%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721082924+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721082924+01'00') /Title (Apollinaire: une biographie de guerre 1914-1918-2009) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4299 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Apollinaire: une biographie de guerre 1914-1918-2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annette Becker?s new book, )] TJ ET BT 174.980 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Apollinaire: Une biographie de guerre)] TJ ET BT 361.628 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( dissects how Guillaume Apollinaire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiated a war made up of ?cultures ? prives et publique, intimes et proclames? [cultures ? private and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public, intimate and official] \(p. 13\). An urbane, multi-talented poet of the French )] TJ ET BT 429.620 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(belle poque)] TJ ET BT 490.604 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( who made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his name in the golden years before the war, when writers and artists from around the world met in Paris to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplate the role of art in life and society, like many of his colleagues Apollinaire was captivated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict from the moment it became clear that the simmering tensions of the years leading up to August 1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would break, producing a violence that was, despite the anticipations and fears of many informed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uninformed Europeans, shocking. For Apollonaire and for France, the experience would prove aesthetically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and culturally transformative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The poet?s initial reaction to mobilisation was disbelief. On the 29th of July he was in Deauville, enjoying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the summer season: ?Beaucoup de jeunes filles, Allemandes, Sudoises, Franaises, Anglaises? [Lots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young girls, Germans, Swedes, French and English]. As the rumours of war filtered through the holiday air, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worry set in, touched with a sense of resistance to what now seemed inevitable. Apollinaire wrote to Serge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frat, ?Presque tout le monde fout le camp. Moi, je n?y crois pas? [Just about everyone has buggered off. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Myself, I cannot quite believe it] \(p. 17\). All the sudden the war had become the key player in everyone?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives. Apollinaire gently mocked the new catch phrase that he and everyone else now used to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(912)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annette Becker)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782847346282)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.34)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(262pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tallandier)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alisa Miller)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8340 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new sights and sounds dominating French public life: ??C?est la guerre?, disons-nous? [?It?s the war?, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say] \(p. 18\). Soldiers started to appear in Deauville, Versailles and Paris.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later in the war in 1915, while stationed at Nmes, Apollinaire drafted a narrative poem about the experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the opening months of the war, with verses that would later be included in )] TJ ET BT 405.968 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calligrammes: Po)] TJ ET BT 494.300 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mes )] TJ ET BT 521.960 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(paix et de la guerre \(1913-1916\))] TJ ET BT 190.988 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in France in 1918. The poem speaks of the ?Des gants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furieux se dressaient sur l?Europe ?? [Furious giants tower over Europe] and ?Les morts tremblaient de peur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dans leurs sombres demueres? [The dead tremble with fear in their sombre abodes] \(p. 19\). It also contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the poet?s famous calligrammes, the form he began experimenting with in 1912. It is consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern and innovative in its intellectual construction, as Apollinaire worked to make the words physically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form a picture expanding on the poem?s subject. At the same time the poem?s theme is traditional: a portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a nation and a continent moving from peace to war that attempts to convey the collective spirit of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times. In this aspect it is like the poetry written by Rudyard Kipling and Thomas Hardy upon the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward VII, what C. M. Bowra calls ?public? poetry, designed to capture an impression of a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical moment for posterity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.008 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.008 597.747 m 200.000 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.000 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yet the soft paired and alternating rhymes produce something like ?un )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chant populaire? [a popular song or ballad] \(p. 19\). He dedicated )] TJ ET BT 347.600 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calligrames)] TJ ET BT 406.940 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to his friend Ren Delize, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed in battle in May 1917; he wrote that it was this death of all the war deaths that ?m?a touch plus que )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tout? [has affected me more than anything else] \(p. 159\). Memory and memorialisation collude throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the poem: memory of 1914 and memorialisation of dead friends. This is also a central theme of Becker?