%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818075944+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818075944+01'00') /Title (Bugs and the Victorians) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4280 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Bugs and the Victorians)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to the American humorist Ogden Nash, ?God, in his wisdom, made the Fly. And then forgot to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell us why?. This long-standing mystery has apparently been resolved by John F. McDiarmid Clark, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the fly?s main purposed was to allow early Victorian amateur bug-hunters to become 20th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century professional entomologists. In this engaging and readable book, Clark analyses flies, moths, bees, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wasps, ants and the people who studied them, tracing the myriad uses to which insects were put during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the Reverend William Kirby and his collaborator William Spence, whose )] TJ ET BT 408.632 190.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Introduction to Entomology)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1815?26\) went through numerous editions throughout the 19th century, insects were evidence of God?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneficence, their unique and vital roles giving humanity a glimpse of the intricate and harmonious design )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that allowed us to make sense of the our place in the universe. Both men were similarly devoted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefulness of studying insects as an aspect of agricultural improvement ? through such means as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promotion of more ?rational? honey production through the building of more productive bee-hives. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, they disagreed on the vexed question of animal instinct and intelligence, with Kirby being forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to acknowledge that although the )] TJ ET BT 196.328 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Introduction)] TJ ET BT 256.328 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was their joint work, the chapters on instinct were Spence?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone. When Kirby produced his Bridgewater Treatise, )] TJ ET BT 300.284 75.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the Power and Wisdom of God as manifested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Creation of Animals and in their History, Habits and Instincts)] TJ ET BT 349.700 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1835\), he regretfully announced his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(924)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 June, 2010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John F. Mcdiarmid Clark)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300150919)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(322pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jim Endersby)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to ?take the field? against his ?worthy friend and learned coadjutor?. Spence believed that instincts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be explained naturalistically, using scientific facts shorn of theological significance \(a view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin endorsed when citing Spence?s work in the manuscript of his ?big species book?\). By contrast, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reverend Kirby asserted that instincts could only be understood as evidence of God?s immanence, his direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention in creation. As Clark explains, Kirby?s attachment to a form of natural theology, physico-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology, that had been more popular in the previous century led to his Treatise being ridiculed by some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewers. But Kirby understood that naturalistic explanations, even those that acknowledged as the ultimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First Cause of nature?s laws, were the first step on a slippery slope that led from denying miracles to deism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ultimately to atheism. As a result, those who shared Kirby?s view rejected Newtonianism, since its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invocation of unexplained forces effectively denied God a ?hands on? role in his own creation. Clark?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the two founders of Victorian entomology immediately fractures the old idea that every 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century British naturalist shared a common, natural theological context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, while Clark?s argument is superbly researched and argued, some readers may find his explanation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kirby and Spence?s differences rather one-dimensional: ?Spence?s work in political economy convinced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him of the importance of a science founded on facts and devoid of religious references. In contrast, William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirby was a Tory High Church clergyman, who structured his science around his Christian Faith in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelation? \(p. 38\). This contrast undoubtedly captures one aspect of the two men?s differences, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless seems unduly reductive. Explanations of the form that ?X was a member of group Y, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore believed Z? seem to deny the possibility that multiple, perhaps mutually contradictory, motivations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often seem to be a necessary part of explaining human actions. Moreover, there seems to be an unspoken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption in such explanations that ideology, religious or political, is in some sense prior to and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determining of scientific practice; surely the opposite conclusion ought at least to be considered?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the case of Spence and Kirby, fascinating and original research is very slightly marred by the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical framework within which it is placed; a pattern that is rather characteristic of the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. For example, when Clark turns to the example of Charles Darwin?s neighbour, the banker and MP )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lubbock \(to whom the British owe the blessed institution of bank holidays\), the chapter is called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Social Insects and Secular Science?, because Lubbock is ? not unreasonably ? located within the X-Club )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the ?professionalising? movement around Thomas Henry Huxley. However, by pigeonholing Lubbock )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this way, Clark minimises the complex diversity of his science.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has long been argued by historians of science \(myself included, although more distinguished scholars have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also done so\), that one problem with the long-established ?professionalization? narrative of 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science is its teleology, the tacit assumption that the eventual shape of scientific careers was a goal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consciously pursued by the men of science. One key source of this misreading, I suspect, is the conflating of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Huxley?s interests with those of the scientific community as whole. In many ways, men like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubbock, whose substantial fortune allowed him to pursue a variety of scientific interests without any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought of payment, conformed more closely to a Victorian ideal of the man of science than Huxley did. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(One effect of recognising this is that it helps us see Darwin as less exceptional than he is sometimes made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out to be; he may have been a member of one of the final generations of gentlemanly naturalists, but he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hardly the last of them.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even those who did need to earn their bread by scientific work, like Huxley?s friend the botanist Joseph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hooker, were at pains to do so in a gentlemanly way, and attempted whenever possible to emulate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disinterested and polite manners of real gentlemen like Lubbock and Darwin. One symptom of this concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with respectability was that the elite practitioners of a science tended to refer to themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?philosophical? naturalists, botanists or entomologists \(Clark cites several examples of the latter usage\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than as )] TJ ET BT 101.660 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(professional)] TJ ET BT 161.000 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ones. ?Philosophical? associated practitioners of the natural historical sciences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the more prestigious sciences that had descended from natural philosophy \(such as physics\), but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term had the additional advantage of classifying people according to the quality of their work, not by how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or if\) they earned their living.