%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140917072614+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140917072614+01'00') /Title (The Foundations of Female Entrepreneurship. Enterprise, Home and Household in London, c.1800-1870) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4407 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Foundations of Female Entrepreneurship. Enterprise, Home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(and Household in London, c.1800-1870)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 83.684 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in its editorial of 11 February 1857 opined 'It is a terrible incident of our social existence that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources for gaining a livelihood left open to women are so few. ... At present, the language practically held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by modern society to destitute women may be resolved into ?Marry ? Stitch ? Die ? or Do worse!?' Kay used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this phrase in the title of her 2002 thesis, and she has published several articles from it, but this more soberly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titled full-length version in Routledge's )] TJ ET BT 225.176 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Business History)] TJ ET BT 356.180 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series is very welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Public concern with distress in the needle trades was widespread in the middle of the 19th century. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate occasion of )] TJ ET BT 145.664 168.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 195.332 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' editorial was not any particular incident involving unemployed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needlewomen on the streets, but a public meeting addressed by the Bishops of London and Llandaff and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Earl of Shaftesbury on the oppressed condition of the milliners and dressmakers ? not the employees but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employers. These employers, it was alleged, were forced to overwork or let go the women in their employ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for lack of secure capital ? in other words, the failure of wealthy women to pay their bills on time. \(For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absorbing the oversupply of the employees )] TJ ET BT 243.320 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 292.988 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( recommended Canada or Australia.\) The great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of these employers, like the employees and the customers, were female. The Children?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Employment Commission in 1842 estimated that there were some 1000 millinery and dressmaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businesses in London \(millinery is here equivalent to dressmaking; the word was not confined to hat makers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(917)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alison Kay)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415431743)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(90.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(186pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amy Erickson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7134 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the end of the century\), and Nicola Phillips estimates that 95 per cent of these were run by women.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.940 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.940 795.075 m 546.932 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 546.932 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a common mistake to confuse one needlewoman with another, but as Kay points out, 'the businesswoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milliner is a different creature to the jobbing sempstress': one designed and made or had made individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garments; the other worked by the piece, either for a milliner or stitching pre-cut ready-made clothes \(p. 48\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kay finds milliners and dressmakers aplenty, but she also finds blacksmiths, wheelwrights and omnibus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proprietors, among many other businesswomen. Her sources are insurance policy registrations from the Sun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fire Insurance Company, the 1851 Post Office Directory, advertisements and trade cards, trade guides, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucially the 1851 and 1861 censuses. These latter allow a degree of demographic profiling of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businesswomen identified in the other sources, which contributes significantly to our knowledge of 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century women's working lives. For those with access to at least a little capital, stitching was far from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only alternative to marriage or death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Female entrepreneurship' is not immediately recognizable as a category of economic history. There is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional distinction between income-generating self-employment of various kinds, which women are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely though to resort to as a way to make ends meet or contribute to the household income, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurial activity which is characterised by industrial capitalists \(who, for a variety of reasons, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male\). But Kay argues that the straightforward descriptive use of the term as someone who runs an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise should be reclaimed; rather than restricting the use of the word to 'extreme innovators and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialists', entrepreneurs should encompass 'someone who specialises in taking judgemental decisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the coordination of scarce resources' \(p. 124\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women certainly set up, inherited, adapted and ran enterprises in this sense. Kay connects 'a little enterprise' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the home with entrepreneurship characterized by self-employment or small business, and comprehending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men as well as women, alongside the appearance of much larger forms of capitalization. 'Many of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women \(and men\) may have only reluctantly thought of themselves as people of business and seen little in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common with the big players, preferring to identify with their craft, service and personal reputation' \(p. 53\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the world of what Kay calls 'survivalist entrepreneurs', business size was only one measure of success. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women in particular were constrained in their business choices by the requirements of propriety, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic demands of their household, and need to present their businesses as in pursuit of independence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-sufficiency, rather than in pursuit of profits. In short, 'the very concept of ?success? in business was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered' \(p. 129\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since no one knows how many male members of the 19th-century middle class 'could afford to keep a non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working wife or daughter and not all daughters married' \(p. 17\), we must assume that middle class women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were involved in business, but at the same time they had domestic obligations. The solution for many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these women, as it was also for widows, was to adapt business life to domestic requirements. 'A little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise could secure for its proprietor many things: an income that could be woven around domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments; independence and a measure of respectability; the preservation of her home and household; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a retirement strategy' \(p. 133\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kay examines some 2000 women?s and men?s insurance policies for the mid 18th and mid 19th centuries. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some 643 of these policies were taken out by women insuring business assets. While the range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businesswomen's occupations was wide, a consistent 85 per cent of these businesses fell into traditionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female categories of domestic enterprise: lodging-house keeper or innkeeper; shopkeeper; home-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production and sale of clothing; food and drink provision; and school keeping. These enterprises met the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary requirement for maintaining status, but at the same time their connection with the household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has led historians to overlook their business elements.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any division into traditionally gendered occupations can be problematic. There was considerable overlap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between female and male proprietors. Kay identifies the ten most frequent occupations for women and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men in the mid 19th century, and four of these are in common with both lists: victualler, chandler, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tobacconist, and grocer/greengrocer. Gender differences are more pronounced in capitalisation: women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insured smaller amounts \(although Kay points out that the tendency for household and business assets to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.9397 795.3895 546.9317 807.2695 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7292 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlap leads to lower estimates of business asset values\). Women were also much more prominent in small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to medium-sized firms than in large firms. Over time, it was these small and medium firms whose proportion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the market dropped by half between the later 18th and the later 19th centuries. Women dominated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies covering textile and clothing business, and that dominance increased over time. But the textile and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clothing trades were far less capitalised than other retail enterprises or food and drink establishments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is another important entrepreneurial activity that Kay examines, which is rarely identified as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupation but which can be isolated in insurance records, and that is property investment. Kay extracts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multi-property policies from the Sun Fire Insurance registers in 1851 and 1861, as distinct from those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies which insured business assets. She found only marginal differences between women and men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of proportions insuring property other than their own household, number of properties insured and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their value, concluding that ?property as an investment and potential income strategy was broadly gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutral in the metropolis? \(p. 108\). So the propensity to rent out property ? or at least the propensity to insure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it ? was not gendered although we cannot be sure of the use to which the additional property was put. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been a tendency to view rental income as 'passive investment' when it was done by widows and single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, but Kay sees it instead as 'a classic case of portfolio diversification' \(p. 107\). Rental property and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rented rooms must have been a considerable sector of the economy in a fast-growing city with limited space, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and if the lodging house landlady is a character not normally associated with economic growth, then she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keeping a lodging house was a gendered activity. Although only half of the 1400 London lodging houses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1851 Post Office Directory were listed under a female name, many were listed under an initial only, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others may have been run by married women using their husband's name to provide 'an extra layer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectability' \(p. 111\). Furthermore, only a small proportion of the insured lodging house keepers publicised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their businesses in the Post Office Directory, which suggests that women were underrepresented ? at least if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the better-off female lodging house keepers relied on personal recommendation rather than advertising as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more genteel form of generating business. Keeping a lodging house was suitable as an enterprise for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentlewomen, with its 'element of moral guidance'. Additional fees were charged for services such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laundry, meals, shoe-polishing and so forth ? and undoubtedly sex too, at the bottom of the range where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectability gave way to brothel-keeping. And of course, even where a male proprietor was named, it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be supposed that he personally undertook the carrying of coal and water and the emptying of slops for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lodgers, as well as their laundry, cleaning their rooms, and providing meals. All of that work would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been undertaken by the female members of the proprietor's household or by his female servants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kay uses the censuses of 1851 and 1861 to place her insurance policy holders in their household context, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds some distinctive patterns. For example, of 180 businesswomen with policies in the Sun Fire registers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who can be identified in the census, nearly 20 per cent also had lodgers in their households so were keeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a lodging house of some kind in addition to their main business.