%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150331052420+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150331052420+01'00') /Title (A Commonwealth of the People: Popular Politics and England?s Long Social Revolution, 1066?1649) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4282 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People: Popular Politics and England?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Long Social Revolution, 1066?1649)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Rollison has written a remarkable work of social and political history: vertiginously ambitious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 186.008 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( showcases England?s constitutional and economic development from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11th to the 17th century within world histories of nationalism, democratization, and globalization. ?My )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject?, he writes, ?is the emergence of a ?civilization?? \(p. 16\). At the heart of this grand narrative is mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagement in English public life between the Norman Conquest and the execution of Charles I. Through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this theme, Dr Rollison traces the emerging class-consciousness of the commons of England and thus the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roots of progressive politics.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The peopling of Britain in prehistoric times had begun to foster a shared sense of ?landscape?, that is, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political geography of identity, ownership, and belonging. Over such a )] TJ ET BT 376.304 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dure)] TJ ET BT 439.292 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the Norman Conquest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented a moment of discontinuity, the two centuries or so that it took the invading and the indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations to assimilate. Yet the conquest as idea resonated down the centuries. The experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjugation \(as collective servility\) reinforced a ?hard-core dualism of elite ruling class and subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multitude? that would be reflected in the writings of populists such as John of Salisbury and of reactionaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Thomas Hobbes ? the two thinkers who bookend the study \(p. 45\). In the )] TJ ET BT 425.300 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policraticus )] TJ ET BT 486.968 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury recognized and also vindicated the independence of the commons, the ?feet? of his body politic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(920)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Rollison)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521853736)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(474pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Cavill)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This metaphor also de-centred the crown: in its place, a collective sense of the greater good ? what would, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, be called the ?commonweal? ? appeared.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Over the three centuries after the )] TJ ET BT 194.624 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policraticus )] TJ ET BT 256.292 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was written, the commons became an insistent presence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life. The rise of English ? the language of the commonalty ? as the collective tongue of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture intensified this intervention. The vernacularization of public life over the 14th century privileged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, the ?common voice?. Public opinion ? whether in the exchange of news, the telling of stories, or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeating of anecdotes ? was, above all, ?common opinion?. Because of its power, vernacular discourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to be seen as dangerous, the object of suspicion and \(in the case of religious expression\) of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppression. Nevertheless from 1381 the commons succeeded in creating a tradition of rebellion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnerved the elite, who struggled to adapt inherited social theory to a changing balance of power. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awareness of the commons? potency coloured elite politics throughout the long 15th century and beyond its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional caesura of 1549.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As important as linguistic development was material circumstance. The challenge of ?making shift? in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequal society laid the basis for popular politics, irrespective of demographic conditions. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialization of medieval England intensified the ability of commoners to pool collective experience; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the growth of industry, concentrated in particular areas, generated a greater consciousness of shared interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and hence a greater readiness to vocalize them. Around the mid 16th century these atomized and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing concerns began to be treated collectively as the national interest ? to be protected, nurtured, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhanced. Increasingly, Englishmen looked overseas for opportunities to trade, to discover, and to conquer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new empiricism, based on the amassing of information, characterized domestic social policy and overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion. Around the same time, divisions within the commons between the middling sort \(the yeoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class\) and the rest started to widen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England in the early 17th century was thus poised at a revolutionary conjuncture of forces. Works such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Coriolanus)] TJ ET BT 88.028 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rendered half-elegiac accounts of a vanished politics of ?great men?. The English had never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted a passively reverential attitude to government, but from the 1620s the circulation of frankly critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views engendered a many-headed monster of public opinion ? the )] TJ ET BT 352.616 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Behemoth)] TJ ET BT 400.604 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As its author Hobbes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized, royal authority collapsed two years before the Civil War formally broke out. Medieval notions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of commonweal and the tradition of tyrannicide legitimated the execution of Charles I. The legacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republic was an English polity reconstituted as ?a commonwealth of landed households? \(p. 464\). A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement that recognized the social depth of the governing class reclaimed for the elite this formerly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversive language, and radicalism thereafter assumed new guises. The era of the commonweal, stretching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 14th century, thus finally ended.