speaking linguistic environment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the topographical name must have been coined at an earlier period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td 3.499 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lerwick, as Brown points out, started life as a trading settlement in the seventeenth century with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td 2.432 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(seasonally fluctuating population but Browns speculation that, in winter, while population was low and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td 0.844 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(restricted to full-time inhabitants of Lerwick, there might have been some form of celebration in traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td 0.683 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(island ways to lighten the dark hours must remain as a question, without any evidence to support it. We are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td 1.053 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointed towards one of the first references to Lerwick in 1625, in the context of a complaint by Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td 0.716 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland ministers to the wickednes of the place \(p. 67\) and this dichotomy bgh I rather like the image of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td 1.316 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(cram \(p. 159\) of herring, I think it should be replaced by cran. These very small quibbles apart, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td 1.088 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(Browns analysis of the development towards the present-day Up-helly-aa is admirable in its acuity and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td 0.402 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the twentieth-century festival is detailed and accurate. It is fascinating to read a reconstruction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td 0.530 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ones own past and to experience, as was said earlier, moments of startled recognition of buried memories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a spectacular scene observed some time ago.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4490 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td 1.044 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, however, difficult to be appropriately neutral in commenting on historical reconstruction of ones own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td 2.960 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(past and it is particularly difficult to adopt the global rather than the particular stance in response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td 0.353 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments made. For instance, it is irritating to hear that ones happy, clean and comfortable 1950s childhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td 0.781 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(was spent in a house unfit for human habitation, from the point of view of the 1990s historian \(p. 160\). All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td 2.498 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(that can be said is that it did not seem so at the time. Reading this book about Up-helly-aa has, very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td 0.417 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally, made me wonder whether history particularly social history is really about the past at all. Does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td 1.220 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian, in his reconstruction of the past, not have just as much to tell us about the time in which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td 1.906 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives, as about the past events which he is ostensibly describing? The question is, of course, asked by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer whose own perceptions are coloured, among other things, by not being a historian by profession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td 2.215 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(One further aspect of Up-helly-aa, emphasised by Brown, deserves mention in conclusion, because it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td 0.369 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(central to Browns presentation, and that is the aspect of cocking a snook, still evident in the Up-helly-aa Bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td 0.242 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is eagerly anticipated each year and which verges on the scurrilous but is generally taken in good part, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td 0.823 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(although some must quail before reading its text. It is, however, almost an honour to be decried in the Bill, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td 1.020 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(although sometimes the comments seem more than usually vitriolic. As already said, earlier in this review, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td 2.440 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(one could argue that the most telling statement made by Brown is his comment that it is important to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td 1.094 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceive that the calendar custom is an important phenomenon of industrial and post-industrial society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td 0.361 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(not just a hangover from a world we have lost. It is not a window onto the past, but a window on the present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(which hides within it the kernel of the community \(p.198\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td 2.586 Tw /F2 12.0 Tf [(Up-helly-aa: Custom, Culture and Community in Shetland)] TJ ET BT 330.523 503.861 Td 2.586 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an impressively scholarly work which, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td 0.400 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated at the start of this review, takes the subject of calendar customs beyond the merely local and if, in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td 0.850 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(review, concentration has been on the local, that is because the book has so much to say on the local level. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td 0.298 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(All readers, interested in the wider topic of calendar customs and of Up-helly-aa as an example of these, will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td 0.000 Tw /F1 12.0 Tf [(find this book both immensely informative and pleasurable to read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author declined to respond on this occasion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 375.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 357.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 357.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/91)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 356.169 m 316.316 356.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 331.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/645)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 356.4835 316.3157 368.3635 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/91) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000005507 00000 n 0000005616 00000 n 0000005726 00000 n 0000005835 00000 n 0000009396 00000 n 0000009524 00000 n 0000009608 00000 n 0000009673 00000 n 0000016827 00000 n 0000016892 00000 n 0000024811 00000 n 0000024895 00000 n 0000029438 00000 n 0000029566 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29660 %%EOF