%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722114945+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722114945+01'00') /Title (Church, Society and Religious Change in France, 1580-1730) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4925 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Church, Society and Religious Change in France, 1580-1730)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the past 15 years Joseph Bergin has produced two monographs on French bishops which are notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their ambitious scopes and for their contributions to our understanding of the French Church in the 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.004 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.004 257.673 m 86.996 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.996 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( His new work )] TJ ET BT 160.316 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Church, Society and Religious Change in France, 1580?1730)] TJ ET BT 456.632 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monumental study that only a scholar with his past achievements could contemplate undertaking. A survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French Church and its impact on society over the course of the 17th century must take into account the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legacy of the church?s long-established roots in France, the substantial regional and local variations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church structures and practices and its sheer ubiquity. Perhaps the most telling sign of the difficulties faced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by any scholar seeking to produce such a study is the lack of comparable books in French or English. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer is aware of only one such work, Bernard Hours? )] TJ ET BT 314.264 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?glise et la vie religieuse dans la France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(modern, xvi-xviii sicle)] TJ ET BT 145.652 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.652 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.652 157.881 m 162.644 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.644 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Hours? much shorter work in the ?Collection Premier Cycle? series was intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a brief introduction for undergraduates to the topic. Bergin?s study provides a more substantial survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate for undergraduates, but also much more.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the great merits of this book is that at 500 pages it is a sharp, focused study. Considered alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John McManners? impressive 1700 page survey of the Catholic Church in 18th-century France, one can see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Bergin had to make choices to shorten his account.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.312 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.312 74.601 m 313.304 74.601 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.304 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Much of its sharpness derives from Bergin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style. He eschews any effort to be encyclopedic and instead frequent draws upon substantial examples to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(916)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Bergin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300150988)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(506pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eric Nelson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0037 257.9875 86.9957 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6517 158.1955 162.6437 170.0755 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.3117 74.9155 313.3037 86.7955 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7382 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore developments. He also deftly tailors his approach to the contours of specific topics, as for instance in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter nine ?The Triumph of the Parish?, where he uses the refurbishment of parish churches to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in religious practice, or chapter seven ?Bishops: Adaptation and Action?, which closes with an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended look at the career of one bishop, Michel Le Peletier, to tie the wide-ranging chapter together. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of substantial examples in conjunction with detailed endnotes provides an admirable balance between a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readable text and a more comprehensive guide to further work in the field. Throughout he also succeeds in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing a coherent overview while still acknowledging and where appropriate examining regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another key to the book?s success is its organization. The work is comprised of a prologue, 16 thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters and a conclusion. Each chapter is broad ranging, often combining topics that are not usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered together. These thematic chapters can be read separately and provide useful introductions to key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components of the French Church and religious practice in the 17th century. But the sum total of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters is much more than the constituent parts. Topics first broached in early chapters are often returned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later in the book, as for instance the regular clergy who are the focus of three early chapters and are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined in later chapters where their roles are assessed in such areas as pilgrimage, preaching, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confraternities, missions and the Jansenist controversies. Taken collectively the chapters explore how and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why the Church changed during the long 17th century and how French culture and the structure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church limited and shaped change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work opens with a prologue that provides the reader with a point of departure in the form of a wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging survey of the Catholic Church during the final decades of the religious wars. ?Part One: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foundations? consists of two chapters. ?From Dioceses to Parishes: The Geography of the French Church? