%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 25 0 R 45 0 R 71 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 47 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140713142842+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140713142842+01'00') /Title (Identity in the Shadow of Slavery) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4869 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Identity in the Shadow of Slavery)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How do we conceptualise the African diaspora? The forced migration through the slave trade and its impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the cultures of origin that slaves brought with them to the Americas has constituted an important area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic research since the pioneering work of Melville Herskovits and Roger Bastide. Prior to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies, it was assumed that slaves in the Americas quickly lost their own language and cultures whereas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herskovits and Bastide argued that African cultural influences were retained and persisted into the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 73.004 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 73.004 214.905 m 86.996 214.905 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 86.996 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In contrast, Sidney Mintz and Richard Price \(1976\), prioritised the ways in which ethnically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmented slaves created new creole cultures.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.936 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.936 200.649 m 271.928 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.928 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Revisiting these debates over African retentions, Ira Berlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and John Thornton argued that slaves were far less heterogeneous than Mintz and Price suggested. Slaves, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues Thornton, came from only three diverse linguistic and cultural areas, Upper Guinea, lower Guinea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Angola and this fostered communication and common cultural understandings and practices amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 66.344 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 66.344 143.625 m 80.336 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 80.336 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus evolved a contentious and ongoing debate regarding the persistence of cultural links between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa and the Americas to which )] TJ ET BT 199.304 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity in the Shadow of Slavery)] TJ ET BT 358.292 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contributes in extending the analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diasporic links to include the areas of West Africa that many slaves were drawn from.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity in the Shadow of Slavery)] TJ ET BT 193.004 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was first published in 2000 and originated from papers presented at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forum held at York University, Canada, in 1997 linked to the UNESCO Slave Routes project. This forum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also the origins of the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on the Global Migrations of Africans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(919)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Lovejoy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780826403964)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(245pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Bush)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 73.0037 215.2195 86.9957 227.0995 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.9357 200.9635 271.9277 212.8435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 66.3437 143.9395 80.3357 155.8195 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 7616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this collection has been published as part of the Institute?s ?Series on the African Diaspora?. The editor, Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Lovejoy, Distinguished Research Professor at York and the director of the Institute, has published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prolifically on African and African diaspora history. The collection, states Lovejoy in his introductory essay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges assumptions that slaves came from diverse backgrounds, and thus Mintz?s arguments for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creolisation. He provides an effective critique of the idea of a cultural ?melting pot? in the diaspora and also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concept of ?plural societies? pointing out that several ethnic groups stand out in African diaspora history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? Yoruba \(Nago or Lucumi\), Ewe/ Fon and Igbo from West Africa, and Kongo and Mbundi \(Bantu from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congo/ Angola\). )] TJ ET BT 117.680 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity in the Shadow of Slavery)] TJ ET BT 276.668 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( thus adopts an Africanist approach as reconstructing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?fragmented lives? of Africans who crossed the Atlantic, argues Lovejoy, cannot be divorced from these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African origins that shaped creolisation \(p. 19\). Africa is ?the source of cultural change in the Americas?: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle passage is firmly located in the middle; what happened before the trauma of the middle passage had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ramifications for historical development in the Americas \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reflecting this broad focus, the articles in the collection are diverse in location and themes, embracing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cimarrn )] TJ ET BT 84.356 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(maroon\) communities in the early Spanish Circum-Caribbean \(Jane Landers\); Yoruba and Igbo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities in Brazil and the Caribbean \(Olabiyi Yai, Maureen Warner-Lewis, Douglas B. Chambers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Ayorinde\); free African visitors to, and residents in, Brazil and Georgia \(Alberto da Costa e Silva, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lillian Ashcraft-Eason\); slavery in West Africa \(Sandra E. Greene and Francine Shields\); slave culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender ideologies, including marriage and kinship in Brazil \(Monola Garcia Florentino and Jos Roberto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ges\) and transformations in slave women?s identities in the Caribbean \(Hilary McD. Beckles\). The authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the articles have all produced original and influential research in their field and/ or made research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to support such research. Most of the articles focus on areas where slaves were in the majority; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the slave experience in North America is barely mentioned, highlighting perhaps the problems of integrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses of the African-American minority which has been absorbed into the American, rather than pan-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American, historical canon as shaped by the ?unique? North American experience. An exception