%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902074018+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902074018+01'00') /Title (The Lost Revolution: The Story of the Official IRA and the Workers? Party) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4021 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Lost Revolution: The Story of the Official IRA and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Workers? Party)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume is the first to attempt a full historical treatment of a neglected subject. If there is a voluminous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though not always very analytical, academic and popular literature devoted to the Provisional republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement since the onset of the violent conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 1960s, then it is fair to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that the ?other? strand of the Irish republican movement derived from the split of 1969?70, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Officials?, has rarely, if ever, been accorded a similar degree of scrutiny. For good or ill, the Official IRA )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sinn Fin \(SF\), which became the Workers? Party \(WP\) in 1982, has received nothing approaching the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention devoted to the Provisionals, and yet for a full understanding of the development of 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Republicanism, and particularly its ambiguous relationship to socialist politics, this strand of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republican thought and activity is an absolutely necessary component of any balanced historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reckoning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors, one a lecturer in Irish history at Queen?s University in Belfast and the other a journalist with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Examiner)] TJ ET BT 124.004 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, have written a highly readable and dense study of the movement. They take a broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological approach, but begin with a contemporary prologue, which illustrates an implicit biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimension to their enterprise. In Dublin in 2005, Sean Garland, then President of the WP, is depicted by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(915)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 31 May, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott Millar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Hanley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780141028453)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(688pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin Ireland)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Hopkins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7786 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors addressing a rally organised to campaign against his extradition to the United States, where he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been indicted on charges relating to the alleged ?superdollar? conspiracy, a sophisticated network for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of large sums of forged US dollars, emanating in North Korea. Garland, born in 1934, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joined the IRA in 1953, and was badly injured during the IRA?s Border campaign \(Operation Harvest\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during a raid against a Co. Fermanagh Royal Ulster Constabulary barracks in 1957; this action has become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an integral part of the modern folklore of the Republican movement, ending as it did with the deaths of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young IRA ?martyrs?, Sean South and Fergal O?Hanlon, who have been immortalised in storytelling and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balladry. Garland subsequently became a key figure in the left-wing reorientation of the traditional, socially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative movement during the 1960s, and he was to become a convinced pro-Soviet revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist from the early 1970s onwards, this conviction surviving the collapse of the international communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement in 1989?1991. His personal trajectory has, in most important respects, mirrored the evolution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this strand of Irish Republican thought, and indeed Garland, above almost all other individuals who feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this exhaustive account, has been responsible for shaping the fundamental character and line of march of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Officials.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a measure of the timeliness of this book that one of the other critical historical personalities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, Toms Mac Giolla, a former TD \(member of the Republic of Ireland?s Parliament, Dil Eireann\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and longstanding President of Official SF and the WP, died aged 86 in February 2010, and his crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony concerning the history of the movement would have been lost were it not for the efforts of Hanley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Millar. Like Garland and many other leading figures from the various incarnations of the movement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mac Giolla granted the authors extensive interviews, and they have also gained access to many internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents of the movement, often unavailable to previous researchers. Indeed, it is one of the real strengths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this volume that oral testimonies from many, though not all, of the leading protagonists in this story, have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been painstakingly collected and collated, permitting the discerning reader to form nuanced judgments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the often labyrinthine internal dynamics and personal inter-relationships of the movement. Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, as with any oral evidence, the authors \(and the reader\) also need to be aware of the fallibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory, the self-justifying stance of many of the interviewees, the temptation to settle old scores, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity to treat the claims and counter-claims of erstwhile comrades, who sometimes became bitter foes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with due caution. Perhaps it is no accident that the authors subtitle the book as the ?story? of the Officials, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than claiming that they have produced its definitive ?history?. However, given that much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and organisational work of the movement described here, and certainly all of the paramilitary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity, was clandestine and conspiratorial in nature, it is probably inevitable that researchers must rely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon these oral sources, even if the authors have made a gallant effort to support their judgments with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary evidence. As a previous reviewer, and erstwhile protagonist in the Official republican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, puts it: ?as with the history of Irish republicanism generally, the oral tradition is crucial because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is a history of the defeated?