%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 28 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725073202+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725073202+01'00') /Title (Femininity, Mathematics and Science, 1880-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4609 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Femininity, Mathematics and Science, 1880-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the two decades since Margaret Rossiter?s first volume on )] TJ ET BT 329.960 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women Scientists in America)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.276 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.276 286.185 m 487.268 286.185 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.268 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a steady series of books which have investigated the place of women in science, seeking to discover if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and where they existed, the nature of their of their contribution and the reasons why for so often and so long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there has been a perceived disjuncture between women and scientific creativity. For many, it is even stranger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contemplate women being good mathematicians: in England and Wales the increasing equality of girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with boys in mathematics examination results in the 1990s led to fears both of the examinations being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dumbed down and about what was happening to the boys. Yet at the same time, scholars such as Leone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burton )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.352 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.352 186.393 m 84.344 186.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.344 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( urged that there was a ?pervasive culture? in the subject of masculine exclusivity, competition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and depersonalized objectivity which, coupled with unattractive teaching methods, discouraged many girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and some boys. Claire Jones, in this excellent scholarly, yet very readable, book, turns to the past to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this issue, one somewhat neglected in the history of science, gender and education alike.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones examines the ?fin de sicle? in England, a time of tension when many things were questioned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including notions of gender and women and of the status of both science and mathematics. Her original and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imaginative approach is to use as a continuing thread the lives of two women, Hertha Ayrton and Grace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chisholm Young, both of whom studied maths at Girton College, Cambridge, became practitioners of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline rather than teachers and married men within the same discipline. Her wise decision to use the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 May, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Jones)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230555211)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ruth Watts)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.2757 286.4995 487.2677 298.3795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.3517 186.7075 84.3437 198.5875 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7459 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s first names to distinguish them from their husbands is, in itself, illustrative of the tangled problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which surrounded women achievers in many fields. Hertha \(then Sarah Phoebe Marks\), dark-haired daughter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an impoverished Jewish immigrant watch-maker and jeweller had problems over and above those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class Grace Chisholm who attended Girton a decade later than her when teaching and resources had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improved. Deeper differences lay in their political and philosophical stance which vitally affected the aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of maths they chose they chose to practice and their gender outlook. By teasing out their intellectual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affective relationships and their lives in mathematics, Claire Jones is able to explore deeply the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuances of both gendered attitudes and practices and of the world of mathematics, science and engineering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At a time when professional science was changing beyond all recognition, the boundaries between science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engineering and mathematics and those within each of these fields were hotly disputed, with important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects on status and privilege. Jones opts for the purposes of this study to distinguish between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics of ?practical science? which was predominantly laboratory-based and that which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly desk-based, Hertha choosing the first and Grace the second. Contemporary definitions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluid and overlapping so in charting the careers of two women who went in different directions within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics, Jones is able to analyse changing aspects of these areas and, significantly , to bring to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surface the all-important interrelationship between mathematics and its social and cultural context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the emergent tradition of feminist scholarship, Jones uses a wide range of sources beyond institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records, letters and memoirs. Thus photographic/pictorial sources are used alongside literary and journalistic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance, Jones argues that the way the image of a classical female ?goddess? of light was used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbolise the amazing new power of electricity was reminiscent of female personifications of science in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier periods where men were portrayed as those who discovered, unleashed and controlled the powers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature. Images are chosen well, indeed, to highlight assumptions about laboratory spaces as places for men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the unattractiveness of scientific women. The cover picture of a highly romanticised late Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting of a nude, besieged Hypatia, is not discussed in the book, however.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones begins by examining how women gained access to the elite Cambridge mathematical tripos, symbol of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highest ?male? intellect in the recognised heart of mathematics in England. She explores the pressure on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women to do mathematics to demonstrate their intellectual equality with the brightest of men, their lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such long preparation and good coaching compared with men and how differently their success was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived. Some spectacular achievements which made international headlines, however, rather than proving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s prowess in mathematics, led to their success becoming characterized as the result of hard work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than natural brilliance ? an interpretation not unknown in women?s intellectual history. Jones argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the mathematical tripos became devalued because women competed well in it while men who failed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be assumed to have more original minds. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grace?s history after her success at Cambridge is aptly used by Jones to unravel the tangled web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities and limitations met by highly-achieving women at this time. One of those elite international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women who took a doctorate at the prestigious University of Gttingen, despite the controversy over women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in higher education in Germany, she was frustrated by the lack of academic openings for women. With few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prospects at Cambridge or even in American universities and the Sorbonne, despite the increasing numbers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of women taking mathematical options, Grace, now married to William Henry Young, a fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematician at Cambridge, moved back with her young family to Gttingen. Although she was welcomed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of her great talents, it was now however as a wife who researched and, indeed, her ambitions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career were increasingly put to the service of her husband?s. Jones very skilfully explores in depth the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of their working relationship. Despite Grace?s belief in Francis Galton?s eugenics, the superiority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and the duty of women to be wife and mother first \(although she had an army of relatives and servants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking after her six children\), Jones disputes the usual stereotypical interpretations which easily assume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grace to have been the pupil of, then assistant to, William. Instead, she shows her to have been mentor to her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband and then his equal, if not his superior at times, in a partnership where they deliberately highlighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William?s role so that he would gain remunerative appointments closed to Grace. This strategy, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknown among women scientists and their husbands, challenges easy distinctions between ?career? women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and submissive intellectual wives. While her husband pushed his career in Britain, from her base in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gttingen, Grace ensured the couple?s expertise was up-to-date and their publications were accurate, built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up important networks, wrote their papers, provided material and support for William?s lectures and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(researched and developed significant ideas of her own. Jones argues that similar male partnerships in science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been recognised as being of equal, complementary talents, but gendered notions prevent this happening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when partners are a male and female. This difficulty was enhanced in the complex case of the Youngs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of their own eugenic views and William?s ambitious, prickly personality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Grace?s aim to prove the greatness of her husband fitted Gttingen, the ?shrine of pure thought? whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstract mathematics was to revolutionise the discipline and whose mathematical men were seen as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual heroes epitomising a very special ?masculinity?. Grace and William helped channel such ideas to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge reformers who excitedly hoped such a model would revitalise their mathematical examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and promoted pure mathematics as the new ?Queen of Science?, creating tools for more practical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?inferior? sciences. Jones depicts this as a reiteration of the romantic view of ?divine? genius combining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?masculine? rationality and ?feminine? intuition, but in a male body. Nevertheless, she argues that women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were accepted into the mathematical community, including networks and societies, more easily than into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science because of key differences in practice and culture between the two disciplines. Pure mathematics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained a strong tradition of amateur involvement and, despite its long characterization as being too abstract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and rational for ?emotional? women, had a growing affinity with femininity in the late 19th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when its elegance and beauty were stressed in opposition to ?robust, masculine science? \(p. 171\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those who took the latter were increasingly contrasted with ?intellectual? women, involved in art, classics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other scholarly pursuits. It was experimental science which increasingly used metaphors of ?rugged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(athletic manliness? which excluded women. Pure mathematics was promoted for its own sake and to develop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental cultivation, arguments which suited the women?s cause in higher education, but, while elite women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were welcome to swell the higher ranks of mathematicians, the very top, with its ideal of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creativity and genius, was considered beyond their reach.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hertha, in contrast, chose electrical engineering, one of the new disciplines aiming to erect a practical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utilitarian, ?manly? science. She studied at the recently-instituted Finsbury Technical College where she met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and married Professor William Ayrton who thence became Professor at the new Central Institution at South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kensington \(later a constituent part of Imperial College\). Both institutions were vigorously masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises, challenging the elite ?masculinity? of pure mathematicians with their ?hands-on? mathematics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and engineering. William and some of his engineering colleagues were supporters of the suffrage and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women participating in science, yet the ethos of the Central was masculine in its aim of producing practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men who could service both industry and empire in active, virile enterprises. The Ayrtons supported each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other?s independent work and strove for a true collaborative partnership, but Hertha, despite recognised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground-breaking research and inventions, could gain no independent professional position or even be termed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an engineer. Her marginal status limited her potential to exploit her discoveries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hertha needed space for experiment. In the new professional world of experimental science, there was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous expanse of institutional laboratories but Jones?s superb analysis shows how, in this period, these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became defined as ?masculine? spaces and were portrayed as such in official images, scientists? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptions, novels and biographies alike. Even those built at the women?s colleges hardly broke down the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion that )] TJ ET BT 88.688 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(research)] TJ ET BT 130.676 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( laboratories were male spaces. Few women actually entered even the scarce shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilities available. Jones argues cogently that this was because of the virulent representation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboratory as a dangerous place \(as, indeed, it often was\) suitable for the heroic endeavours of men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biologically and emotionally deemed more suitable for dispassionate intellectual labour. Unlike men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar circumstances, both the dangers of Hertha?s investigations and her inventiveness with primitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus were either ignored or derided. Despite the warm support she received when she was researching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the Central, her achievements were not publicised as they did not promote the ideal of ?manly scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(citizenship? \(p. 126\), increasingly the image opposing elite mathematics even at Cambridge. Hertha?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of the militant Women?s Social and Political Union \(WSPU\), her researches in a domestic space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the death of her husband lost her access to the Central?s laboratories, together with her lack of ties to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional laboratories and the Royal Society ? scientific spaces from which she was excluded ? all served )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7722 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to downplay her very real achievements and thus her results were suspected. Jones suggests that, possibly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so did her Jewish looks, a factor in Hertha?s life of which Jones is always aware but careful not to over-play. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She adds that especially after 1914 women increasingly did enter laboratories, wryly noting that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived suitability for patient, persevering work, including precise measurement, was now characterized as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lowly science, although previously heralded as crucial to scientific practice when done by men.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The growth of higher education for women in Britain did mean that many more women entered higher-level )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics. Indeed, although the figures were not large, just as in medicine they were at their highest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportionally at the turn of the century until again in the 1970s. Mathematics was most popular for women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Cambridge, but their highly-publicised successes did not give them much access to the fellowships and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities male wranglers automatically received. Their chief impact, indeed, was to cause changes in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination process, including the abolition of the order of merit in 1909, leading to a more specialised part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II of the Mathematical Tripos which, in fact, fewer men took since more now moved into the Natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science Tripos. This had a higher mathematical component and became predominantly male, especially as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women had so little preparation in applied mathematics or physics at school. Women were more numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and more successful in natural history at the University of London, especially UCL and Royal Holloway.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Post-university opportunities for women to follow creative mathematical careers were very limited. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became teachers for the new girls? schools, but although there was a growth of ?computing? jobs in research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboratories, observatories and businesses such as insurance, these were usually limited in number, badly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid and with little opportunity for promotion. Some scientific women published in )] TJ ET BT 437.012 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Educational Times)] TJ ET BT 548.348 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but most publications gave limited voice to women. Jones shows the situation to have been better in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USA, although some British women did attend the international congresses held from 1893. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, elite scientific and mathematical societies were very resistant to female membership. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Many of the new scientific societies, wanting to attract a wide membership, were open to women and Hertha )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was active in some of these and even elected ? on special terms ? to the Institution of Electrical Engineers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some older societies gave way in the 1900s, but the Royal Society and others defined themselves as superior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(because)] TJ ET BT 72.668 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( they did not admit women. Even at the London Mathematical Society where they were admitted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numbers were small and women were not given the same recognition, although some of them presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers. Grace Young?s work, for example, was often subsumed into that of her husband. Jones cleverly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovers the multiple layers of conflict by giving a close and deep analysis of Hertha?s highly publicised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with the Royal Society and its refusal to grant her membership, an important block on Hertha?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research as well as standing. Counteracting former narratives which over-gild Hertha?s achievements in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard, she reveals that Hertha was one of a small, but important number of women appearing in Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society publications between 1880?1914; that, although she appears to have been the first woman both to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak in person at the Royal Society and to exhibit her apparatus, the former was only for ten minutes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter was at the annual ?Ladies Soiree?, attended \(as Dr Marie Stopes fulminated in 1914 in )] TJ ET BT 497.264 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 546.932 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by wives of scientists, not women who were scientists. Hertha won the Royal Society?s Hughes Medal for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(originality in the physical sciences in 1906 but when the President, William Huggins, a bitter opponent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s membership despite his collaboration with his wife Margaret, was away ill. Huggins fought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguard the Society against both amateurism \(with which women were always