%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140725071807+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140725071807+01'00') /Title (Science, Technology and Culture in the Midlands During the Industrial Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2960 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Science, Technology and Culture in the Midlands During the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Industrial Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Industrial Revolution has traditionally been seen as a transformation in the technological basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production and in the social arrangements surrounding it. On the other hand, the Scientific Revolution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(923)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter M. Jones)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719077708)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2008)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Elliott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719079221)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 164.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 107.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jan Golinski)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5771 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th and 17th centuries was originally conceived as a purely intellectual transition, a shift in mentalities or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldviews. Historians searching for the connection between these two events have often focused on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English provinces in the 18th century, where popularizations of the scientific work of Isaac Newton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently coincided with the first stirrings of industrial development. The actual linkages between scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge and technical innovation have proven elusive, however, as one might expect when two rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different historiographical models are in play on each side. It has been suggested that quite fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues of the relation between ideas and material practice ? between the work of the mind and that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand ? are raised by the search for these connections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter M. Jones believes that the time is right for a new approach. A professor of French history at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Birmingham, he has turned his attention to the important role of Birmingham and the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Midlands in the scientific culture of the Enlightenment and the early industrial era. His is the first study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematically to exploit the whole Archives of Soho, the huge deposit of papers from the business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnership of Matthew Boulton and James Watt and from both men?s families, which was assembled at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birmingham City Library in 1994 but has only recently been catalogued. The archive enables Jones to probe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the connection between the diffusion of scientific ideas and the rise of technical innovation. Drawing upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this and other evidence, including the reports of foreign visitors to the region, he sets out to map what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls its ?Industrial Enlightenment? in the late 18th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jones situates his study at the confluence of two currents in recent historical scholarship. On one side, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refers to the historians of science whose work has increasingly been uncovering the roots of scientific ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their social and cultural environment. Scholars including Ian Inkster, Margaret Jacob, Jack Morrell, Larry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart, and Arnold Thackray have explored the scientific culture of provincial towns in this period. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other side, some economic historians have recognized the importance of a cultural dimension ? the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?knowledge economy? ? as one of the preconditions for industrialization. Jones makes frequent reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel Mokyr, whose )] TJ ET BT 128.672 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.336 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.336 443.187 m 469.328 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.328 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( placed particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on scientific institutions and the circulation of technical knowledge in 18th-century Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With a deft blend of quantitative and descriptive evidence, Jones shows why the Birmingham area was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favored for economic development in the second half of the century. He describes the extraction of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mineral resources, the building of transportation networks, the demographic growth of its new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing centers, and the continued flourishing of its more established and genteel cathedral cities. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells how Boulton established his metalworking factory at Soho, just outside Birmingham, in 1762. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boulton?s ?Great Toy Shop? produced buttons, coins, shoe-buckles, and other manufactured articles, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive facilities became a tourist attraction for visitors from Britain and overseas. From 1775, he was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnership with Watt, building and licensing steam-engines to drain mines, power factories, and supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(water to towns and estates. Also in the early 1770s, James Keir built a glassworks and chemical factory at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nearby Stourbridge. And Josiah Wedgwood visited occasionally from his pottery works at Etruria in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Staffordshire. These manufacturers mingled with men of scientific learning, such as the doctors Erasmus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin, William Small, and William Withering, and the Dissenting minister Joseph Priestley.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.3357 443.5015 469.3277 455.3815 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7587 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most famous venue where men of science conversed with men of industry was the Lunar Society, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gathered mostly at Boulton?s house over the period from the mid-1770s to the first decade of the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. The society was the subject of a classic study by Robert E. Schofield, published in 1963, and has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently featured in a lively and popular account by Jenny Uglow. Jones is more skeptical than some others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the achievements of this group. He assembles data on the occasions when it is known to have met, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing that there were never more than eight recorded meetings per year and more often only two or three. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some individuals who have been considered members, such as Wedgwood, cannot be shown to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attended at all. The topics known to have been discussed varied with the shifting preoccupations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific world: pneumatic chemistry in the early 1780s, balloons a few years later, the debate over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phlogiston theory and the composition of water toward the end of the decade. The Lunar Society was never a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formally constituted institution, but more like a network of Boulton?s friends. Jones endorses the conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it is best viewed as a loose coterie of enlightened philosophers, whose interests were not specifically tied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the promotion of manufacturing industry but ranged quite widely across the scientific trends of the time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although, as Jones notes, it is not the aim of his book to explain the origins of the Industrial Revolution, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does engage with Mokyr?s arguments and makes some well-aimed criticisms. While Mokyr claims that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propositional knowledge \(including that codified as science\) informs prescriptive knowledge \(the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(know-how that gets things done\), Jones points out that a good deal of the knowledge pertinent to industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes was never codified at all ? and certainly not in scientific texts ? but was preserved in the tacit skills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of artisans. Incidents in which Boulton?s Soho factory was subject to espionage and skilled workers lured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away show that knowledge was not communicated as propositional information, but was often embodied in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the persons of those who possessed it. Indeed, the critical point could have been pressed further. While it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandable that an economist would want to quantify the scientific factor in industrial development, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians are likely to insist that even the categories of ?science? and ?technology? are cultural constructs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that take on different forms at different times. How the notions were understood and the relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between them formulated are topics for historical inquiry; they cannot be assumed in advance. Jones himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes fails to historicize these categories sufficiently. Thus, he points to the lack of a ?properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific understanding? \(p. 130\) of metallurgical chemistry before the end of the 18th century, as if all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counts was whether chemists then believed what they do now. Or, he describes Aim Argand?s innovative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oil-lamp design as ?the product of scientific thinking rather than improvisation, or tinkering? \(p. 136\), as if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific thinking was always something quite distinct from improvisation or tinkering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In these respects, Jones has not altogether kept up with the historians of science in their more rigorous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historicization of knowledge and practice. He assumes Mokyr?s terminology of ?savants? and ?fabricants,? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searching for the interactions between them and for individuals who combined the two roles. But he also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, with reference to the work of David Philip Miller, that the issue of whether \(for example\) Watt was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?philosopher,? a ?scientist,? or merely a ?mechanic? was a hotly contested one. Watt?s credentials were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called into question as late as the 1830s, in a dispute over who deserved credit for discovering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composition of water. In this connection, one can see how ideas about intellectual and practical knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were heavily tinged with assumptions about social status, assumptions that in turn were fought over in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of the political upheavals of the era. This makes it particularly difficult to decide what was properly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scientific? knowledge in the period, or consequently to measure its role in industrial development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When it comes to the political turmoil of the 1790s and its effect on the scientific culture of the West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Midlands, Jones tells an interesting and convincing story. Birmingham was the site of the notorious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Priestley riots? in 1791, when a loyalist mob attacked Priestley?s own house and those of other prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissenters. The riots led to what Jones calls a ?retreat from Enlightenment? \(p. 188\), sending Priestley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself into exile in America and disrupting the previously cordial relations between Anglican and Dissenter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites in local government and cultural life. The subsequent two decades of war with France created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems for scientific communication and for trade. Boulton?s business suffered as international commerce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was seriously hindered, and the hostilities also interrupted the exchange of scientific information, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding assertions that the sciences were never at war. The era of Jones?s ?Industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment? was ending, and, though the sciences continued to flourish, they did so in an institutional )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7368 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting that was substantially reconfigured. The Birmingham Philosophical Institution, formally initiated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1803, followed the model of the Royal Institution in London. It presented public lectures on the utility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science to a middle-class audience. The broader social aims of Enlightenment philosophy were lost sight of, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the participatory milieu of such groups as the Lunar Society largely abandoned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A rather similar picture emerges from Paul A. Elliott?s study of the scientific culture of the town of Derby. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott covers a longer period than Jones ? a century and a half ? and his book is less focused on analyzing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relations between science and industry. Instead, he uses his survey to illuminate a range of questions that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have been concerned with, often concluding by confirming the patterns they have found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere. Thus, he shows how the scientific culture of Derby in the 18th century emerged as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread commercial development of provincial towns. He describes the activities of itinerant scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lecturers, some quite well known \(such as Adam Walker, John Arden, and John Ferguson\), others much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so \(including Benjamin Parker, a stocking maker who turned to writing and lecturing on astronomy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural philosophy in the 1730s\). Elliott shows that an informal scientific club existed in Derby by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1770s, including among its members Peter Perez Burdett, a cartographer and land surveyor, and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitehurst, a clockmaker best known for his geological interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one were to ask what was unique about science in Derby in this period, part of the answer would be that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was documented in the extraordinary paintings of Joseph Wright. Wright made portraits of Burdett and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitehurst, and one of his famous scenes of people attending a scientific lecture may feature a likeness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson. On at least two occasions, he painted Erasmus Darwin, who made his own significant contribution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to science in Derby after he moved there from Lichfield in 1781. Darwin was the moving force behind the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of the Derby Philosophical Society in 1783. The group pursued similar interests to the Lunar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society, including electricity, pneumatic chemistry, and meteorology. The Derby philosophers launched a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balloon toward their colleagues in Birmingham in December 1783, though it never arrived at its intended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destination. Medical interests were prominent in the Derby group, as one would expect from the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physicians associated with it. And the attention to industrial issues reflected the involvement of William and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Strutt, owners of a cotton-spinning factory. In general, Elliott gives a similar account to Jones?s of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lunar Society: the Derby Philosophical Society was another informal coterie of enlightened intellectuals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose wide scientific interests often went along with a commitment to political and social reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elliott also confirms Jones?s account of the transformation of this scientific culture in the wake of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution, tracing the rise of more formalized and utilitarian institutions in the early 19th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Derby Literary and Philosophical Society, founded in 1808, lasted only eight years but it established an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agenda for public scientific education. Taking a leaf from the playbook of Humphry Davy at the Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Institution in London, Charles Sylvester lectured at the Derby ?Lit. & Phil.? on the latest chemical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discoveries and demonstrated them with a powerful galvanic battery. Subsequent institutional innovations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included the Derbyshire General Infirmary, established in 1810, and the Mechanics? Institute, founded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1825 to spread the benefits of scientific education to the artisan class. Elliott also traces a distinctive line of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derby-based scientific thought in the evolutionary ideas nurtured by Darwin, and then by William George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spencer, a schoolteacher and local intellectual, and his son Herbert Spencer, the most prominent philosopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social evolution in the Victorian era. The lineage is an intriguing one, but it remains unclear to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent it was actually given public expression in the scientific institutions of the town.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken together, these two books go a long way toward reconstructing the scientific culture of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial towns in the 18th and early 19th centuries. The science of the English Enlightenment emerges as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than just a dim precursor of the more formalized institutions that succeeded it. It was a distinctive form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of cultural expression, rooted in the economic growth of particular urban centers and sharing in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread patterns of socialization and the circulation of knowledge. Though it intersected with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing enterprises in the places where they occurred, it was not entirely tethered to industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development. The science of Derby and the West Midlands comprised much more than popular versions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newtonian mechanics. Chemistry was at least as crucial as mechanics, and other preoccupations ? such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electricity and astronomy ? had their uses but bore little relation to manufacturing industry. Whatever claims )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 2501 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were made for the dependence of the practical arts upon the sciences, historians are discovering that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual relations between scientific knowledge and technical innovation were subtle and ambivalent. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also turn out to have depended to a significant degree on broader social and political forces. In both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Birmingham and Derby, enlightened scientific culture proved vulnerable in the political crisis of the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade of the eighteenth century and during the ensuing wars. Science did, of course, survive into the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, but it came to be rooted in new civic institutions that tended to overshadow the more informal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gatherings of the previous decades. Jones and Elliott have both made significant contributions toward the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical recovery of that lost world of enlightened science in the English provinces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 661.779 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joel Mokyr, )] TJ ET BT 125.012 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gifts of Athena: Historical Origins of the Knowledge Economy)] TJ ET BT 448.676 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 615.507 m 118.004 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 590.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 571.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 553.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 553.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/923)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 552.489 m 322.316 552.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4808)] TJ ET BT 34.016 498.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4809)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 615.8215 118.0037 627.7015 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 552.8035 322.3157 564.6835 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/923) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000590 00000 n 0000000672 00000 n 0000003684 00000 n 0000003793 00000 n 0000003903 00000 n 0000004012 00000 n 0000007573 00000 n 0000007701 00000 n 0000007785 00000 n 0000007869 00000 n 0000013693 00000 n 0000013723 00000 n 0000013851 00000 n 0000013887 00000 n 0000013952 00000 n 0000021592 00000 n 0000021657 00000 n 0000029078 00000 n 0000029169 00000 n 0000031723 00000 n 0000031850 00000 n 0000031905 00000 n 0000032033 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32128 %%EOF