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys the physical and geographical organization of the church introducing the reader to the regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations in the Church that often make generalization difficult. ?Wealth into Benefices? surveys the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic foundations of the church with particular emphasis on the extent to which the benefice system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined the church?s relationship with French society by embedding families and social groupings in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church, effectively limiting some types of reform or change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Part Two: Clerical Worlds in Context? is comprised of four chapters all devoted to the clergy. ?Clerics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clergy: The World of the Seculars? is a magisterial survey of the secular clergy in all of their varied forms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As one might expect Bergin provides an excellent exploration of bishops and other elite clergy, but perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most impressive portion of the chapter deals with the remarkable variety of unbeneficed clergy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional variations within this group. As Bergin notes relatively little is known about these clergy who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained a substantial presence in localities across France. Nevertheless they are important, making up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of the distinctive features of the 17th-century church that would largely disappear by the 19th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other three chapters in this part are devoted to the regulars. ?The Monastic Orders: Adjustment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Survival? focuses on the monastic regulars that were already firmly established in France by the late Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ages. For these orders the 17th century was an important period of expansion through new foundations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of influential reform movements within existing communities. The chapter is most notable for the way that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bergin deftly leads the reader through the bewildering variety of religious orders, reform movements and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local circumstances that provide the contours to the monastic experience of the 17th century. The following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter ?From Mendicants to Congregations? opens with a review of the established mendicant tradition in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France with particular emphasis on the ongoing influence of the Franciscans during the 17th century ? an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important subject considering the much greater attention generally given to new orders and congregations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bergin then shifts his attention to the Jesuits, before introducing the new institution of secular congregations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which broke the mould of older medieval models. He concludes the chapter by exploring the impact at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local level of these varied active religious organizations, no easy task considering their number and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional variations in their activities. The final chapter of part two entitled ?A Silent Revolution: Women as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regulars? surveys perhaps the most remarkable development among the regular clergy in the 17th century ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the explosion in the number of female regulars and lay sisters and their increased and often novel new roles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in charitable, educational and pastoral initiatives. Here again, Bergin places these new developments firmly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of medieval precedents. In doing so he highlights how extraordinary the flowering of female )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7316 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regular religious life was in 17th-century France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bergin muses in his preface that some might view part two as overindulgent because it gives too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence to the clergy in his account of the church. I would disagree because collectively these chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are more than just a survey of different types of clergy. They also explore how the clerical estate interacted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the rest of society and provide an important foundation for the exploration of other topics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining chapters of the book. I would also add that these chapters provide the most accessible introductory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of the French clergy in all their varied forms that I have encountered. I will certainly be directing my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students to this section in the future as they seek to come to terms with this complex and unfamiliar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The two opening parts might best be thought of as providing the foundation for a series of more thematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays in parts three through five. ?Part Three: A New Clergy?? focuses on how the substantial and ongoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(efforts to improve the clergy and focus religious life in the parish church worked in practice. ?Bishops: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adaptation and Action? explores how bishops established channels of communication through which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to better direct religious life in their dioceses. ?Remaking the Secular Clergy? focuses on the wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of efforts to shape a more knowledgeable and, in terms of the Church?s purposes, competent parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy. The chapter is notable for the extent to which it places the emergence of seminaries in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other less well documented and understood initiatives, including clerical conferences and efforts to shape the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointment of parish clergy within the benefice system. The picture that emerges in this chapter is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trial and error that is more complex and nuanced than a long campaign that culminated in the foundation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seminaries. ?The Triumph of the Parish?? examines the efforts to focus religious life in the parish church. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that while there were certainly efforts to reshape the parish church and clergy, success in focusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious activities in the parish church varied substantially from place to place. It was perhaps least effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in urban centres where regular clergy offered alternative foci for devotion and the parishes themselves were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often ill suited to the task of serving parishioner needs. In rural areas the increased focus of religious life in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the parish may have been more effective, in part because of sustained pressure by church and secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities and in part because of the efforts of parishioners. These three chapters collectively explore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slow and uneven effort to focus religious life in the parish and improve the education and discipline of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parish clergy who were intended, at least within clerical circles, to be the primary source for change in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Part Four: Instruments of Religious Change? consists of four chapters that focus on a variety of efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improve the basic religious knowledge of the faithful. The first two chapters ?Saints and Shrines? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Sacraments and Sinners? consider how the Church sought to shape well-established religious ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices, including the cult of the saints, pilgrimages, processions and the sacraments to inculcate basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious knowledge in the population. In both chapters Bergin traces the evolution of these ideas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices through the Middle Ages before exploring how the faithful and church leaders understood and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to shape them in the 17th century. Local and regional variations make any generalization difficult, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it is clear that church leaders sought to defend late medieval beliefs and practices in part as a response to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant challenges even as they sought to rein in those features that they found most troubling. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear that the laity shaped the evolution of these practices and beliefs. In terms of the cult of the saints, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church could point by the 18th century to some success in reining in the most unorthodox beliefs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices and in channeling some devotional energy into more orthodox activities. In terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacraments, the church?s efforts to make them central to religious practice were of mixed success in part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it proved difficult to make clear the difference between the sacraments and other church-sanctioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following two chapters also concern efforts to inculcate the Catholic population with a firm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of what the church increasingly viewed as an essential set of beliefs and practices. ?Religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taught and Learned? explores how preaching, missions, catechism and schools were all used to varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees of success to teach the faithful, drawing on earlier chapters to explore the contributions of secular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regular clergy alongside lay initiatives. ?The Forms and Uses of Spirituality? examines spirituality in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad sense, including both the thought of elite spiritual thinkers from Brulle to Fnelon and advice books )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 7955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spiritual works that were widely disseminated among the faithful. Bergin in particular explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the works of elite spiritual writers were shaped by actual pastoral experiences and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between elite spiritual writing and more mainstream publications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Part Five: Movers and Shakers? examines in turn confraternities, )] TJ ET BT 353.960 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dvots)] TJ ET BT 387.284 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Jansenists as)] TJ ET BT 474.608 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key agents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in France. As its title implies ?The Many Faces of the Confraternities? explores the remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number and variety of confraternities, sodalities and congregations that collectively brought new spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs and practices to significant numbers of the faithful. While one important conclusion of the chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that further research on the topic is required, it is also clear that this long-established form of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association flowered in a variety of ways over the course of the seventeenth century having an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on the dissemination of new religious ideas. ?)] TJ ET BT 288.992 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dvots)] TJ ET BT 322.316 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: The Pious and the Militant? focuses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of the )] TJ ET BT 113.012 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dvot)] TJ ET BT 141.668 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( movement over the course of the 17th century, with particular focus on the secretive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company of the Holy Sacrament. The chapter emphasizes the importance of action among )] TJ ET BT 471.932 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dvots)] TJ ET BT 505.256 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in large scale organizations like the Holy Sacrament or later in the century in supporting local catechism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elementary school initiatives. In this chapter Bergin emphasizes that while the primary purpose of many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dvots )] TJ ET BT 70.340 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have been action, the devotional culture of the group made much of this activity possible. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter ?Jansenists: Dissidents but also Militants? provides a clear summary of this notoriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and difficult to define movement. Bergin emphasizes that Jansenism is in many ways a term of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convenience because it ?went through numerous stages of development and accretion, making it extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to use a single term to describe it at any one point in its history.? \(p. 422\) Collectively these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters show that while the most active participants in many of these initiatives were elites, they drew on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious ideas that had wider support in society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bergin?s conclusion broadens out his survey by describing the Catholic Reformation in France as one that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began relatively late but lasted longer than in other regions of Catholic Europe. He also takes the opportunity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to view the movement as a whole, emphasizing that it did not follow a steady trajectory, rather being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punctuated over its course by a series of developments that channeled new energy into the movement. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion also places the French church and its reform movements in a broader European perspective, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular emphasis on its influence on religious thought and practice in other regions of Catholic Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One critical aspect of the Catholic Church in France ? its role in the political life of the kingdom-? is largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absent from these chapters. Bergin, of course, is fully aware of the important role of the church in French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political life as his earlier studies of Richelieu and de la Rochefoucauld show.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.624 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.624 345.651 m 421.616 345.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.616 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But, as the title of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work implies, Bergin consciously chose to put the political role of the Church to one side, in large part to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make this ambitious undertaking possible. In reality, the political roles of the Church are present as no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of Jansenism, the religious wars or the bishops of France could completely ignore political issues. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Bergin has done is consciously choose not to focus on the Church?s role in politics. This is a decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some might regret, but Bergin hints in his prologue that he may produce a separate volume on this topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? another monumental task that I hope he takes on. Like politics, the Huguenots also receive attention only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in so much as they inspired Catholic missions and missionary societies. While clearly not central to a survey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Catholic Church, some readers might have hoped for a more sustained consideration of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Huguenot presence shaped Catholic identity in the 17th century. But it is conscious decisions to place some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues like politics and the Huguenots in the background that make this book such a focused and readable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no question that this book is an important and welcome addition to the field. Indeed, I wish that as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graduate student I had possessed a copy. It is not a book that seeks to fundamentally change our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the Church. Rather it offers a clear survey of the church in its many manifestations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms. It is a survey that focuses on changes over 150 years, even as it recognizes the powerful forces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity that also defined the period. At the same time it is much more than a survey. It provides a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the field as a whole and a guide to where further research is needed. Throughout Bergin takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the opportunity to highlight lacunae in current scholarship. At numerous points in the text he notes that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusions can only be provisional, including his assessment of the widely varying impacts of religious )] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj [27 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.6237 345.9655 421.6157 357.8455 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 4105 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders on French society or the role of unbeneficed clerics in local religious life. Other gaps become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent through the relative lack of references in the book to important regions as Bergin relies on those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions for which studies exist. It is clear that we understand far more about some regions of France than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others. Thus this book is more than just a survey, it also provides a guide to where further research will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transform our understanding of the French Church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bergin, )] TJ ET BT 113.348 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the French Episcopate 1589?1661 )] TJ ET BT 354.992 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Yale, 1996\); J. Bergin, )] TJ ET BT 471.308 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crown, Church )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Episcopate under Louis XIV)] TJ ET BT 220.676 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yale, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.324 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.324 658.275 m 341.312 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(B. Hours, )] TJ ET BT 113.348 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?Eglise et la vie religieuse dans la France moderne, xvie-xviiie sicle)] TJ ET BT 453.620 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.612 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.612 644.019 m 549.272 644.019 l S BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 629.763 m 90.344 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. McManners, )] TJ ET BT 138.668 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Church and Society in Eighteenth-Century France)] TJ ET BT 380.972 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., Oxford, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.624 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.624 615.507 m 551.612 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Bergin, )] TJ ET BT 113.348 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cardinal Richelieu: Power and the Pursuit of Wealth)] TJ ET BT 369.680 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yale, 1985\); J. Bergin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cardinal de la Rochefoucauld: Leadership and Reform in the French Church)] TJ ET BT 435.992 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yale, 1987\); J. Bergin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of Richelieu)] TJ ET BT 166.340 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Yale, 1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.988 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.988 572.739 m 286.976 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French History)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://fh.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/2/290.full)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 517.971 m 269.684 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.684 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 514.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 496.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 496.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/916)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 495.465 m 322.316 495.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 470.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4782)] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://fh.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/2/290.full)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.3237 658.5895 341.3117 670.4695 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.6117 644.3335 549.2717 656.2135 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 630.0775 90.3437 641.9575 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.6237 615.8215 551.6117 627.7015 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.9877 573.0535 286.9757 584.9335 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 518.2855 269.6837 530.1655 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://fh.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/2/290.full) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 495.7795 322.3157 507.6595 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/916) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000567 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000005647 00000 n 0000005756 00000 n 0000005866 00000 n 0000005975 00000 n 0000009536 00000 n 0000009664 00000 n 0000009748 00000 n 0000009777 00000 n 0000009903 00000 n 0000009939 00000 n 0000009968 00000 n 0000010096 00000 n 0000010132 00000 n 0000010161 00000 n 0000010287 00000 n 0000010323 00000 n 0000010388 00000 n 0000017823 00000 n 0000017888 00000 n 0000025257 00000 n 0000025341 00000 n 0000033349 00000 n 0000033379 00000 n 0000033507 00000 n 0000033543 00000 n 0000033669 00000 n 0000037827 00000 n 0000037955 00000 n 0000038010 00000 n 0000038138 00000 n 0000038193 00000 n 0000038319 00000 n 0000038374 00000 n 0000038502 00000 n 0000038557 00000 n 0000038685 00000 n 0000038740 00000 n 0000038867 00000 n 0000038969 00000 n 0000039097 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39192 %%EOF