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This short synopsis of a complex argument reveals the nature of the work Rollison has written. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People )] TJ ET BT 189.008 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 200.012 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a miniaturist monograph, hedging limited conclusions with caveats; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather, it is a panoramic essay, full of imaginative links and bracing observations. Thus )] TJ ET BT 454.292 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the People)] TJ ET BT 85.004 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is boldly conceptual and brashly argued, demandingly written and recursively structured, well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read and lightly referenced. In an impressive feat of synthesis, Rollison sets seminal recent studies of the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval and early modern periods against a range of political theorists. He pulls together an eclectic range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evidence into an overarching account that excites and also provokes. Much depends on how plausible the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader finds the principles on which the book is based.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Rollison points out in his preface, )] TJ ET BT 215.348 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People )] TJ ET BT 370.340 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on and extends the new social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of early modern politics, pushing its approach back into the middle ages, where it can connect with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent works on the political culture of late medieval England. Rollison makes a compelling case for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common identity of the popular politics of the late 14th and early 17th centuries. Equally timely is his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on language as a constituent, as well as an expression, of political consciousness. He establishes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly that the rise of English and the emergence of a self-consciously ?common? politics over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14th century were not coincidental. Nevertheless, Rollison?s intellectual interests are not entirely of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present moment. I spotted a single reference in the book to James C. Scott and found none to Gramsci.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7888 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its overarching conceptualization, )] TJ ET BT 212.312 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 364.304 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( owes much to traditional Marxist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Invoking Marx several times, Rollison amplifies, modifies, and in fundamentals endorses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view that the social revolution of the long 15th century powered the political revolution of the mid 17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Thus, ?the first Commons Rebellion in 1381 and the execution, 268 years later, of Charles I are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically ? causally ? related events? \(p. 34\). The overarching theme of )] TJ ET BT 389.924 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 541.916 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence the state of class-consciousness, which perhaps differs subtly in emphasis from Andy Wood?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodes of class-conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Rollison, as for Marx, class is the primary means of interpreting human society. Class is autochthonous, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which explains the digression into prehistory in chapter one. Class-consciousness is thus waiting in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wings: it is either a latent potentiality or an active force. In the case of late medieval England, the reagents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were socio-economic expansion and linguistic development. )] TJ ET BT 326.972 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 478.964 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( hunts for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nascent class-consciousness. For example, Rollison insists that the Latin word )] TJ ET BT 411.992 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(communitas)] TJ ET BT 469.988 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( meant not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?community? but also ?the commonalty?, for ?we should not assume that class divisions that are obvious in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospect were not also obvious at the time? \(p. 95\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rollison accepts in a note that class is not the only way of categorizing medieval and early modern society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 21 n. 33\). Other analyses, however, often seek not to complement but rather to challenge the role of class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as either the universal organizing principle of historical enquiry or a hermeneutic device for the study of pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern England. Even within a broadly Marxist tradition, some studies ? for example, Stephen Rigby?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society in the Later Middle Ages)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.672 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.672 502.467 m 247.664 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 247.664 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? have developed alternative interpretations of the gross )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequalities of power and possession in medieval and early modern England. Many scholars have argued, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, that factors such as diversity of material circumstance, restriction on communication, and localism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlook inhibited the commons from identifying as a class before the Industrial Revolution. Rollison?