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, as Apollinaire?s war poems, letters and journals all capture and promote the idea that war culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when experienced, relies on a combination of forces and estates, of private emotions mixing with communal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride, patriotism, suffering and remembrance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For students interested in a detailed account of Apollinaire?s actions throughout the war, this book is useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it is so concentrated, although it is not a traditional biography cataloguing exact movements and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itineraries. It is narrative, beginning with Apollinaire?s unsuccessful attempts to enter the French army and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French Foreign Legion, followed by his eventual enlistment at Nice in November 1914. The poet then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarks on training to become an artillery officer, an experience enriched by a course on mathematics. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passes through his period as a soldier at war in Northern and North Eastern France. Having received a head )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wound inflicted by a shell in March 1916, Apollinaire returns to Paris, publishes )] TJ ET BT 422.984 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Pote Assassin)] TJ ET BT 514.976 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassumes his place as a poet and critic, arguing about art and war with colleagues such as Louis Dimier and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing experimental theatre with Serge Diaghilev. He dies, a victim of the influenza epidemic, two days )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Armistice in November 1918.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this is a fact-filled, substantially researched book about Apollinaire?s life during the war, Becker?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary concern is with painting a picture of the public and private worlds, which, like a pot of paint with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any number of colours thrown in, cannot be separated and neatly defined by literary or cultural historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Becker is highly attuned to the complexities informing the France that Apollinaire inhabited from 1914 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1918. In this biography, which is equally an exploration of French war culture as Becker and Stphane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Audoin-Rouzeau defined it in )] TJ ET BT 179.996 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914?1918: Understanding the Great War)] TJ ET BT 385.316 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?a collection of representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict that crystallised into a system of thought which gave the war its deep significance? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.948 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.948 231.603 m 505.940 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 505.940 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the artistic pastiches formed of the rich and saturated world of popular culture and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration, as well as the social ?discourses? familiar to historians of the period: issues of art, material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and popular culture, nationalism, race, gender, the body and mental and physical violence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Becker pays close attention to Apollinaire?s struggles as Wilhelm de Kostrowitzky, who antecedents were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not French but Polish and Russian; while the rest of Apollinaire?s adopted nation was ?mobilis, les )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trangers sont immobilises? [mobilised, the foreigner were immobilised] \(p. 29\). She argues that his intense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pride in being a soldier defending French civilisation, his desire ?ne quittera plus jamais la guerre et )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(l?uniforme franaise' [never to leave the war or take of his French uniform] \(p. 32\) fuelled not only his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism but his hatred of the Germans, even his fellow artists, of whom he wrote, ?Ces Boches aux )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentiment factices, l?me infecte et qui sont l?opprobre de l?humanit? [The brutal sentiments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans, souls infected, are an affront to humanity] \(p. 93\). The war nationalised his view of art, and called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into question the idea of an international community of intellectuals existing above politics. He felt that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 186.0077 598.0615 199.9997 609.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.9477 231.9175 505.9397 243.7975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists had a duty to fight: in Becker?s words, ??l?art vivant ? est celui de ceux qui sont prt mourir pour la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patrie en danger? [the ?living art? belongs to those who are prepared to die for their endangered homeland] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 51\). All but one: he granted his friend Pablo Picasso a ?privilge de exceptionalit? \(p. 48\). Like most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, in war and in peace, Apollinaire was not entirely consistent in his opinions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He exhibited an anti-authoritarian streak: he loved his fellow soldiers, was compelled by the material objects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of quotidian art that filled the trenches, the ?trophes d?amour, d?amitie, de pit? [trophies of love, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friendship, of piety] \(p. 122\), but blamed any aesthetic lapses on the military authorities \(p. 124\). Despite his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertainty about some of the superstitions and rituals of his comrades, he wrote home to his fiance only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half-jokingly in 1916: ?J?ai t bless sans doute parce que vous n?avez plus pens moi et qu?ainsi le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talisman ne povait pas agir? [Without a doubt I was wounded because you didn?t think of me often enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and because the talisman didn?t work] \(p. 147\). Although Apollinaire resettled himself into the world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic Paris when it became clear that his injuries prevented a return to his battalion, he tended to deride the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home front [ souponner l?arrire] \(p. 171\); ?revenu Paris, il pose toujours en soldat ? et en soldat bless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hroquement? [Having returned to Paris, he always remained a soldier ? and a heroically wounded soldier] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 172\). Like many soldiers and civilians, from 1914 he fully accepted what George Mosse calls the ?Myth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of War Experience?, believing that the soldiers formed a society separate from civilians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 457.916 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 457.916 569.235 m 471.908 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title of the book also includes a subscript denoting the period that it covers ?1914?1918?2009?