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.656 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.656 298.371 m 203.648 298.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors argue persuasively for the significance of the Official Republican movement to the wider history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of both Republicanism and socialism in Ireland, and its importance to the political history of modern Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both North and South. They implicitly reject the double marginalisation of the movement: both in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conventional historical understanding of Irish Republicanism, and the alleged lack of influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialist theory and practice in Ireland. The story ?encompasses armed insurrection, several bitter splits, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of the most successful radical political grouping in the Republic of Ireland in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades?? \(p. xiii\). Perhaps of even greater significance, those who developed their political ideology out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Official republican movement were, during the late 1970s and through the 1980s, at the forefront of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to undermine irredentist ideology in the South, and worked tirelessly, in an extremely dangerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment, in an attempt to overcome the sectarian divisions of Protestants and Catholics in the working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class of Northern Ireland. In a certain sense, although sectarianism remains firmly rooted in Northern Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society, and has been institutionalised in the post-1998 era of power-sharing devolution, nonetheless the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary dispensation owes a good deal to the willingness of anti-sectarians in the WP to stand up to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remorseless logic of communal conflict. This may still be true, even if the WP has been rendered largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevant to contemporary political life in both Northern Ireland and the Republic. Several of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played important roles in the movement during the 1970s and 1980s in the South, have since gone on to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.6557 298.6855 203.6477 310.5655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7561 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish themselves as key parliamentary figures in the Dil: leaders such as Pat Rabbitte and Eamon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilmore \(both subsequently leaders of the Irish Labour Party, after they left the WP in 1992\), as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(veteran Proinsias De Rossa, have been integrated into the mainstream of Irish politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanley and Millar begin their chronological account with another biographical sketch, this time of Cathal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goulding, who became the IRA?s Chief of Staff in 1962 after the ignominious defeat of Operation Harvest, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which had begun in 1956. One of the key questions that has attracted debate in the existing literature is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which socialist and/or communist ideas and activists influenced the direction of the movement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1960s. Rather than endorse one of the many conspiracy theories that abound with regard to the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played by the tiny communist parties in either the Republic or Northern Ireland, the authors correctly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the disorientation in the ranks of Irish republicanism after the comprehensive defeat of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1950s, and the inchoate process of searching out a new direction. The very survival of the movement was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stake in these years, and the piecemeal adoption of leftist rhetoric was by no means universally popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the movement. Several of those more ?traditional? Republicans, sceptical if not downright hostile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?social republicanism? enshrined by Goulding \(who borrowed liberally from the Republican Congress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment of the 1930s\), dropped out of active involvement, and only returned to the movement after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explosion of violence in Northern Ireland during 1968?9. Some of these individuals, like Billy McKee and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joe Cahill, were instrumental in the split, and the formation of the Provisionals, and they were committed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a socially conservative movement, reliant upon the communal solidarity of the Catholic nationalist enclaves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both rural and urban, of Northern Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the Goulding/Mac Giolla/Garland leadership groped towards a more coherent direction in the mid to late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s, socialist politics appeared as the ?coming wave?, at least in the international arena, and even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland it was possible to see a strategy taking shape that stressed the )] TJ ET BT 367.628 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary)] TJ ET BT 432.956 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( credentials of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, as opposed to the traditional continuities. In its early stages, this leftism was certainly not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxist or pro-Soviet as such, but found expression in support for the indigenous elements of ?social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism?, as well as anti-colonial liberation struggles in Africa and Latin America. Goulding was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical of the militaristic elitism that had characterised Irish republicanism over the post-civil war decades, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this was a trend that had very deep historical roots, stretching back at least as far as the Fenians and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish Republican Brotherhood. However, although the movement was increasingly disdainful of the aloof )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position adopted by previous generations, it is a mistake to believe that the ?physical force? tradition was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process of withering away. It was not militarism per se that the leadership argued was inhibiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the movement, but its self-imposed distance from the daily struggles of the ?people?