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer is the linguistic turn. This methodology enables him to side-step the notion that the commons needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be a homogenous group for class-consciousness to have existed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The credibility of this approach depends on the sources selected and on the lens through which they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived. In its aim of reconstructing popular politics, )] TJ ET BT 300.644 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 452.636 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pursues two rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different lines. On the one hand, Rollison maintains that ?basic ideas are simple and refer to universal human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience?; on the other hand, he plots the commons? ideological development in large part through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual authors \(p. 19\). These writers were sometimes members of the elite \(bishop, judge, or statesman\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were certainly unrepresentative and possibly atypical. Rollison?s engagement with political theory here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may result in an emphasis on canonical works, whereas his broader argument would point instead towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reconstitution of more quotidian and plebeian speech. Rollison then divides his thinkers into progressives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reactionaries. Works written in English often acquire an inherently demotic status, though only if they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(express appropriately progressive views. In a revealing slip, Rollison at one point lists the )] TJ ET BT 467.972 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policraticus)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among these ?vernacular English classics? \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The valorization of vernacular expression and a close reading of powerful, but possibly unrepresentative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts may explain the analysis of the Church, which feels tendentious. Rollison reads the institution through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Piers Plowman )] TJ ET BT 110.684 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 131.012 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Practice of Prelates)] TJ ET BT 248.000 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The Church is thus presented as an alien Norman imposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that never won the commons? affections and that then conspired systematically to repress native piety. Only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those outside the institution ? such as hermits and anchorites, ?the proletarians of the medieval Church? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanded popular support \(p. 217\). This alienation was publicized in the debate between William Tyndale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Thomas More. Tyndale spoke up for an open-ended, inclusive, and indigenous interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community; More defended an elitist, exclusive, and foreign cult of authority. A victory for the vernacular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation was also a triumph of the commons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Were the commons really estranged from the late medieval Church? In presenting the campaign against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lollardy as an assault on popular religion, Rollison adopts the Protestant equation of vernacular religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the English Bible as book. Yet the Church fostered other forms of scriptural and textual piety. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of Margery Kempe \(who is mentioned in passing\) illustrates how polarities of elite and popular, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.6717 502.7815 247.6637 514.6615 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerical and lay, orthodox and heterodox can be misleading. The commons reacted to Margery?s unusual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotion with hostility, on occasion accusing her of heresy; in contrast, Archbishop Arundel ? the villain in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rollison?s version ? was impressed by Margery?s devotion, conversing happily with her far into the night.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Did the commons nevertheless welcome with open arms the doctrinal vernacularity of the 16th century? In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conception, Tyndale?s commonwealth was no more democratic than More?s Church: scripture interpreted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, not the ordinary reader scripture. Tyndale argued that reading the Bible would make the commons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better subjects; it was More, not Tyndale, who foresaw the revolutionary effect of )] TJ ET BT 429.596 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sola scriptura)] TJ ET BT 496.604 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted authority. The reformers? message undoubtedly inspired some commoners and eventually ? but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in part through elite pressure ? won over the majority. Yet Tyndale?s ideas did not enjoy the immediate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(near-universal acceptance that Rollison?s argument requires. Indeed, the new English liturgy helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoke the commons? risings of 1549 \(a point that is overlooked in a discussion concentrating on Kett?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communal politics therefore seems more ambivalent than Rollison allows. )] TJ ET BT 395.996 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gives the impression that popular rebellions were inherently progressive because they were epiphenomena of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the commons? class-consciousness. As a consequence, the unique circumstances that provoked each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion feel somewhat downplayed. In particular, the more minor risings between 1450 and 1536, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are rather summarily treated, are deemed merely cumulative. For Rollison, rebelliousness had become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural and endemic rather than transgressive and occasional. In supporting this idea, more could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made of the recurrence in successive risings of particular pseudonyms, places, and gestures. But perhaps we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be more sceptical about our ability to reconstitute the collective memory of such events: the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass popular risings equally could have promoted quietism or even providentially have vindicated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established order. Rollison identifies the commons as a trained militia, but identifies only its ?progressive? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential as an army waiting to rise: but who suppressed popular risings if not commoners themselves?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rebellion, it is easy to forget, was still rare. Yet the pattern of rebelliousness matters rather more to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 186.008 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than do the objectives of individual rebellions. The serendipity of rebel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles makes it difficult to hear one progressive voice; I sense that Rollison would like to attribute that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deficiency to the unconstructive contributions of gentry participants, as is argued in the instance of Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aske. Yet, as Rollison acknowledges, rebel articles still stated plebeian ?vocationalism?: everyone should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know their place in an immutable social order. Rollison does not fully reconcile this \(surely ?reactionary??\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vision with the Hakluyts? \(presumably ?progressive??