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The potential for conflict between the desire to be a paid naturalist and that of being an elite one is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7568 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified in Clark?s excellent account of the career of Eleanor Ormerod, one of Victorian Britain?s most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished women of science. As he notes, the tension that beset her career was that Ormerod wanted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be taken as seriously as any male naturalist, yet did not wish \(nor did she need\) to take paid employment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which would compromise her genteel status: ?as a member of the landed gentry, she realized that receipt of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money would taint her work? \(p. 169\). As Clark shows, Ormerod suffered particular difficulties because she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a woman in an almost exclusively male world, nevertheless, she had more in common with men like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubbock and Hooker than Clark seems to realise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ever since the founding of the Royal Society in the 17th century, Britain?s leading men of science had made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of virtue of necessity by scorning payment for their work \(a tradition that had its origins in the simple fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that their first Royal patron, Charles II, didn?t have any money to give them\). 200 years later, the ideal man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of science was still someone like Sir Joseph Banks, wealthy enough to pursue knowledge with no thought of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal reward. Lubbock and Darwin could afford to conform to this ideal, as could Ormerod, while men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Hooker often had to pretend they could afford to, for example, by using the term ?philosophical? to blur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the boundaries between paid and unpaid practitioners. By contrast, men like Huxley or Alfred Russel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wallace \(both of whom came from much more humble backgrounds, and never imagined a life free from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessity of working for pay\) were less squeamish about accepting a salary. Yet, as Clark notes, Huxley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless scorned ?experts? as being worse than the aristocratic dilettantes he had set out to banish from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British science; Huxley?s scorn for those who were succeeding in precisely the terms he had made possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a mark of how pervasive the complex ideal of gentlemanly science remained, and how much it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicates the conventional tale of ?professionalization?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, like many other writers on this topic, Clark assumes that Lubbock shared the goals of Huxley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign for paid, meritocratic scientific careers and so describes him as part of the ?circle of scientists who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coalesced around their support for Darwinism? in order to ?launched unified campaigns in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularized science? \(p. 83\). And as a result Lubbock presented ?the results of his experiments in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible, secularized language? \(p. 97\). There is a lot to agree with in Clark?s account, but if it were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole story, it would become all-but-impossible to explain why Lubbock \(in his essay ?On the objects of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of insects?, 1856\), argued that one of the uses of entomology is to promote ?the contemplation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the universal beneficence of the Creator even towards the smallest of his creatures?? Perhaps this simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects Lubbock?s pre-Darwinian views \(although Clark adduces no evidence that Lubbock underwent a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical change of heart post-1859\), or perhaps it was simply a sop to the conventional piety of many readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the )] TJ ET BT 64.676 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Entomologist?s Annual)] TJ ET BT 177.020 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where the essay appeared. However, Clark neither quotes nor discusses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubbock?s language, nor does he attempt to integrate either Lubbock?s diverse interests \(in human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prehistory as much as entomology\), nor his roles \(as a banker, an MP, an elite man of science, but also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular author\). Clark concludes that the range of Lubbock?s interests left him ?lost in a no-man?s-land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between laboratory and field naturalist science?. I would argue that far from being stranded between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds of what would eventually emerge as ?professional? and ?amateur? science, Lubbock?s life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitomises the delicate and protracted negotiations through which these spheres eventually became separate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lubbock?s use of conventional natural theological language \(like Darwin?s in the )] TJ ET BT 429.608 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origin of Species)] TJ ET BT 512.936 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mark of the writer?s respectability, a product of the same impulse that led the privately agnostic Hooker to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agree to publicly stand as godfather to his equally \(but less privately\) agnostic friend Huxley?s son. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities of remaining respectable were one aspect of a much wider debate over who was to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered a gentleman in Victorian England, a question that became vexed because of the vast range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapid changes that transformed the country during the old queen?s long rule, changes that undermined many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-standing sources of authority and trust, thus leaving newly prominent groups like the men of science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing to replace them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of Victoria?s reign, the medical and agricultural needs of empire had allowed entomologists to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carve out clear professional roles for themselves as paid experts, trained at recognised institutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipped with the PhDs and insecticides they needed to further Joseph Chamberlain?s policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?constructive imperialism?. Yet, it seems unreasonable to assume that the entomologists? ability to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of the new opportunities implies that they were happy with the jobs they ended up doing, much )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2004 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less that they and their predecessors had always hoped for such jobs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark?s book is a delightful read, illuminating many important individuals and their work, and bringing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse range of insects and entomologists into much-needed focus. It raises important questions and my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disagreements with some aspects of its argument are a mark of how thought-provoking I found it. Anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an interest in Victorian science and its impact on everything from the popular imagination to imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy will find )] TJ ET BT 111.020 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bugs and the Victorians)] TJ ET BT 226.688 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an invaluable addition to their libraries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/sep/12/bugs-victorians-clark-review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 657.027 m 398.972 657.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.972 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.695 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 635.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 635.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/924)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 634.521 m 322.316 634.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 609.544 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/4813)] TJ ET BT 34.016 580.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/sep/12/bugs-victorians-clark-review)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 657.3415 398.9717 669.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2009/sep/12/bugs-victorians-clark-review) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 634.8355 322.3157 646.7155 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/924) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000526 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000004940 00000 n 0000005049 00000 n 0000005159 00000 n 0000005268 00000 n 0000008829 00000 n 0000008957 00000 n 0000009041 00000 n 0000009106 00000 n 0000016439 00000 n 0000016504 00000 n 0000024125 00000 n 0000024216 00000 n 0000026273 00000 n 0000026400 00000 n 0000026524 00000 n 0000026652 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26747 %%EOF