here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(AshcraftEason?s intriguing article on Fenda Lawrence, an Atlantic Creole and female slave trader from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Senegambia who travelled as a free black woman on a slave ship to Savannah, Georgia in 1772 where she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled, possibly to protect her rights and estate after the death or departure of her English husband \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(209?10\). The fact that Fenda Lawrence needed a deposition testifying that she was free highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important differences between European / African social relations in West Africa and the slave societies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Americas. The article also challenges some conventional ideas about women and slavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lovejoy?s introductory essay provides a thoughtful and scholarly orientation to the collection that considers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key concepts of diaspora, ethnicity, identity and creolisation. Diaspora is defined as a ?web of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections? that ensured cultural continuities between Africa and its diaspora during slavery \(p. 21\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaspora, argues Lovejoy, reflects layers of influences and ?it is not always easy to determine which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directions ideas or even people flowed? \(p. 8\). Creolisation, he observes, is thought to be a term of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portuguese origin reflecting the fact that the first creolisation of African cultures began on the West coast of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa with the arrival of Portuguese traders in the 16th century. In relation to the Americas it has been used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in different ways; to define those born in the slave societies of the Americas, including whites; to denote the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of new societies and cultures arising from interaction between Western European and African )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures and to describe ?trade? languages that developed to facilitate communication where there was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common language \(p. 13\). Lovejoy rightly acknowledges that identity is a ?shadowy? concept \(pp. 23?4\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the articles in this collection demonstrate how identities change over time and are subjected to multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences. Ethnicity is also a complex, slippery and much debated concept and, as Lovejoy points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?ethnic terms reveal historical processes that were far from static?; for that reason, he adds, ?the meaning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic and national identity in the early modern era remains a central problem in African history? \(p. 12\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the ways in which slaves identified themselves, ethnic definitions were also derived from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European labelling of slaves. This issue of fluid ethnic identities is explored in more depth in Sandra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greene?s article on ?Cultural zones in the Era of the Slave Trade: Exploring the Yoruba Connection with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anlo-Ewe? and Warner-Lewis? study of ethnic and religious plurality among Yoruba immigrants in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 9141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academic debates fundamental to this collection of articles are still very much alive. Support of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creolisation position first proposed by Mintz, and Price has been provided by more recent studies influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by postmodernism that have explored the ?)] TJ ET BT 240.656 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bricolage)] TJ ET BT 286.652 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and ?hybridisation? of cultures in the Americas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through creolisation, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mttisage)] TJ ET BT 182.336 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and transculturation. There has also been a greater emphasis on exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnational links across the Atlantic world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.660 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.660 726.051 m 262.652 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 262.652 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Richard Price has recently revisited these debates and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that an understanding the extent to which African culture was retained calls for a ?pan-Afro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American perspective? that takes in broader comparisons across Afro-America and across disciplines.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 523.220 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 523.220 697.539 m 537.212 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research into diaspora cultures was initially spearheaded by anthropologists and more recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aarchaeological and ethnographical research has provided new evidence of the influence of certain ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups and the tenacity African traditions and material culture from the slave era to the present.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 492.584 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 492.584 654.771 m 506.576 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The articles in )] TJ ET BT 105.668 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity in the Shadow of Slavery )] TJ ET BT 267.656 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are written mainly by historians)] TJ ET BT 420.308 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 426.308 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the exception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maureen Warner Lewis, Christine Ayorinde, and Olibiyi Yai, a linguist. This raises important issues about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possibilities and pitfalls of interdisciplinarity. Lovejoy regards anthropological studies as ahistoric and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with ?too much reading backward from the present? and claims that anthropology assumes a ?static )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnographic past? \(p. 20\). But as John Comoroff, whose research has made an important contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southern African history, has observed, there should be no division between history and anthropology: it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emphasis on empiricism in history that has created these divisions.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.660 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.660 542.979 m 385.652 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.652 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dialogue across as well as within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disciplines can expand and enrich our understanding of the complex nature of African diaspora identities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures, past and present. As Lovejoy has acknowledged elsewhere , historical sources relating to slave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures are scattered and fragmentary.