%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416234932+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416234932+01'00') /Title (The Royal Pardon: Access to Mercy in Fourteenth-Century England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4530 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Royal Pardon: Access to Mercy in Fourteenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Lacey?s excellent book appears at a time when the exercise of executive and judicial clemency has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a topical talking point. The release from long term imprisonment on compassionate grounds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronnie Biggs and Abdelbaset Ali al-Megrahi, perpetrators of two criminal )] TJ ET BT 394.964 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(causes clbres )] TJ ET BT 472.940 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the late 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, the Great Train Robbery and the Lockerbie bombing, has sparked political and legal controversy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the grounds upon which such decisions should be taken. The residual power of the monarch to pardon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially the discretionary power to forgive something defined in law as a crime for which the perpetrator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been duly convicted by a court of law and subsequently imprisoned, has been activated of late in the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Michael Shields \(convicted for attempted murder in Bulgaria and then sent back to the UK to serve out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his sentence before receiving his reprieve\) and is currently being considered posthumously for Harry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Breaker? Morant?s murder of prisoners during the Boer War. In recent times the power to pardon in the UK )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been vested in the Home Secretrary, although that role appears to have shifted to the new Secretary of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(State for Justice in England and Wales and the First Minister of the Scottish Executive for cases north of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border. The Justice Minister and Lord Chancellor, Jack Straw, has suggested that it should no longer be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political decision, one removed from the legal sphere, but should be referred to the courts. When exercising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discretionary power in the Lockerbie bomber?s favour, the justice minister in the Scottish executive, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Kenny MacAskill)] TJ ET BT 123.692 73.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 129.692 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invoked higher values of heavenly justice, adding a moral or theological dimension to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the debate. He also stressed: ?Our justice system demands that judgment be imposed but compassion be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(913)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 May, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Lacey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781903153284)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York Medieval Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Musson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5144 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available. Our beliefs dictate that justice be served, but mercy be shown?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 387.272 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 387.272 795.075 m 401.264 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.264 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With attention focused on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision makers, nobody has in fact commented on the methods or procedures used to initiate the machinery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of clemency, which has usually involved repeated supplication of the families and their lawyers, sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assisted by the intervention of high profile public figures or celebrities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These particular instances of decisions taken by the executive can be coupled with recent reports of judges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignoring sentencing guidelines \(which do not allow provision for mercy\) and showing clemency when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pronouncing sentence on defendants in certain cases involving self-defence and assisted suicide. Judicial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clemency here arose from an appreciation of what the Lord Chief Justice called the ?ancient principles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice and mercy? and equitable insight of both the wider circumstances and the strongly held beliefs that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlay the defendants? actions in areas of the criminal law that have not been adequately or definitively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislated for by parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royal Pardon )] TJ ET BT 125.012 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that these issues are by no means novel, even if, since the abolition of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death penalty, pardoning has ceased to carry the significance it once did. Even in the Middle Ages, opinions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were divided about the king?s use of the prerogative power to pardon. ?Its role was variously criticised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extolled and debated by authors of legal texts, parliamentary petitions and statutes, and literary works of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advice or protest? \(p. 181\). In particular, there was contemporary concern about the potential abuse of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of mercy and its relationship with the jurisdiction of the courts. This is something that has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised in the historiographical debates of modern times with historians and legal theorists struggling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?with the notion that this kind of discretionary personal judgment could have any legitimate place in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly functioning legal system?. \(p.2 \) The assumption that widespread use of the royal pardon was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of systemic weakness and corruption led historians to see it as symptomatic of failings in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial system contributing to the apparent breakdown of law and order in the late medieval period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Lacey highlights the reluctance of past historians to get to grips with these conflicting attitudes towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pardoning and \(with one or two notable exceptions\) take adequate account of the mass of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary material that survives. Distinguishing between individual and general pardons, she considers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nature of the relationship between the Crown and its people evinced, on the one hand, by the routine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of charters of pardon either upon judicial recommendation \(in cases of self-defence and accident\), or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the request \(with stated grounds\) of individual supplicants and intercessors, and, on the other, by the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolic and often pragmatic mitigation of the severity of the law, usually initiated by the Crown, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless with parliamentary advice or consent. She stresses the cultural contingency of the pardon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of a more holistic view, which she demonstrates by analysing pardoning procedure itself and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then setting the theoretical concepts against both the reality of individual experience and the prevailing legal, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and political contexts.