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not surprisingly, 80 per cent of the insured business proprietors were recorded in the census as household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heads. \(A business run by a married woman was likely to be insured in her husband's name for legal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons.\) The stereotype widow proprietor was most prevalent among the typically 'male' manufacturing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trades. But the census also reveals the constituent members of these women?s households, and belies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotypical explanation for the widow proprietor ? that they were maintaining their husbands? business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until their sons came of age. In fact, although it is impossible to tell how many widows took over a dead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husband's business in order to preserve it for a son's majority, there is clear evidence that some widows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued their business with adult sons as junior partners. In other words, a widow retained headship of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household regardless of her children's age or sex. It would be interesting to test this hypothesis more broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by analysing the household position of widows in the census more broadly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining proprietors were mainly unmarried, and a few were married. The census is vital to ascertain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marital status, because the identification of married, widowed and unmarried women in any other source is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated by the different usage of the title 'Mrs' in the 19th century. 'Mrs' denoted status in addition to or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of denoting marriage. So unmarried women might use 'Mrs' if their parentage or business status )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7745 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warranted it, although this practice declined significantly over the 19th century as the previously widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of ?Mrs? to refer to a substantial business proprietor gave way to the dual use of ?Mrs? and ?Miss?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguishing the marital status of those business proprietors. Equally, a woman identified only by her name )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an insurance policy or in the Post Office Directory or on a trade card, without any courtesy title, was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to be married or widowed as she was to be single. The only source which identifies marital status with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonable accuracy is the census in 1851. Probably the reason that never-married women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?underrepresented? \(p. 88\) in the Post Office Directory is because higher-status women were more likely to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advertise there and were more likely to use ?Mrs?. They were not necessarily assuming the title in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquire respectability by means of a fictitious marriage, as a later reading might have it, but merely to reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their higher social standing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the households of the businesswomen with insurance policies, approximately one third had residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic servants, one third had residential employees, and one third had children under the age of fourteen. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would have been useful to know how these three categories overlapped. There is a difficulty in the census, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Kay acknowledges, of distinguishing between domestic servants and employees, and this is especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acute in retail establishments. In an era when genteel shops were open 12 or 16 hours a day, and longer on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday and Saturdays, and those for a lower clientele opened even longer \(p. 77\), it must have been likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the same young woman who did some of the housework also minded the shop counter at certain hours. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And of course, the census cannot reveal the non-resident employees, whether they were hired for domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or trade purposes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither insurance registers nor directories 'can give us an accurate measure of the number of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in business in nineteenth-century London ... women's involvement in business may have actually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been fairly static from the late seventeenth century through to the mid-nineteenth' \(p. 52\). On the basis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurance registers, perhaps around 10 per cent of all businesses were female-owned. That would not include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businesses run in partnership by a married couple. But different sources record different segments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurial world in the capital. Only one third of the businesswomen insured in 1851 were also found in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Post Office Directory of the same year \(p. 51\). On the other hand, the Post Office Directory listed nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000 women in the ten most popular female trades, some of whom may have been insured with other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(companies and some of whom may not have been insured, or at least not in their own names. But the Post )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office Directory figures are minima, because female proprietors sometimes advertised in a male name, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably that of a husband \(living or dead\), and also in a company name.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kay reclaims not only the title of entrepreneur, but also the economic importance of those)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('survivalist entrepreneurs' in the process of industrialisation. 