\) vision of trading empires. Commoners were unlikely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(at least over one lifetime\) to benefit from the expanding horizons that Rollison describes so vividly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus the connection between the profiteering and privateering of Elizabethan merchants and courtiers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wider interests of the commons does not really emerge. More would need to be established about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effects of overseas ventures on the popular political imagination for this link to be convincing. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 186.008 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illuminates both developments, they still seem to run in parallel, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in converging, lines. The same may also have been true of ?improving? landlords, who seldom enjoyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular support. Landless wage-earners seem the sort of group likely to have developed a strong political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciousness because of their distinctive interests. Rollison, however, defers the political impact of growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stratification within the commonalty until after the Civil Wars, so this dimension ? the Wrightson thesis ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not fully integrate into his preceding argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All of my observations stem from the fact that )] TJ ET BT 258.992 166.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 410.984 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an unabashedly Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation of history. Forces of modernity sweep through the work, laying a trail that the author follows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to the present. In the medieval English commons, for example, Rollison detects the ?self-consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plebeian? political culture of modern Australia \(p. 9\). Thus he has little time for revisionist scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformation or on the early Stuart period. Rollison?s strong conviction of the moral progress of history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irons out the complexity and contingency of the past. Take, for example, his comments on poll taxes:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 4195 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poll taxes are offensive because they are unfair. The rich pay the same as the poor.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Especially intense was the tradition of hostility to poll-taxes like those of colonial Virginia. This )] TJ ET BT 64.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a constant of vernacular English politics from the clumsy efforts that sharpened the teeth of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rebellion of 1381 to the mass protests against Margaret Thatcher?s local poll tax. \(pp. 227, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 650.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the implications of a differential tax burden for the balance of power varied across these societies. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aristotelians, the extent of an individual?s contribution should correspond with the strength of his or her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political voice \(or vote\); no one argued that in 1990. Rollison treats the \(for me\) relativist concept of fairness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an absolute principle of historical enquiry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In sum, )] TJ ET BT 73.016 581.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 225.008 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is both stimulating and perplexing. It is a learned piece of socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship that, although dense and difficult, deserves a wider readership. It makes a strong case for the non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deferential nature of pre-modern England, demonstrates how political history and social history enhance one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another, and shows why the medieval and early modern periods should be conceptualized together. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crammed full of arresting insights on a staggeringly broad range of subjects. Even if it does not convert, it)] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly challenges preconceptions. As a framework for English politics from the Norman Conquest to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 496.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regicide, it is possibly ?wrong but wromantic?. But one does not need to accept Rollison?s interpretation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be inspired by his ideas. )] TJ ET BT 152.672 482.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Commonwealth of the People)] TJ ET BT 304.664 482.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fizzes with historical imagination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 447.219 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 416.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 416.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Rigby, )] TJ ET BT 141.020 416.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Society in the Later Middle Ages: Class, Status and Gender)] TJ ET BT 466.676 416.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Basingstoke, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 402.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 402.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 400.947 m 149.000 400.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 376.085 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Historical Association)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 347.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_3164_73.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 346.179 m 365.972 346.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 368.972 347.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 342.847 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 325.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 325.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/920)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 323.673 m 322.316 323.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 298.696 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.296 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4796)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.896 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_3164_73.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 401.2615 148.9997 413.1415 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 346.4935 365.9717 358.3735 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.org.uk/resources/general_resource_3164_73.html) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 323.9875 322.3157 335.8675 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/920) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000000686 00000 n 0000005020 00000 n 0000005129 00000 n 0000005239 00000 n 0000005348 00000 n 0000008909 00000 n 0000009037 00000 n 0000009121 00000 n 0000009186 00000 n 0000016688 00000 n 0000016772 00000 n 0000024713 00000 n 0000024743 00000 n 0000024871 00000 n 0000024907 00000 n 0000024972 00000 n 0000032180 00000 n 0000032278 00000 n 0000036526 00000 n 0000036653 00000 n 0000036708 00000 n 0000036835 00000 n 0000036952 00000 n 0000037080 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37175 %%EOF