associated\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?commercialism?, that is applied science tied up to commercial interests, but Hertha?s nominators were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physical scientists, some connected to commercial interests. They were also modernisers, but the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society, after bitter disputes, clung to its exclusively male history, language and rituals, using all-male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meeting places to further male sociability and scientific patronage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones?s achievement is to prove how significant gender was in such infighting in science and how it related )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to changes within society. Hertha was a member of the WSPU, perceived by prominent scientists such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huggins and Francis Galton, as displaying those emotional hysterics typical of women, thus proving that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their reasoning was untrustworthy. The latter charge was increasingly made against Hertha in the 1900s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially when her work on sand ripples solved problems which had baffled top male scientists with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position, titles and standing. Resistance to her conclusions was not overcome until one of these endorsed her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings in 1915. Confidence in the trustworthiness of her work was exacerbated by the facts that she )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 5561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worked outside prestigious institutions and their apparatus, was not FRS and was ageing ? this in a period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when medical publications increasingly represented menopausal women as degenerating to the point of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbecility. Hertha?s lack of success in getting her anti-gas fan accepted shows her marginalisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially after her supportive husband?s death in 1908.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hertha, herself, believed sex should not be brought into science: other women argued women did approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things differently but this was the reason why women should be included. The Royal Society did give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited recognition to women?s work, but this left it in control as ?arbiter of excellence and gatekeeper of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science? \(p. 203\). In 2009 5 per cent of its fellows were women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus Jones reveals the pivotal role of gender in identity and status battles in both pure and practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics. As she says, ?[G]ender ? femininity and masculinity ? is not peripheral to the social history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science and mathematics, it is fundamental? \(p. 7\). Her book ostensibly is about ?femininity? rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender, although, as is necessary when analysing women in science, ?masculinity? is much debated too, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion which Jones recognises needs to be understood in all disciplines. The period researched was one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense scrutiny on suffrage, eugenic thinking and women?s higher education. This depiction of the clash of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(older tradition of inherited genius in mathematics and of modern meritocratic, professional ideals of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mathematics ? arguments that were partly both class and ?hand and brain? based ? shows that each had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barriers for women.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a very good bibliography and further references in the excellent notes which include a wealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting details on people mentioned in the text and on attitudes to women in science. Well structured and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with useful tables, the way the book goes back and forth between Grace and Hertha keeps the contrast yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities of their lives consistently in view. This excellent, thought-provoking study will deepen the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of all interested in gender issues and in the conflicts in science and mathematics in this period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.195 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 395.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Rossiter, )] TJ ET BT 156.332 395.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women Scientists in America: Struggles and Strategies to 1940)] TJ ET BT 460.316 395.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, MD, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 379.923 m 149.000 379.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 367.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gender and Mathematics:)] TJ ET BT 192.992 367.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(an International Perspective)] TJ ET BT 330.308 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Leone Burton \(London, 1990\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 501.284 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 501.284 365.667 m 555.272 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 340.805 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(muse)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v053/53.2.richards.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 310.899 m 420.356 310.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 423.356 312.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 282.387 m 270.668 282.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.668 283.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 279.055 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 261.275 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 261.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/914)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 259.881 m 322.316 259.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 234.904 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4773)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.104 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v053/53.2.richards.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.704 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=411139)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 380.2375 148.9997 392.1175 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 501.2837 365.9815 555.2717 377.8615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 311.2135 420.3557 323.0935 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/victorian_studies/summary/v053/53.2.richards.html) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 282.7015 270.6677 294.5815 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/story.asp?storycode=411139) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 260.1955 322.3157 272.0755 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/914) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000360 00000 n 0000000397 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000005324 00000 n 0000005433 00000 n 0000005543 00000 n 0000005652 00000 n 0000009213 00000 n 0000009341 00000 n 0000009425 00000 n 0000009454 00000 n 0000009582 00000 n 0000009618 00000 n 0000009647 00000 n 0000009773 00000 n 0000009809 00000 n 0000009874 00000 n 0000017386 00000 n 0000017451 00000 n 0000025063 00000 n 0000025128 00000 n 0000032903 00000 n 0000033015 00000 n 0000038629 00000 n 0000038744 00000 n 0000038871 00000 n 0000038926 00000 n 0000039054 00000 n 0000039109 00000 n 0000039236 00000 n 0000039366 00000 n 0000039493 00000 n 0000039609 00000 n 0000039737 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39832 %%EOF