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanley and Millar are assiduous in tracing the internal debates over the relationship between political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activism and the commitment to violence during the fateful period from 1966?69, although their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgments are sometimes less easy to discern. Although Goulding had also criticised the backward-looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture of commemoration in the Republican movement, paradoxically it was the 50th anniversary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Easter rising in 1966 that produced a renewed and broader interest in the movement amongst younger left-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing elements. Garda estimates put the strength of the IRA at approximately 1,000 in 1966, but only around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a quarter of these were veterans of the Border campaign, illustrating the turnover in personnel and the influx )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of new recruits. Sinn Fin, which had not enjoyed an autonomous or powerful position within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement, became of more significance. The aim was to build a ?political, national and social revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation with an open membership and legal existence.? \(p. 59\) The IRA would maintain the upper hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the relationship, however, with ?army? figures placed in strategic posts within the SF organisation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, the Republican movement would remain under the firm control of its illegal and clandestine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military leadership, and the transparency afforded by the open activity of SF was strictly limited in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application. There was inevitably a tension between the sincerely held desire, to put the movement much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more closely in touch with the popular struggles of the day, and the ongoing commitment to maintain a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuating vanguardist elite, responsible for overseeing the movement?s strategic direction, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbeknownst to many of the foot soldiers and ordinary party workers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the Republican movement made some modest gains in the post-1966 period, it was with the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights agitation in Northern Ireland that the movement hit upon a strategy that would lead to an authentic sea-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7636 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the movement?s fortunes. Unfortunately, this growth was predicated upon the resurgence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sectarian confrontation in Northern Ireland, for which the Republican movement must take its share of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical responsibility. The events of summer 1969 have been carved into the historical psyche of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulster population, both Protestant and Catholic, but Hanley and Millar demonstrate convincingly that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevailing narrative \(associated with the Provisionals\), that the IRA was hardly present, and left Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(districts undefended while a Loyalist pogrom unfolded, is a conscious distortion of the facts. Nonetheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Goulding leadership?s insistence on their desire to reach out to the Protestant working-class could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mask the contradictions of the movement?s position. New recruits flooded into the movement, and some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the older traditionalists returned, seizing their opportunity to act as a thorn in the flesh of the Dublin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership group, and preparing the ground for the eventual split in December 1969. But, many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruits were explicit in their motivation: they wished to defend their areas from attack by Loyalists, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to retaliate against the Protestants. This outcome was precisely the opposite of that intended by Goulding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the other genuine anti-sectarians, but they had no capacity to engineer a new emphasis upon working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class unity. Although Hanley and Millar do not argue this case, we can perhaps speculate that in the crucible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of sectarian violence in August 1969, it was inevitable that the universalism of the movement?s rhetoric )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be found wanting. The arrival and continuing presence of the British Army on the streets only served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reinforce the \(anti-\)colonial prism through which events were interpreted, to disastrous effect for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book deals well with the complexity of the split, in its ideological, geographical and generational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dimensions. In many rural areas, it was some time before the split was formalised, whereas in Belfast and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derry, there were swift recriminations and confrontations. Decisions were often made on the basis of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated mixture of personal loyalties, ideological convictions and strategic judgments. In the end, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of the Provisionals ultimately permitted the Officials to develop a principled anti-sectarian politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Northern Ireland, but not before the latter had ?stumbled into an armed campaign? against the British \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on occasion those Unionists who were members of the ?Crown forces?\) in the spring of 1971 \(p. 164\). After )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximately 50 deaths caused by the Officials \(and 20 killed from within their ranks\), the movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called an open-ended ceasefire in May 1972. However, the Official IRA continued to operate, partly as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retaliatory armed wing involved in periodic feuding with the Provisionals and the Irish National Liberation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Army \(a splinter group from the Officials lead by Seamus Costello, who was killed in 1977\), and partly as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fundraising? unit engaged in armed robbery, extortion and other illegal activity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most significant role played by the Official IRA \(also known internally as ?Group B?