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of memorialisation, and how it shapes to what has come to be understood as historic memory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributes to the nuance of this portrait of war culture. Apollinaire was aware of the fact that if he died, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians, including friends and fellow artists, would take over and determine how his reputation evolved. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the press, the very nature of Apollinaire?s death had to be explained away. ?Spanish flu? not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried with it a sense of something foreign; death by illness could not compare to death in battle. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a threat to masculinity by something insidiously feminine: the illness was also known as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dame espagnole? [the Spanish lady] \(p. 208\). On 11 November 1918 )] TJ ET BT 372.284 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Action franais)] TJ ET BT 458.624 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reported that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apollinaire had received his wound at Verdun, the site of such national investment of collective sacrifice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implying, incorrectly, that this was what caused his death \(p. 211\). In the immediate post-war years, fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poets and artists, including Picasso, contributed their monuments, expanding upon the myth of the lost artist. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As views of the validity of the First World War, and war in general changed, a popular myth arose that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotic poet was actually an anti-war martyr; Becker points out that this is a thoroughly post-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction \(p. 245?6\). Not only French but international artists responded to idealisations of Apollinaire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the American Dan Flavin to the Japanese writer Kenzaburo Oe. The book also includes some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating copies of modern portraits of Apollinaire, including one by Err \(1979\) and another, entitled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Apollinaires)] TJ ET BT 113.024 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Pierre Buraglio \(2005?6\) that show the extent to which his )] TJ ET BT 414.992 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(blessure )] TJ ET BT 457.988 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([wound] has come )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to represent France?s lost generation, providing an important )] TJ ET BT 329.636 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lieux de memoire)] TJ ET BT 412.280 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Apollinaire?s extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posthumous life \(p. 249\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would have been fruitful for Becker to compare the products of this period of memorialisation more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly to those that contributed to poet-soldier mythologies in other combatant cultures. Apollinaire edited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, like any artist, and remained conscious that much of what he wrote would be read by someone else, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and would contribute to their ideal of the poet at war. Like, for example, Rupert Brooke and )] TJ ET BT 478.604 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914 and Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poems)] TJ ET BT 66.008 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, throughout his work, and particularly with )] TJ ET BT 278.324 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Pote Assassin)] TJ ET BT 370.316 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he created self-epitaphs that, in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambivalence, were ready-made for mythmakers. That said, the scale of the book, despite comprising only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four years of Apollinaire?s life, is already ambitious enough given the need to contextualise so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary material in a period of such concentrated social upheaval. The unfinished quality of diaries, journals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and letters included in the study, filled with fragments of verse and ideas alongside more fully formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations not only provide insight for those wishing to form a fuller understanding of Apollinaire as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and influential poet and artist. They also produce a picture of war culture that one feels is at least a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree closer to authenticity with respect to the way it might have been experienced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the primary material one comes to understand that as he absorbed or rejected the myriad sensations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and experiences that surrounded him, at the front and in )] TJ ET BT 304.964 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(l?arrire)] TJ ET BT 348.296 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Apollinaire was attempting to understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even order what was happening to him and to his world. The war fed his evident enthusiasm for all that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj [22 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 457.9157 569.5495 471.9077 581.4295 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7226 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was new and different, but he also displayed an intense engagement with the suffering of the body and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange detachment from violence required of soldiers and civilians alike, and sympathy for the emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confusions and, at times, derangements the war gave birth to. Apollinaire wanted the war to mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something. His letters, diaries and letters, as well as his war poems, particularly in 1916 and 1915, ?l?ge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d?or de ces productions, tmoignent de la complexit et de la confusion des sentiments, dans l?authenticit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(du dsir de vivre en un temps de souffrance et de drliction? [the golden age of these works, testifying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the