'They provided articles of clothing \(bespoke and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ready-to wear, fancy and everyday\), and the laundry services to wash and iron them. They catered to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hungry bellies and bawdy tensions of the metropolis by supplying food, drink and general hospitality, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operated printers and engravers and published newspapers to inform the adult masses, and opened schools to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teach their children too' \(p. 132\). Almost 60 per cent of the 747 private schools advertised in the 1851 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Directory had female proprietors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not the first study to exploit the potential of the Sun Fire insurance registers for gendered business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ownership. Margaret Hunt used them in )] TJ ET BT 228.320 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Middling Sort: Commerce, Gender and Family in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1680-1780)] TJ ET BT 86.012 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Nicola Phillips in )] TJ ET BT 196.352 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in Business 1700-1850)] TJ ET BT 344.672 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.672 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.672 179.091 m 361.664 179.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 361.664 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Kay is the first to assess the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(size of the businesses and to correlate them with the census in order to set businesswomen in their family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions. \(Given the current controversy over the accuracy of the census in recording female occupations, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been useful to know if the 1851 and 1861 censuses confirmed the occupational title given on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurance policy\). Although quantification is elusive, the prevalence of female proprietors and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution in different economic sectors does not appear to have been markedly different in cities outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the capital. In the absence of insurance records \(which are strongly London-biased\) and the census, Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sanderson?s )] TJ ET BT 97.004 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Work in Eighteenth-Century Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 347.312 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Hannah Barker?s )] TJ ET BT 456.608 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Business of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women: Female Enterprise and Urban Development in Northern England 1760-1830)] TJ ET BT 446.300 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on Leeds, Manchester )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sheffield, used newspapers, trade cards, civic trade records and legal sources to produce similar patterns )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.6717 179.4055 361.6637 191.2855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 4025 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of gendered proprietorship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.984 795.075 m 178.976 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 178.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dealing with a later period than any of the previous literature, Kay?s study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly does not suggest any Victorian decline in the presence of women business proprietors. Kay?s foray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into 19th-century entrepreneurship, and her exploration of the blurred boundaries between home and work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for many proprietors, but especially for women, should encourage more work from other scholars and from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.547 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicola Pullin, ??A heavy bill to settle with humanity?: The representation and invisibility of London?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal milliners and dressmakers?, in )] TJ ET BT 258.656 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Famine and Fashion: Needlewomen in the Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Beth Harris \(Aldershot & Burlington, 2005\), p. 215.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.664 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.664 644.019 m 391.652 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Hunt, )] TJ ET BT 140.996 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Middling Sort: Commerce, Gender and Family in England 1680-1780)] TJ ET BT 498.968 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CA, 1996\); Nicola Phillips, )] TJ ET BT 198.692 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women in Business 1700?1850)] TJ ET BT 349.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.340 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.340 615.507 m 484.328 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Sanderson, )] TJ ET BT 168.332 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women and Work in Eighteenth-Century Edinburgh)] TJ ET BT 418.640 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1996\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Barker, )] TJ ET BT 142.988 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Business of Women: Female Enterprise and Urban Development in Northern )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England 1760?1830)] TJ ET BT 161.684 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.332 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.332 572.739 m 294.320 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is considering a response to this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sehepunkte)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sehepunkte.de/2010/10/17765.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 491.715 m 261.020 491.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.020 493.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 488.383 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 470.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 470.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/917)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 469.209 m 322.316 469.209 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 444.232 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.832 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4786)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.432 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.sehepunkte.de/2010/10/17765.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.9837 795.3895 178.9757 807.2695 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 337.6637 644.3335 391.6517 656.2135 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.3397 615.8215 484.3277 627.7015 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.3317 573.0535 294.3197 584.9335 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 492.0295 261.0197 503.9095 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.sehepunkte.de/2010/10/17765.html) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 469.5235 322.3157 481.4035 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/917) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000607 00000 n 0000000689 00000 n 0000005148 00000 n 0000005257 00000 n 0000005367 00000 n 0000005476 00000 n 0000009037 00000 n 0000009165 00000 n 0000009249 00000 n 0000009333 00000 n 0000016520 00000 n 0000016550 00000 n 0000016678 00000 n 0000016714 00000 n 0000016779 00000 n 0000024124 00000 n 0000024208 00000 n 0000032006 00000 n 0000032036 00000 n 0000032164 00000 n 0000032200 00000 n 0000032319 00000 n 0000036397 00000 n 0000036427 00000 n 0000036555 00000 n 0000036591 00000 n 0000036719 00000 n 0000036774 00000 n 0000036902 00000 n 0000036957 00000 n 0000037085 00000 n 0000037140 00000 n 0000037267 00000 n 0000037362 00000 n 0000037490 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37585 %%EOF