\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-1977 era was as a ?party within a party?, attempting to ensure the revolutionary spirit of the movement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not adulterated. This revolutionary elitism and vanguardist approach sat easily with the cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisational antecedents of the new avowedly class-based socialist movement, and it also chimed closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Leninist concept of ?democratic centralism?, which increasingly came to dominate inner-party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological thought. By the late 1970s and into the 1980s, the distinctively Republican heritage of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement was giving way to a party model that resembled an orthodox communist party much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely. Aiding this transition, which actually maintained many elements of organisational continuity with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past practice, was the close relationship cultivated by WP leaders with the USSR and the Communist Party )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Soviet Union, and its position within the international communist movement. As Hanley and Millar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make clear in the second half of the book, the WP, whilst remaining relatively small in terms of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership base, had good claims to be considered the most dynamic party in the Republic during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1980s. Modest electoral growth reached a peak of 5% of first preference votes in 1989, with seven TDs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected \(six of these in Dublin, where the party won 11.4%, overtaking the Labour party\). The tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between a conspiratorial Leninist core group, basing its politics on secretive manoeuvring behind the scenes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a more transparent parliamentary presence, basing its activities upon reformist constituency work, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming ever more difficult to manage. The collapse of the international communist movement helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bring this tension into the public domain, and six of the seven TDs took the decision to leave the WP in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1992, creating the Democratic Left. Only Mac Giolla remained with the WP, and he subsequently lost his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seat later that year. As so often in the past, the split was accompanied by bitter recrimination, but this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant violence was averted, even if it was threatened on occasion. In Northern Ireland, the WP through )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 3565 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s found itself increasingly marginal, winning very few votes, but steadfastly refusing to abandon its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principled anti-sectarian message, even in the face of opprobrium from almost all quarters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The authors have made a very good job of narrating the story of the Official Republican movement and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Workers? Party, and of rebalancing the historiographical record with regard to the wider history of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicanism and socialism. Hanley and Millar end their account by pointing out the various groups and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements that have a vested interest in either drawing a veil over the past or attempting to rewrite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the Officials, including some who remain within the remnants of the WP and some who have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved into the political mainstream within the Irish Labour Party. For the Provisionals, who have marched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painfully slowly along much of the road travelled by the Officials, shedding blood liberally along the way, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parallels with the historical trajectory of their bitter rivals are all too evident, although many would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefer to ignore them. And for the small band of ?dissidents?, who in fact remain wedded to orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republican principles of the 1950s, this book will confirm their view that they are the Last True )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans. )] TJ ET BT 99.344 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lost Revolution)] TJ ET BT 196.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will remain lost to them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Padraig Yeates, ?A revolutionary Janus?, )] TJ ET BT 264.968 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dublin Review of Books)] TJ ET BT 380.624 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 11?15 November 2009.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 499.604 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 499.604 546.483 m 553.592 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wordpress)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://northernsong.wordpress.com/2011/02/24/the-lost-revolution-the-official-ira-and-the-workers-party/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 491.715 m 541.268 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 544.268 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 488.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 470.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 470.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/915)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 469.209 m 322.316 469.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4779)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://northernsong.wordpress.com/2011/02/24/the-lost-revolution-the-official-ira-and-the-workers-party/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 499.6037 546.7975 553.5917 558.6775 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 492.0295 541.2677 503.9095 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://northernsong.wordpress.com/2011/02/24/the-lost-revolution-the-official-ira-and-the-workers-party/) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 469.5235 322.3157 481.4035 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/915) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004738 00000 n 0000004847 00000 n 0000004957 00000 n 0000005066 00000 n 0000008627 00000 n 0000008755 00000 n 0000008839 00000 n 0000008923 00000 n 0000016762 00000 n 0000016792 00000 n 0000016920 00000 n 0000016956 00000 n 0000017021 00000 n 0000024635 00000 n 0000024700 00000 n 0000032389 00000 n 0000032487 00000 n 0000036105 00000 n 0000036233 00000 n 0000036288 00000 n 0000036415 00000 n 0000036571 00000 n 0000036699 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36794 %%EOF