complexity and confusion of sentiments, about the authentic desire to live in a time of suffering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and abandonment] \(p. 119\) provide compelling evidence of this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Becker?s unimposing and intelligent commentary, as well as structure of the book, with thematic subsections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining the place of the )] TJ ET BT 164.324 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tranger )] TJ ET BT 208.652 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France at its most patriotic; the role of the intellectual or artist at war; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the psychologies of occupation; colonial troupes; divisions between the )] TJ ET BT 379.652 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(front militaire)] TJ ET BT 447.332 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 488.324 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(domestique)] TJ ET BT 88.676 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; the art, high and low? the war produced; xenophobia and anti-Semitism, wounds and medical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourses; the Parisian avant-garde; Spanish influenza and artistic memorialising and cultural memory all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give context to Apollinaire?s writings. She also reminds us that he was not alone is his attempts, messy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unresolved as they were, to search for what was important and substantial in what was happening from 1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1918. The war appeared random and terrifying when )] TJ ET BT 302.612 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(les obus)] TJ ET BT 341.612 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [shells] were falling around the Chemin des )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dames, and bland, dreary and replete with hypocrisy when reflecting on it in Paris, but it was also, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Apollinaire and for French culture, a seminal experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Happily for the reader, Becker allows the poet to tell us this, with some gentle guidance from her, in his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words. Any historian knows that there is a danger in including too much primary material, much of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentary, and incorporated here in long quotations often uninterrupted by Becker. The book does at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give one the sense of sitting in an archive, and Apollinaire could have run away with it, but it also reads very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well, and one is left with a deeper understanding of the artist and the war as a physical experience, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and emotional challenge, and a mythological construction. Its structure supports Becker?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach as a cultural historian, to show that Apollinaire is an individual with an independent mind as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a product of his particularly rich society. The implicit argument is that this is the case with any figure, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male or female, that one could single out from the First World War or, indeed, from any historical period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point in this case is that the primary material relating to Apollinaire is so prolific, varied and interesting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touching on so many themes and discourses that it can almost be left untouched. Almost: it is Becker?s quiet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command of the period that makes for a very successful portrait of one man?s attempt to understand his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life and history in the context of a war that was revelatory for those who lived through it, as well as those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who attempt to understand it now.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.635 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 265.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. M. Bowra, )] TJ ET BT 132.680 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poetry and Politics, 1900-1960)] TJ ET BT 283.340 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1966\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.660 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.660 263.619 m 434.648 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stphane Audoin-Rouzeau and Annette Becker, with Catherine Temerson \(trans.\), )] TJ ET BT 462.596 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1914?1918: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Understanding the Great War)] TJ ET BT 208.340 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2002\), p. 102.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.664 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.664 235.107 m 379.652 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Mosse, )] TJ ET BT 139.664 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fallen Soldiers: Reshaping the Memory of the World Wars)] TJ ET BT 422.972 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 504.620 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 504.620 220.851 m 558.608 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 195.989 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 177.007 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 159.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 159.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/912)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 157.833 m 322.316 157.833 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 132.856 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4767)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.6597 263.9335 434.6477 275.8135 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 325.6637 235.4215 379.6517 247.3015 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 504.6197 221.1655 558.6077 233.0455 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 158.1475 322.3157 170.0275 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/912) >> endobj xref 0 37 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000004988 00000 n 0000005097 00000 n 0000005207 00000 n 0000005316 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000009005 00000 n 0000009089 00000 n 0000009180 00000 n 0000017573 00000 n 0000017603 00000 n 0000017731 00000 n 0000017767 00000 n 0000017797 00000 n 0000017925 00000 n 0000017961 00000 n 0000018045 00000 n 0000026372 00000 n 0000026402 00000 n 0000026530 00000 n 0000026566 00000 n 0000026671 00000 n 0000033950 00000 n 0000034078 00000 n 0000034133 00000 n 0000034261 00000 n 0000034316 00000 n 0000034444 00000 n 0000034499 00000 n 0000034627 00000 n trailer << /Size 37 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34722 %%EOF