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 387.2717 795.3895 401.2637 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7472 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as there is a plethora of contemporary theoretical, reforming, polemical and satirical literature associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with pardoning, there is no shortage of archival material relating to pardons. One of the strengths of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book lies in the way that Dr Lacey has underpinned her conclusions with analysis of the legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative records, notably the patent and pardon rolls, parliamentary petitions and court proceedings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the author manages not to drown in the wealth of detail, her willingness to provide full chapter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(verse does veer towards the obsessional, with some footnotes considerably distended by the weight of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript references \(e.g. pp. 61?5\). Providing lists of known ?intercessors? for pardons \(1307?99\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendices is to be welcomed in that it affords a valuable resource for historians, but it sparks the reader?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest. One wants to know more about them and the context in which they operated. Who was Alice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Walleran, ?a poor woman?? \(p. 231\) Why were so many churchmen involved, particularly confessors? What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the judges and lawyers whose names occur? What is the proportion of officials in the royal household? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is the ratio of female intercession? If the initiative in seeking a pardon lay with the supplicant we need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to know why particular intercessors were chosen \(were some more likely to intercede on a petitioners behalf )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than others?\) and what they stood to gain \(both from the supplicant and in bringing the matter to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention of a busy king\) by their intercession. I appreciate this is a potential book in itself, but we are only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accorded half a dozen pages on the patrons of pardons before the focus shifts to the role of the intercessor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The procedures surrounding the obtaining and granting of pardons are well-researched and clearly set out. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reader is made aware of the distinctions between different types of pardon and guided through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various stages. In places, however, there could be more cross-references to the court records to provide a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of what was happening in practice. For example, using the ?Ancient Petitions? in the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives SC 8 class the author cites instances of petitioners seeking pardon for killing in self-defence \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37?8\), but does not marry these up with the corresponding cases in the gaol delivery rolls \(JUST 3\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s Bench records \(KB 27\), nor refer to her earlier section on such cases in court \(pp. 21?3\). Later on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she mentions sureties acting as intermediaries in the process of obtaining a pardon \(pp.49?50\), but her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples are drawn solely from literature \()] TJ ET BT 241.292 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Piers Plowman)] TJ ET BT 314.960 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). This is an area where the court records could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide more concrete evidence and flesh out the standing and identity of the sureties. Finally, Dr Lacey?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of pardons obtained by improper means, through the ?feigned and untrue suggestions? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intercessors and the forging of pardons \(pp.48, 51?2\), is rather perfunctory considering the potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of the issue, notably in what it implies about the value of pardons, the lengths to which people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will go to obtain one and the level of literacy of those forging them or passing them off. She mentions the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern of the parliamentary Commons and legislation enacted in response \(and subsequently repeated later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the century\), but does not present us with any evidence \(from the court rolls or elsewhere\) as to whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the justices did enquire into the truth of the reasons for a pardon and how many \(if any\) were rejected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, the reader?s curiosity as to how forgeries were made and how they were detected is piqued, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not satisfied.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are minor quibbles, though, and should not detract from the undertaking as a whole. In particular, Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey has achieved an adept rebalancing of the concept of pardoning in late medieval England and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitated its function within a more holistic view of the legal system. In dispelling the notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal pardons were easily obtainable, she makes clear how bureaucratic the system was, but also points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out how decisions were not necessarily taken lightly and that time was taken to verify the grounds for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pardon and weigh up evidence in individual cases. While stressing the political advantages of group pardons, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she also reveals that the vast majority of such pardons were never taken up, or if they were, only as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precaution against an appearance in court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her holistic view could perhaps have addressed more fully the peculiar status of the palatinate regions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durham, Chester and Lancaster, whose autonomous lords could apparently issue pardons in their own right. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some examples of these and any potential conflict with royal justice would have been interesting. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrating on the royal pardon, however, she has re-emphasised the personal role of the monarch and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly demonstrated the significant constitutional role pardoning played both in the national psyche )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in political and social reality. This is underlined by the fact that there was no fundamental challenge )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5938 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the period to the king?s prerogative power to pardon. Nor could it escape totally from its theological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotations. In addition showing how pardoning complemented the sanctuary provisions of the church, Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey highlights the use of religious discourse, such as the Corpus Christi play )] TJ ET BT 415.988 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Killing of Abel)] TJ ET BT 507.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains a scene where Cain proclaims a pardon for his servant\), in underpinning concepts of unity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book?s contribution further lies in its acknowledgment that the legal and the political dilemma of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pardoning cannot be neatly reconciled. This is aptly demonstrated in a study of how politicised pardoning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became, not just as a result of the military campaigns of Edward I and his grandson, but during the highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventful reign of Richard II, a discussion that fully occupies the final two chapters of the book. Dr Lacey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again associates it positively with a discourse of reconciliation and the rebuilding of relations between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king and \(through parliament\) his people, while making it clear that Richard?s manipulation of the royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prerogative was an aberration that itself required rebalancing by the political elite.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The granting of pardons by the sovereign has a long history going back at least to Anglo-Saxon times. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed the procedure surrounding the monarch?s exercise of mercy in this way is one of the most enduring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(features of the criminal justice system. Its popularity and notoriety in the fourteenth century probably has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less to do with the merits of pardoning itself, than its confluence with rapidly evolving judicial and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems and a corresponding growth in legal and political consciousness across the social spectrum. Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lacey shows how the expectations engendered by the new structures and cultures were met or thwarted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the context afforded by the monarch?s gift of grace, his exercise of mercy. In some cases it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purely a judicial matter, at other times it was overtly political. More often than not decisions confronting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king melded both politics and law. The book?s uncompromising message for the present debate, therefore, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that politicians cannot avoid the public opprobrium of such decisions or palm them off on the judges, as if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were justifiable by a legal code, just as judges cannot hide from decisions with political implications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transcript of full statement made 24 August 2009 <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 313.424 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/This-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 313.424 391.923 m 506.420 391.923 l S BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Week/Speeches/Safer-and-stronger/lockerbie-statement)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 377.667 m 331.268 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 334.268 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 348.260 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 1 March 2010].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.316 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.316 377.667 m 535.304 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank Prof. Anthony Musson for his thoughtful review. The point he makes about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elucidating the role of the patrons in the pardoning process is well made, and the author intends to publish on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this in the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 269.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_english_and_germanic_philology/summary/v110/110.1.giancarlo01.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 268.131 m 579.008 268.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 255.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 250.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 232.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 232.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/913)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 231.369 m 322.316 231.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 206.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4771)] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/This-Week/Speeches/Safer-and-stronger/lockerbie-statement)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_english_and_germanic_philology/summary/v110/110.1.giancarlo01.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 313.4237 392.2375 506.4197 404.1175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/This-Week/Speeches/Safer-and-stronger/lockerbie-statement) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 377.9815 331.2677 389.8615 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.scotland.gov.uk/News/This-Week/Speeches/Safer-and-stronger/lockerbie-statement) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 481.3157 377.9815 535.3037 389.8615 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 268.4455 579.0077 280.3255 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/journal_of_english_and_germanic_philology/summary/v110/110.1.giancarlo01.html) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 231.6835 322.3157 243.5635 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/913) >> endobj xref 0 33 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000005230 00000 n 0000005339 00000 n 0000005449 00000 n 0000005558 00000 n 0000009119 00000 n 0000009247 00000 n 0000009331 00000 n 0000009415 00000 n 0000014612 00000 n 0000014642 00000 n 0000014770 00000 n 0000014806 00000 n 0000014871 00000 n 0000022396 00000 n 0000022508 00000 n 0000028499 00000 n 0000028627 00000 n 0000028768 00000 n 0000028895 00000 n 0000029036 00000 n 0000029164 00000 n 0000029219 00000 n 0000029346 00000 n 0000029504 00000 n 0000029632 00000 n trailer << /Size 33 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29727 %%EOF