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.280 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.280 500.211 m 234.272 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 234.272 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( White men and women had only superficial insight into the hidden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world of rites, rituals and beliefs of Africans and their descendents in the Americas. African-derived cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices in slavery and freedom, unless they posed a threat to security and/or profits, were of little interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to slave owners or colonial authorities. Thus evidence and conceptual frameworks from other disciplines, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including anthropology, have some validity in reconstructing a past that escaped the formal records and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabling us to get a sense of the dynamics of cultural change over time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.288 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.288 428.931 m 391.280 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Additionally, a little more ambitious overview and emphasis of common themes and issues linking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of articles would have enhanced this collection. Lovejoy criticises historians such as Karen Fog )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olwig, who argue for certain cultural commonalities across the West African regions from where most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves originated \(pp. 16?17\). But arguments for a single cultural zone embracing West Africa and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congo, reconfigured by Thornton into ?three zones?, still has some validity particularly in relation to shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices and beliefs relating to family, kin, gender roles, and religion in the slaves? cultures of origin in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West and Central Africa. Sandra Greene?s study of links between the Yoruba and Anlo in the 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lends support for the idea of cultural zones, albeit that these were ?constantly shifting and changing under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic and political forces that shaped African history? \(p. 98\). Lovejoy is right to criticise superficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisations about culture but in so doing may over-particularise and thus make arguments rather dense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and difficult to follow. David Cannadine has commented on the differences between the ?parachutists?, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider overview, and the ?truffle hunters? who amass the detailed evidence that supports the illuminating, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but broad, insights of the ?parachutists?. Both have their place in the production of rounded histories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, more mention may have been made about the relationship between culture and resistance. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touched on in Ayorinde?s paper on African-derived religions in Cuba and Olabiyi?s interesting article )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing two Brazilian documents produced during slavery on Fon vocabulary and sentences and Yoruba )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words respectively. The documents provide evidence that the majority of slaves in Minas Gerais in the 18th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century were Mina people \(now Ghana, Togo and Benin\) who used Fon as a )] TJ ET BT 403.604 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lingua franca)] TJ ET BT 468.608 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Yoruba was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common language among slaves in Pernambuco. They were probably written for slave owners in recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the threat posed by slaves \(particularly slave revolt\) in the belief that knowledge of the slaves? languages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facilitated control \(pp. 106?7, 112\). These documents highlight how the evolution of African diaspora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture represents a continuous dialectic between African and European value systems that involved creative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merging and compromises but also conflict and resistance. The theme of religion and related belief systems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the focus of Ayorinde?s paper on African Cuban identity and the )] TJ ET BT 348.284 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regla de Ocha)] TJ ET BT 419.600 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Santeri, and referred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a number of other articles, may also have been more firmly highlighted, as one of the strongest areas )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.6597 726.3655 262.6517 738.2455 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 523.2197 697.8535 537.2117 709.7335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 492.5837 655.0855 506.5757 666.9655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.6597 543.2935 385.6517 555.1735 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.2797 500.5255 234.2717 512.4055 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.2877 429.2455 391.2797 441.1255 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 10385 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Africanisms have persisted and also around which some of the fiercest cultural struggles have ensued. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Ira Berlin has stressed ?the slaves struggle to give meaning to their music, dance and devotions were no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less political than their struggle over work?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 244.988 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 244.988 766.563 m 264.980 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In all fairness edited collections are always vulnerable to accusations of omission and coherence of themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conceptual frameworks. On balance )] TJ ET BT 229.952 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity in the Shadow of Slavery)] TJ ET BT 388.940 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( remains an important and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating collection and in many ways the title does not do full justice to the breadth of content. Tables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and illustrations enhance the articles and there is a detailed and updated bibliography that will be a welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aid to students and scholars wishing to pursue further enquiry in to any of the varied topics covered in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection. The book is reasonably priced and the articles illuminate the sheer geographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological scope needed to understand cultural dynamics within the African diaspora. Together they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate effectively the continuous links between Africa and this diaspora and meticulously analyse the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for cultural continuity and the formation of new cultural forms in response to the exigencies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery and the specific economic, cultural and linguistic milieux in which African slaves lived and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laboured. Gendered experiences of enslavement are also addressed. The claims made in the introduction \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1\) of recognizing the agency of the subaltern, and providing an ?African centred focus? that challenges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eurocentric prioritization of the North Atlantic \(p. 4\) may now have lost their innovatory edge. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse contributions remain relevant as they provide rich detail and solid historical evidence and insight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the complexities of the Atlantic world that complement inspired but generalised studies of diaspora )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures emanating from social and cultural studies. Thus the distinguished Nigerian historian Toyin Falola?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endorsement in the preface that )] TJ ET BT 187.640 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Identity in the Shadow of Slavery)] TJ ET BT 346.628 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is the ?best book so far to analyse a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected theme?, providing a ?sociology of the reshaping of traumatised lives? \(p. xiii\) still has validity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 464.451 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melville Herskovits, )] TJ ET BT 165.680 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Myth of the Negro Past)] TJ ET BT 298.676 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boston, 1976, first published c. 1941\))] TJ ET BT 487.004 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 493.004 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roger )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bastide, )] TJ ET BT 106.016 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(African Civilisations of the New World)] TJ ET BT 293.036 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1967\), p. 42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 404.360 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 404.360 418.179 m 458.348 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sidney Mintz and Richard Price)] TJ ET BT 218.000 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The Birth of African American Culture: an Anthropological )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perspective )] TJ ET BT 122.996 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Boston, 1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.996 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.996 389.667 m 251.984 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Thornton, )] TJ ET BT 140.348 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Africa and the Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400?1682)] TJ ET BT 486.344 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\), pp. 186?192; Ira Berlin, )] TJ ET BT 215.996 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Many Thousands Gone:)] TJ ET BT 331.316 362.549 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 337.316 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the First Two Cen)] TJ ET BT 424.328 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tu)] TJ ET BT 433.664 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ries of Slavery in North )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(America)] TJ ET BT 104.672 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Cambridge, MA, 1998\), pp. 103?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.652 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.652 346.899 m 337.640 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seminal texts on creolisation include Antonio Bentez-Roja, )] TJ ET BT 356.000 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Isla que se Repite: el Caribe y la )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Perspectiva Postmoderna)] TJ ET BT 187.664 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hanover, NH, 1989\) and Edouard Glissant, )] TJ ET BT 405.620 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Discours Antillais,)] TJ ET BT 510.632 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1981\). For a more recent perspective, see Lorand Matory, )] TJ ET BT 343.940 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Atlantic Religions, Tradition, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transnationalism and Matriarchy in Brazilian Candombl)] TJ ET BT 345.704 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2005\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.024 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.024 289.875 m 509.012 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 277.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Price ?On the Miracle of Creolization? in )] TJ ET BT 306.632 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Afro- Atlantic Dialogues: Anthropology in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diaspora)] TJ ET BT 109.352 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Kevin A. Yelvington \(Oxford, 2006\), pp. 113? 46, pp. 130?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 427.976 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 427.976 261.363 m 481.964 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance Laurie A. Wilkie and Paul Farnsworth, )] TJ ET BT 315.980 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sampling Many Pots: an Archaeology of Memory )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Tradition at a Bahamian Plantation)] TJ ET BT 257.708 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Miami, FL, 2005\); Maureen Warner-Lewis, )] TJ ET BT 477.992 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Central Africa )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Caribbean: Transcending Time. Transforming Cultures )] TJ ET BT 364.700 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Kingston, Jamaica, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.348 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.348 218.595 m 548.336 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John L. Comoroff ?Dialectical systems: history and anthropology: units of study and questions of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory?,)] TJ ET BT 103.004 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Journal of Southern African Studies)] TJ ET BT 278.672 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8, 2 \(1982\), 144, 145?72.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.992 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.992 190.083 m 459.980 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Lovejoy, ?The African diaspora: revisionist interpretations of ethnicity, culture and religion )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under slavery? in)] TJ ET BT 146.660 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Studies in the World History of Slavery, Abolition and Emancipation)] TJ ET BT 479.660 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 11, 1 \(997.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 147.315 m 118.004 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alice Bee Kasakoff ?Is there a place for Anthropology in Social Science History?, )] TJ ET BT 462.584 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social Science )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 100.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23, 4 \(1999\), 535?59, 536.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.336 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.336 118.803 m 287.324 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berlin, )] TJ ET BT 100.016 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Many Thousands Gone)] TJ ET BT 211.340 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 103?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.668 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.668 104.547 m 327.656 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 79.685 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 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